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Intravenous Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim for Serious Gram-Negative Bacillary Infection

Intravenous Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim for Serious Gram-Negative Bacillary Infection Abstract • Intravenous therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim cured seven patients with serious gram-negative infection. Three patients had bacteremia, three had pneumonia, and one each had meningitis, peritonitis, pyogenic liver abscesses, and urinary tract infection. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was selected in three patients with renal failure to avoid aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity, in three patients because of penicillin allergy, and in two cases because of bacterial resistance to other readily available antibiotics. Adverse drug reactions occurred in three cases and included oral monilia, transient leukopenia, and fluid overload. In contrast to the new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim costs two to 21/2 times less and has not been associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance during therapy. This may favor the use of parenteral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for some patients with serious gram-negative infection. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:1709-1712) References 1. Bushby SRM: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: In vitro microbiologic aspects. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):442-462.Crossref 2. Bach MC, Finland M, Gold O, et al: Susceptibility of recently isolated pathogenic bacteria to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole separately and combined. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):508-533.Crossref 3. Acar JF, Goldstein F, Chabbert YA: Synergistic activity of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on gram-negative bacilli: Observations in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):470-477.Crossref 4. Moody MR, Young VM: In vitro susceptibility of Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1975;7:836-839.Crossref 5. Pierson CL, Schaberg DR, Fekity FR Jr, et al: In vitro activity of Sch 29482, MK0787, ceftriaxone, and seven other antimicrobials against 840 separate clinical isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 1982;9( (suppl C) ):79-89.Crossref 6. Siber GR, Gorham CC, Erickson JF, et al: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children and adults with normal and impaired renal function. Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:566-578.Crossref 7. Sabel K-G: The treatment of meningitis in infants with co-trimoxazole administered parenterally. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1976;8:86-89. 8. Lafaix C, Pechere JC, Zarouf M, et al: Therapy of bacterial meningitis with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Proc 7th Int Cong Chemother 1972;1:1227-1229. 9. Kirwan WO: Cerebrospinal fluid cotrimoxazole levels. J Ir Med Assoc 1974;67:76-77. 10. Sabel K-G, Brandberg A: Treatment of meningitis and septicemia in infancy with a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination. Acta Pediatr Scand 1975;64:25-32.Crossref 11. Morzaria RN, Walton IG, Pickering D: Neonatal meningitis treated with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Br Med J 1969;2:511-512.Crossref 12. Farid Z, Girgis NI, Yassin W, et al: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bacterial meningitis. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:50-51.Crossref 13. Hamilton J, Burch W, Grimmett G, et al: Successful treatment of Pseudomonas cepacia endocarditis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1973;4:551-554.Crossref 14. Franzen C, Brandberg A: Co-trimoxazole in cases of gram-negative septicemia. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1976;8:96-100. 15. Fischer JJ: Pseudomonas maltophilia endocarditis after replacement of the mitral valve: A case study. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):771-773.Crossref 16. Grose WE, Bodey GP, Rodriquez V: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for infections in cancer patients. JAMA 1977;237:352-354.Crossref 17. Grose WE, Bodey GP: Intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or combined for infections in cancer patients. Am J Med Sci 1980;279:4-13.Crossref 18. Hughes DTD: Use of combinations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of chest infections. Med J Aust 1973;1( (suppl) ):58-61. 19. Lacey RW, Lord VL, Gunasekera HKW, et al: Comparison of trimethoprim alone with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of respiratory and urinary infections with particular reference to selection of trimethoprim resistance. Lancet 1980;1:1270-1273.Crossref 20. Fried M, Vosti K: The importance of underlying disease in patients with gram-negative bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1968;121:418-423.Crossref 21. Lau WK, Young LS: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 1976;295:716-718.Crossref 22. Miser JS, Savitch J, Bleyer WA: Management of P carinii pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1977;296:47.Crossref 23. Hughes WT, Feldman S, Chaudhary SC, et al: Comparison of pentamidine isethionate and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Pediatr 1978;92:285-291.Crossref 24. Appelbaum PC, Tamim J, Stavitz J, et al: Sensitivity of 341 non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria to seven beta-lactam antibiotics. Eur J Clin Microbiol 1982;1:159-165.Crossref 25. Shouval D, Ligumsky M, Ben-Ishay D: Effect of co-trimoxazole on normal creatinine clearance. Lancet 1978;1:244-245.Crossref 26. Kalowski S, Nanra RS, Math TH, et al: Deterioration in renal function in association with co-trimoxazole therapy. Lancet 1973;1:394-397.Crossref 27. Smith EJ, Light JA, Filo RS, et al: Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients. JAMA 1980; 244:360-361.Crossref 28. Welling PG, Craig WA, Amidon GL, et al: The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in normal subjects and in patients with renal failure. