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INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIVER IN DISEASE OF THE GALLBLADDER

INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIVER IN DISEASE OF THE GALLBLADDER Abstract Although the clinical demonstration of hepatic damage in cholecystic disease is of great importance in the medical and surgical management of disease of the biliary tract, there is little definite knowledge of this subject recorded in the literature. Studies of the incidence of hepatic involvement in disease of the gallbladder have not been conclusive and have not clarified the relationship between the two diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present new evidence of hepatic injury in disease of the gallbladder as detected by a simple laboratory method. The presence of hepatic damage in disease of the gallbladder has been explained in three ways. One group of investigators1 have stated the belief that the gallbladder is the primary source of infection and that the liver is involved by direct extension. Others have postulated that the liver acts as a bacterial filter of the body and is the chief References 1. Koster, H.; Goldzieher, M. A., and Collens, W. S.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Chronic Cholecystitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 50:595, 1930. 2. Else, J. E.; Rosenblatt, M. S., and Davis, A. M.: The Relationship of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Northwest Med. 29:252, 1930. 3. Tietze, A., and Winkler, K.: Die Beteiligung des Leberparenchyms an der Gallensteinkrankheit , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 129:1, 1924. 4. Genken, I.: Pathologisch-anatomische Veraenderungen in Leber und Gallenblase bei chronischer Cholecystitis ohne Steine , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 144:752, 1927. 5. Hadley, M. N.: Liver Pathology and Physiology and Its Relation to Diseases of the Gall Bladder , J. Indiana M. A. 20:293, 1927. 6. Martin, W.: Hepatitis and Its Relation to Cholecystitis , Ann. Surg. 85:535, 1927. 7. Noble, J. F.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Am. J. Path. 9:473, 1933. 8. Riedel: Ueber den zungenförmigen Fortsatz des rechten Leberlappens und seine pathognostische Bedeutung für die Erkrankung der Gallenblase nebst Bermerkungen über Gallensteinoperationen , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 25:577, 1888. 9. Graham, E. A.: Hepatitis: A Constant Accompaniment of Cholecystitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 26:521, 1918. 10. MacCarty, W. C., and Jackson, A.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Minnesota Med. 4:377, 1921. 11. Judd, E. S.: Relation of the Liver and Pancreas to Infection of the Gallbladder , J. A. M. A. 77:197 ( (July 16) ) 1921. 12. Judd, E. S.; Nickel, A. C., and Wellbrock, W. L. A.: The Association of the Liver in Disease of the Biliary Tract , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 54: 13, 1932. 13. Heyd, C. S.; MacNeal, W. J., and Killian, J. A.: Hepatitis, in Its Relation to Inflammatory Diseases of the Abdomen , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 7:413, 1924. 14. Mentzer, S. H.: A Clinical and Pathological Study of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 42:782, 1926. 15. Colp, R.; Doubilet, H., and Gerber, I. E.: The Relation of Cholecystitis to Pathological Changes in the Liver , Ann. Surg. 102:202, 1935. 16. Cantarow, A.: Hepatic Function: I. Noncalculous and Calculous Cholecystitis , Arch. Int. Med. 54:540 ( (Oct.) ) 1934 17. The Van Den Bergh Reaction and the Bromsulphalein Test in the Estimation of Hepatic Functional Impairment , Am. J. M. Sc. 184:228. 1932. 18. Quick, A. J.: The Synthesis of Hippuric Acid: A New Test of Liver Function , Am. J. M. Sc. 185:630, 1933. 19. Kohlsteadt, K. G., and Helmer, O. M.: A Study of the Hippuric Acid Excretion as a Test of Hepatic Function , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 3:459, 1936. 20. Pohle, F. J., and Stewart, J. K.: The Cephalin-Cholesterol Flocculation Test as an Aid in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Disorders , J. Clin. Investigation 20:241, 1941. 21. Mateer, J. G.; Baltz, J. I.; Marion, D. F.; Hollands, R. A., and Yagle, E. M.: A Comparative Evaluation of the Newer Liver Function Tests , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 9:13, 1942. 22. Gray, S. J.: The Colloidal Gold Reaction of Blood Serum in Diseases of the Liver , Arch. Int. Med. 65:524 ( (March) ) 1940. 23. Loew, E. R., and Noth, P.: Hepatic Dysfunction in Relation to the Reaction Between Blood Serum and Colloidal Gold , Am. J. Physiol. 133:P364, 1941. 24. Sweet, W. H.; Gray, J. S., and Allen, J. G.: Clinical Detection of Hepatic Disease in Hepatolenticular Degeneration , J. A. M. A. 117:1613 ( (Nov. 8) ) 1941. 25. Ravdin, I. S.: Preoperative Preparation of Patients with Cholecystitis and Hepatic Insufficiency , S. Clin. North America 17:1753, 1937. 26. Portis, S. A.: Should We Operate on All Our Cases of Gallbladder Disease? , Radiol. Rev. & Mississippi Valley M. J. 60:90, 1937 27. Symposium on Medical Management of Gall-Bladder Disease , M. Clin. North America 23:1, 1939. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIVER IN DISEASE OF THE GALLBLADDER

