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Intraspinal Sprouting of Dorsal Root Axons: Development of New Collaterals and Preterminals Following Partial Denervation of the Spinal Cord in the Cat

Intraspinal Sprouting of Dorsal Root Axons: Development of New Collaterals and Preterminals... Abstract Introduction The considerable ability of the central nervous system to adapt functionally and to compensate for a loss of neuronal tissue is well established. Several hypotheses have been presented to explain the nature of this functional recovery. Although no critical evidence has been obtained, it can be stated for the mammal, with only a few observations to the contrary (Sugar and Gerard21 and Freeman6), that regeneration of severed axons is not the responsible mechanism.The failure of severed axons to regenerate in the central nervous system does not necessarily exclude a morphological basis for the compensation, for Cajal19 has mentioned several instances in which traumatic injury to the spinal cord and brain resulted in formation of new processes from nerve cells in the injured area. Further support for such a contention comes from the recent observations that partially denervated skin and muscle can be effectively reinnervated not References 1. Chambers, W. W.; Liu, C. Y., and Liu, C. N.: A Modification of the Nauta Technique for Staining of Degenerating Axons in the Central Nervous System , Anat. Rec. 124:391-392, 1956. 2. Chambers, W. W., and Liu, C. N.: Pyramidal Tract in the Cat, in preparation. 3. Eccles, J. C.: The Neurophysiological Basis of Mind , London, The Clarendon Press, 1953, Chap. 6 , pp. 193-227. 4. Edds, M. V., Jr.: Collateral Nerve Regeneration , Quart. Rev. Biol. 28:260-276, 1953.Crossref 5. Edds, M. V., Jr.: Personal communication to the authors, 1956. 6. Freeman, L. W.: Return of Function After Complete Transection of the Spinal Cord of the Rat , Cat and Dog, Ann. Surg. 136:193-205, 1952.Crossref 7. Glees, P., and Nauta, W. J. H.: A Critical Review of Studies in Axonal and Terminal Degeneration , Monatsschr. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 129: 74-91, 1955.Crossref 8. Hebb, D. O.: The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949. 9. Hoffman, H.: Local Re-Innervation in Partially Denervated Muscle: A Histo-Physiological Study , Australian J. Exper. Biol. M. Sc. 28:383-397, 1950.Crossref 10. Hoffman, H.: Axoplasm, Its Structure and Regeneration , in Regeneration in the Central Nervous System , edited by W. F. Windle, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1955, pp. 112-126. 11. Hoffman, H., and Springell, P. H.: An Attempt at the Chemical Identification of "Neurocletin" (the Substance Evoking Axon-Sprouting) , Australian J. Exper. Biol. M. Sc. 29:417-424, 1951.Crossref 12. Koenig, H.; Groat, R. A., and Windle, W. F.: A Physiological Approach to Perfusion-Fixation of Tissue with Formalin , Stain Technol. 20:13-22, 1945. 13. Krieg, W. J. S., and Groat, R. A.: Topography of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column of the Cat , Quart. Bull. Northwestern Univ. M. School 18:265-268, 1944. 14. Liu, C. N.: Afferent Nerves to Clarke's and the Lateral Cuneate Nuclei in the Cat , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 75:67-77, 1956. 15. Liu, C. N., and Chambers, W. W.: Intraspinal Sprouting Elicited from Intact Spinal Sensory Neurons by Adjacent Posterior Root Section , Am. J. Physiol. 183:640-641, 1955. 16. McCouch, G. P.; Austin, G. M., and Liu, C. Y.: Sprouting of New Terminals as a Cause of Spasticity , Am. J. Physiol. 183:642-643, 1955. 17. Murray, J. G., and Thompson, J. W.: Regeneration by Collateral Sprouting in the Partially Denervated Superior Cervical Ganglion of the Cat , J. Physiol. 131:32-33, 1956. 18. Nauta, W. J. H., and Gygax, P. A.: Silver Impregnation of Degenerating Axons in the Central Nervous System: A Modified Technic , Stain Technol. 29:91-93, 1954. 19. Ramón y Cajal, S.: Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System , translated and edited by R. M. May, London, Oxford University Press, 1928, Vol. II. 20. Romanes, G. J.: The Motor Cell Columns of the Lumbo-Sacral Spinal Cord of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 94:313-363, 1951. 21. Sugar, O., and Gerard, R. W.: Spinal Cord Regeneration in the Rat , J. Neurophysiol. 3:1-19, 1940. 22. Teasdale, R. D., and Stavraky, G. W.: Response of Deafferented Spinal Neurones to Corticospinal Impulses , J. Neurophysiol. 16:367-375, 1953. 23. Walberg, F., and Brodal, A.: Pyramidal Tract Fibres from Temporal and Occipital Lobes: An Experimental Study in the Cat , Brain 76:491-508, 1953. 24. Weber, A.: Régénération des terminaisons nerveuses á la suite de leur dégénéréscence physiologique, chez lez mammifères , Bull. histol. appl. 27:163-168, 1950. 25. Weddell, G.; Guttmann, L., and Gutmann, E.: The Local Extension of Nerve Fibres into Denervated Areas of Skin , J. Neurol. & Psychiat. 4:206-225, 1941. 26. Fernández-Morán, H.: The Submicroscopic Organization of Vertebrate Nerve Fibers , Exper. Cell Res. 3:282-359, 1952. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Intraspinal Sprouting of Dorsal Root Axons: Development of New Collaterals and Preterminals Following Partial Denervation of the Spinal Cord in the Cat