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):556-566.Crossref 29. Reider J, Fernex M, Schwartz DE, et al: Pharmacokinetics data of the combination of sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with renal impairment , in Ejzlar H, Semonsky N, Nasak S (eds): Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Chemotherapy . Baltimore, University Park Press, 1972, vol 1, pp 79-82. 30. Fuchs PC, Barry AL, Thornsberry C, et al: Cefotaxime: In vitro activity and tentative interpretive standards for disk susceptibility testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;18:88-93.Crossref 31. Hall WH, Opfer BJ, Gerding DN: Comparative activities of the Oxa-β-lactam LY 127935, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, cefamandole, and ticarcillin against multiply resistant gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;17:273-279.Crossref 32. Platt R, Ehrlich SL, Afarian J, et al: Moxalactam therapy of infections caused by cephalothin-resistant bacteria: Influence of serum inhibitory activity on clinical response and acquisition of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1981;20:351-355.Crossref 33. Mathisen GE, Meyer RD, Thompson MJ, et al: Clinical evaluation of moxalactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1982;21:780-786.Crossref 34. De la Cruz A, Oleski J, LaBraico J, et al: Correction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis defects with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , in Peviti P, Grossi G (eds): Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy . Washington, DC, American Society of Microbiology, 1982, pp 185-186. 35. Gmünder FK, Seger RA: Chronic granulomatous disease: Mode of action of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Pediatr Res 1981;15:1533-1537.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Intravenous Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim for Serious Gram-Negative Bacillary Infection

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1983.00350090083014
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Abstract

Abstract • Intravenous therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim cured seven patients with serious gram-negative infection. Three patients had bacteremia, three had pneumonia, and one each had meningitis, peritonitis, pyogenic liver abscesses, and urinary tract infection. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was selected in three patients with renal failure to avoid aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity, in three patients because of penicillin allergy, and in two cases because of bacterial resistance to other readily available antibiotics. Adverse drug reactions occurred in three cases and included oral monilia, transient leukopenia, and fluid overload. In contrast to the new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim costs two to 21/2 times less and has not been associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance during therapy. This may favor the use of parenteral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for some patients with serious gram-negative infection. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:1709-1712) References 1. Bushby SRM: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: In vitro microbiologic aspects. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):442-462.Crossref 2. Bach MC, Finland M, Gold O, et al: Susceptibility of recently isolated pathogenic bacteria to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole separately and combined. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):508-533.Crossref 3. Acar JF, Goldstein F, Chabbert YA: Synergistic activity of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on gram-negative bacilli: Observations in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):470-477.Crossref 4. Moody MR, Young VM: In vitro susceptibility of Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1975;7:836-839.Crossref 5. Pierson CL, Schaberg DR, Fekity FR Jr, et al: In vitro activity of Sch 29482, MK0787, ceftriaxone, and seven other antimicrobials against 840 separate clinical isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 1982;9( (suppl C) ):79-89.Crossref 6. Siber GR, Gorham CC, Erickson JF, et al: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children and adults with normal and impaired renal function. Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:566-578.Crossref 7. Sabel K-G: The treatment of meningitis in infants with co-trimoxazole administered parenterally. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1976;8:86-89. 8. Lafaix C, Pechere JC, Zarouf M, et al: Therapy of bacterial meningitis with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Proc 7th Int Cong Chemother 1972;1:1227-1229. 9. Kirwan WO: Cerebrospinal fluid cotrimoxazole levels. J Ir Med Assoc 1974;67:76-77. 10. Sabel K-G, Brandberg A: Treatment of meningitis and septicemia in infancy with a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination. Acta Pediatr Scand 1975;64:25-32.Crossref 11. Morzaria RN, Walton IG, Pickering D: Neonatal meningitis treated with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Br Med J 1969;2:511-512.Crossref 12. Farid Z, Girgis NI, Yassin W, et al: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bacterial meningitis. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:50-51.Crossref 13. Hamilton J, Burch W, Grimmett G, et al: Successful treatment of Pseudomonas cepacia endocarditis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1973;4:551-554.Crossref 14. Franzen C, Brandberg A: Co-trimoxazole in cases of gram-negative septicemia. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1976;8:96-100. 15. Fischer JJ: Pseudomonas maltophilia endocarditis after replacement of the mitral valve: A case study. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):771-773.Crossref 16. Grose WE, Bodey GP, Rodriquez V: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for infections in cancer patients. JAMA 1977;237:352-354.Crossref 17. Grose WE, Bodey GP: Intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or combined for infections in cancer patients. Am J Med Sci 1980;279:4-13.Crossref 18. Hughes DTD: Use of combinations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of chest infections. Med J Aust 1973;1( (suppl) ):58-61. 19. Lacey RW, Lord VL, Gunasekera HKW, et al: Comparison of trimethoprim alone with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of respiratory and urinary infections with particular reference to selection of trimethoprim resistance. Lancet 1980;1:1270-1273.Crossref 20. Fried M, Vosti K: The importance of underlying disease in patients with gram-negative bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1968;121:418-423.Crossref 21. Lau WK, Young LS: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 1976;295:716-718.Crossref 22. Miser JS, Savitch J, Bleyer WA: Management of P carinii pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1977;296:47.Crossref 23. Hughes WT, Feldman S, Chaudhary SC, et al: Comparison of pentamidine isethionate and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Pediatr 1978;92:285-291.Crossref 24. Appelbaum PC, Tamim J, Stavitz J, et al: Sensitivity of 341 non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria to seven beta-lactam antibiotics. Eur J Clin Microbiol 1982;1:159-165.Crossref 25. Shouval D, Ligumsky M, Ben-Ishay D: Effect of co-trimoxazole on normal creatinine clearance. Lancet 1978;1:244-245.Crossref 26. Kalowski S, Nanra RS, Math TH, et al: Deterioration in renal function in association with co-trimoxazole therapy. Lancet 1973;1:394-397.Crossref 27. Smith EJ, Light JA, Filo RS, et al: Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients. JAMA 1980; 244:360-361.Crossref 28. Welling PG, Craig WA, Amidon GL, et al: The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in normal subjects and in patients with renal failure. J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):556-566.Crossref 29. Reider J, Fernex M, Schwartz DE, et al: Pharmacokinetics data of the combination of sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with renal impairment , in Ejzlar H, Semonsky N, Nasak S (eds): Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Chemotherapy . Baltimore, University Park Press, 1972, vol 1, pp 79-82. 30. Fuchs PC, Barry AL, Thornsberry C, et al: Cefotaxime: In vitro activity and tentative interpretive standards for disk susceptibility testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;18:88-93.Crossref 31. Hall WH, Opfer BJ, Gerding DN: Comparative activities of the Oxa-β-lactam LY 127935, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, cefamandole, and ticarcillin against multiply resistant gram-negative bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;17:273-279.Crossref 32. Platt R, Ehrlich SL, Afarian J, et al: Moxalactam therapy of infections caused by cephalothin-resistant bacteria: Influence of serum inhibitory activity on clinical response and acquisition of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1981;20:351-355.Crossref 33. Mathisen GE, Meyer RD, Thompson MJ, et al: Clinical evaluation of moxalactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1982;21:780-786.Crossref 34. De la Cruz A, Oleski J, LaBraico J, et al: Correction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis defects with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , in Peviti P, Grossi G (eds): Current Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy, Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Chemotherapy . Washington, DC, American Society of Microbiology, 1982, pp 185-186. 35. Gmünder FK, Seger RA: Chronic granulomatous disease: Mode of action of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Pediatr Res 1981;15:1533-1537.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1983

References