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1943 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1943.00210080032003
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Abstract

Abstract Although the clinical demonstration of hepatic damage in cholecystic disease is of great importance in the medical and surgical management of disease of the biliary tract, there is little definite knowledge of this subject recorded in the literature. Studies of the incidence of hepatic involvement in disease of the gallbladder have not been conclusive and have not clarified the relationship between the two diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present new evidence of hepatic injury in disease of the gallbladder as detected by a simple laboratory method. The presence of hepatic damage in disease of the gallbladder has been explained in three ways. One group of investigators1 have stated the belief that the gallbladder is the primary source of infection and that the liver is involved by direct extension. Others have postulated that the liver acts as a bacterial filter of the body and is the chief References 1. Koster, H.; Goldzieher, M. A., and Collens, W. S.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Chronic Cholecystitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 50:595, 1930. 2. Else, J. E.; Rosenblatt, M. S., and Davis, A. M.: The Relationship of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Northwest Med. 29:252, 1930. 3. Tietze, A., and Winkler, K.: Die Beteiligung des Leberparenchyms an der Gallensteinkrankheit , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 129:1, 1924. 4. Genken, I.: Pathologisch-anatomische Veraenderungen in Leber und Gallenblase bei chronischer Cholecystitis ohne Steine , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 144:752, 1927. 5. Hadley, M. N.: Liver Pathology and Physiology and Its Relation to Diseases of the Gall Bladder , J. Indiana M. A. 20:293, 1927. 6. Martin, W.: Hepatitis and Its Relation to Cholecystitis , Ann. Surg. 85:535, 1927. 7. Noble, J. F.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Am. J. Path. 9:473, 1933. 8. Riedel: Ueber den zungenförmigen Fortsatz des rechten Leberlappens und seine pathognostische Bedeutung für die Erkrankung der Gallenblase nebst Bermerkungen über Gallensteinoperationen , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 25:577, 1888. 9. Graham, E. A.: Hepatitis: A Constant Accompaniment of Cholecystitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 26:521, 1918. 10. MacCarty, W. C., and Jackson, A.: The Relation of Hepatitis to Cholecystitis , Minnesota Med. 4:377, 1921. 11. Judd, E. S.: Relation of the Liver and Pancreas to Infection of the Gallbladder , J. A. M. A. 77:197 ( (July 16) ) 1921. 12. Judd, E. S.; Nickel, A. C., and Wellbrock, W. L. A.: The Association of the Liver in Disease of the Biliary Tract , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 54: 13, 1932. 13. Heyd, C. S.; MacNeal, W. J., and Killian, J. A.: Hepatitis, in Its Relation to Inflammatory Diseases of the Abdomen , Am. J. Obst. & Gynec. 7:413, 1924. 14. Mentzer, S. H.: A Clinical and Pathological Study of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 42:782, 1926. 15. Colp, R.; Doubilet, H., and Gerber, I. E.: The Relation of Cholecystitis to Pathological Changes in the Liver , Ann. Surg. 102:202, 1935. 16. Cantarow, A.: Hepatic Function: I. Noncalculous and Calculous Cholecystitis , Arch. Int. Med. 54:540 ( (Oct.) ) 1934 17. The Van Den Bergh Reaction and the Bromsulphalein Test in the Estimation of Hepatic Functional Impairment , Am. J. M. Sc. 184:228. 1932. 18. Quick, A. J.: The Synthesis of Hippuric Acid: A New Test of Liver Function , Am. J. M. Sc. 185:630, 1933. 19. Kohlsteadt, K. G., and Helmer, O. M.: A Study of the Hippuric Acid Excretion as a Test of Hepatic Function , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 3:459, 1936. 20. Pohle, F. J., and Stewart, J. K.: The Cephalin-Cholesterol Flocculation Test as an Aid in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Disorders , J. Clin. Investigation 20:241, 1941. 21. Mateer, J. G.; Baltz, J. I.; Marion, D. F.; Hollands, R. A., and Yagle, E. M.: A Comparative Evaluation of the Newer Liver Function Tests , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 9:13, 1942. 22. Gray, S. J.: The Colloidal Gold Reaction of Blood Serum in Diseases of the Liver , Arch. Int. Med. 65:524 ( (March) ) 1940. 23. Loew, E. R., and Noth, P.: Hepatic Dysfunction in Relation to the Reaction Between Blood Serum and Colloidal Gold , Am. J. Physiol. 133:P364, 1941. 24. Sweet, W. H.; Gray, J. S., and Allen, J. G.: Clinical Detection of Hepatic Disease in Hepatolenticular Degeneration , J. A. M. A. 117:1613 ( (Nov. 8) ) 1941. 25. Ravdin, I. S.: Preoperative Preparation of Patients with Cholecystitis and Hepatic Insufficiency , S. Clin. North America 17:1753, 1937. 26. Portis, S. A.: Should We Operate on All Our Cases of Gallbladder Disease? , Radiol. Rev. & Mississippi Valley M. J. 60:90, 1937 27. Symposium on Medical Management of Gall-Bladder Disease , M. Clin. North America 23:1, 1939.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1943

References