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1958 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340010064005
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction The considerable ability of the central nervous system to adapt functionally and to compensate for a loss of neuronal tissue is well established. Several hypotheses have been presented to explain the nature of this functional recovery. Although no critical evidence has been obtained, it can be stated for the mammal, with only a few observations to the contrary (Sugar and Gerard21 and Freeman6), that regeneration of severed axons is not the responsible mechanism.The failure of severed axons to regenerate in the central nervous system does not necessarily exclude a morphological basis for the compensation, for Cajal19 has mentioned several instances in which traumatic injury to the spinal cord and brain resulted in formation of new processes from nerve cells in the injured area. Further support for such a contention comes from the recent observations that partially denervated skin and muscle can be effectively reinnervated not References 1. Chambers, W. W.; Liu, C. Y., and Liu, C. N.: A Modification of the Nauta Technique for Staining of Degenerating Axons in the Central Nervous System , Anat. Rec. 124:391-392, 1956. 2. Chambers, W. W., and Liu, C. N.: Pyramidal Tract in the Cat, in preparation. 3. Eccles, J. C.: The Neurophysiological Basis of Mind , London, The Clarendon Press, 1953, Chap. 6 , pp. 193-227. 4. Edds, M. V., Jr.: Collateral Nerve Regeneration , Quart. Rev. Biol. 28:260-276, 1953.Crossref 5. Edds, M. V., Jr.: Personal communication to the authors, 1956. 6. Freeman, L. W.: Return of Function After Complete Transection of the Spinal Cord of the Rat , Cat and Dog, Ann. Surg. 136:193-205, 1952.Crossref 7. Glees, P., and Nauta, W. J. H.: A Critical Review of Studies in Axonal and Terminal Degeneration , Monatsschr. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 129: 74-91, 1955.Crossref 8. Hebb, D. O.: The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1949. 9. Hoffman, H.: Local Re-Innervation in Partially Denervated Muscle: A Histo-Physiological Study , Australian J. Exper. Biol. M. Sc. 28:383-397, 1950.Crossref 10. Hoffman, H.: Axoplasm, Its Structure and Regeneration , in Regeneration in the Central Nervous System , edited by W. F. Windle, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1955, pp. 112-126. 11. Hoffman, H., and Springell, P. H.: An Attempt at the Chemical Identification of "Neurocletin" (the Substance Evoking Axon-Sprouting) , Australian J. Exper. Biol. M. Sc. 29:417-424, 1951.Crossref 12. Koenig, H.; Groat, R. A., and Windle, W. F.: A Physiological Approach to Perfusion-Fixation of Tissue with Formalin , Stain Technol. 20:13-22, 1945. 13. Krieg, W. J. S., and Groat, R. A.: Topography of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column of the Cat , Quart. Bull. Northwestern Univ. M. School 18:265-268, 1944. 14. Liu, C. N.: Afferent Nerves to Clarke's and the Lateral Cuneate Nuclei in the Cat , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 75:67-77, 1956. 15. Liu, C. N., and Chambers, W. W.: Intraspinal Sprouting Elicited from Intact Spinal Sensory Neurons by Adjacent Posterior Root Section , Am. J. Physiol. 183:640-641, 1955. 16. McCouch, G. P.; Austin, G. M., and Liu, C. Y.: Sprouting of New Terminals as a Cause of Spasticity , Am. J. Physiol. 183:642-643, 1955. 17. Murray, J. G., and Thompson, J. W.: Regeneration by Collateral Sprouting in the Partially Denervated Superior Cervical Ganglion of the Cat , J. Physiol. 131:32-33, 1956. 18. Nauta, W. J. H., and Gygax, P. A.: Silver Impregnation of Degenerating Axons in the Central Nervous System: A Modified Technic , Stain Technol. 29:91-93, 1954. 19. Ramón y Cajal, S.: Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System , translated and edited by R. M. May, London, Oxford University Press, 1928, Vol. II. 20. Romanes, G. J.: The Motor Cell Columns of the Lumbo-Sacral Spinal Cord of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 94:313-363, 1951. 21. Sugar, O., and Gerard, R. W.: Spinal Cord Regeneration in the Rat , J. Neurophysiol. 3:1-19, 1940. 22. Teasdale, R. D., and Stavraky, G. W.: Response of Deafferented Spinal Neurones to Corticospinal Impulses , J. Neurophysiol. 16:367-375, 1953. 23. Walberg, F., and Brodal, A.: Pyramidal Tract Fibres from Temporal and Occipital Lobes: An Experimental Study in the Cat , Brain 76:491-508, 1953. 24. Weber, A.: Régénération des terminaisons nerveuses á la suite de leur dégénéréscence physiologique, chez lez mammifères , Bull. histol. appl. 27:163-168, 1950. 25. Weddell, G.; Guttmann, L., and Gutmann, E.: The Local Extension of Nerve Fibres into Denervated Areas of Skin , J. Neurol. & Psychiat. 4:206-225, 1941. 26. Fernández-Morán, H.: The Submicroscopic Organization of Vertebrate Nerve Fibers , Exper. Cell Res. 3:282-359, 1952.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1958

References