Abstract Cancer frequently affects the nervous system. Primary tumors of the CNS are the second most common form of cancer in children, and primary brain tumors in adults are more common than Hodgkin's disease. In the United States in 1977 there were 10,900 new cases of primary CNS cancer and 8,800 deaths. Of 690,000 new cancer cases, 385,000 patients died, and 50,000 of the deaths were directly associated with metastatic cancer to the nervous system. The bulk of these consisted of lung cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, lymphomas, and leukemias. Tumors of the nervous system may be classified by location and pathology, as given in the following two tabulations. Classification of Intracranial Tumors by Location2 Tumors of the skullMetastatic tumorsEosinophilic granulomaTumors of the meningesMeningiomaMeningeal carcinomatosisTumors of the cranial nervesAcoustic neuromaNeuroectodermal tumorsCerebralAstrocytomaOligodendrogliomaGlioblastomaCerebellarMedulloblastomaAstrocytomaBrainstemGliomaEpendymomaOther primary References 1. Silverberg E: Cancer statistic . Cancer Clin 27:26-41, 1977.Crossref 2. Merritt HH: Tumors , in A Textbook of Neurology , ed 6. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger Publishers, 1979, pp 213-319. 3. Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of Tumors of the Nervous System , ed 4. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1977. 4. Rubinstein LJ: Tumors of the Central Nervous System . Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1972, fascicle 6. 5. Walker MD: Brain and peripheral nervous system tumors , in Holland JF, Frei E (eds): Cancer Medicine. Philadelphia , Lea & Febiger Publishers, 1973, pp 1385-1407. 6. Fishman RA: Brain edema . N Engl J Med 293:706, 1975.Crossref 7. Frankel SA, German WJ: Glioblastoma multiforme . J Neurosurg 15:489, 1958.Crossref 8. Adams RD, Victor M: Principles of Neurology . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1977, pp 586-617. 9. Wright RL: A survey of possible etiologic agents in postoperative craniotomy infections . J Neurosurg 25:125, 1966.Crossref 10. Pearson OH, Brodkey JS, Kaufman B: Endocrine evaluation and indications for surgery of functional pituitary adenomas . Clin Neurosurg 21:26, 1973. 11. Cryer PE: Diagnostic Endocrinology . New York, Oxford University Press, 1976. 12. Weir B: The relative significance of factors affecting survival in astrocytoma, grades 3 and 4 . J Neurosurg 38:448, 1973.Crossref 13. Jelsma R, Bucy PC: The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme of the brain . J Neurosurg 27:388, 1967.Crossref 14. Odom GL, Woodhall B: Supratentorial skull flaps . J Neurosurg 25:491, 1966.Crossref 15. Laws ER, Troutmann JC, Hollenhorst RW: Transsphenoidal decompression of the optic nerve and chiasm . J Neurosurg 46:717, 1977.Crossref 16. Hoi SU, Wilson CB, Tyrell JB: Transsphenoidal microhypophysectomy in acromegaly . J Neurosurg 47:840, 1977.Crossref 17. Montgomery WW: Transethmoidosphenoidal hypophysectomy . Arch Otolaryngol 78:68, 1963.Crossref 18. House WF: Transtemporal bone microsurgical removal of acoustic neuromas . Arch Otolaryngol 80:733, 1964. 19. Webster JC: Anatomical considerations in the selection of the approach to the cerebellopontine angle , in Silverstein H, Norrell H (eds): Neurological Surgery of the Ear . Birmingham, Ala, Aesculapius Publishing Co, 1977. 20. Katzman R, Poppins HM: Cerebral edema , in Electrolytes and Fluid Metabolism . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1973, chap 12. 21. Klatzo I: Neuropathological aspects of brain edema . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 26:1, 1967.Crossref 22. Katzman R, Poppins HM: Cerebral edema , in Electrolytes and Fluid Metabolism . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1973, p 297. 23. Jelsma R, Bucy PC: Glioblastoma multiforme: Its treatment and some factors affecting survival . Arch Neurol 20:161-171, 1969.Crossref 24. Concannon JP, Kramer S, Berry R: The extent of intracranial gliomata at autopsy and its relationship to techniques used in radiation therapy of brain tumors . Am J Roentgenol 84:99-107, 1960. 25. Kramer S: Tumor extent as a determining factor in radiotherapy of glioblastoma . Acta Radiol Therap 8:111-117, 1969.Crossref 26. Ramsey RG, Brand WN: Radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme . J Neurosurg 39:197-202, 1973.Crossref 27. Simpson WJ, Platts ME: Fractionation study in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1:639-684, 1976.Crossref 28. Makagaki H, Brunhart G, Kemper TL, et al: Monkey brain damage from radiation in the therapeutic range . J Neurosurg 44:3-11, 1976.Crossref 29. Leibel SA, Sheline GE, Wara WM, et al: The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of astrocytomas . Cancer 35:1551-1557, 1975.Crossref 30. Sheline G: Radiation therapy of brain tumors . Cancer 39:873-881, 1977.Crossref 31. Greenberger JS, Cassady JR, Levene MB: Radiation therapy of thalamic midbrain and brainstem gliomas . Radiology 122:463-468, 1977.Crossref 32. Posner JB, Shapiro WR: The management of intra-cranial metastases , in Morley TP (ed): Current Controversies in Neurosurgery . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1976, pp 356-366. 33. Posner JB: Management of central nervous system metastases . Semin Oncol 4:81-91, 1977. 34. Wilson CB: Brain metastases: The basis for surgical selection . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2:169-172, 1977.Crossref 35. Shapiro WR, Young DF: Treatment of malignant glioma: A controlled study of chemotherapy and irradiation . Arch Neurol 33:494-500, 1976.Crossref 36. Walker MD, Strike TA: An evaluation of methyl CCNU, BCNU and radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant glioma . Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 17:163, 1976. 37. Posner JB, Shapiro WR: Brain tumor: Current status of treatment and complications . Arch Neurol 32:781-784, 1975.Crossref 38. Shapiro WR, Young DF: Chemotherapy of malignant glioma with lomustine alone and lomustine combined with vincristine sulfate and procarbazine hydrochloride . Arch Neurol 33:394, 1976. 39. Brisman R, Housepian EM, Chang C, et al: Adjuvant nitrosourea therapy for glioblastoma . Arch Neurol 33:745-750, 1976.Crossref 40. Wilson CB, Gutin P, Boldrey EB, et al: Single-agent chemotherapy of brain tumors: A five-year review . Arch Neurol 33:739-744, 1976.Crossref 41. Weir B, Band P, Urtasun R, et al: Radiotherapy and CCNU in the treatment of high-grade supratentorial astrocytomas . J Neurosurg 45:129-134, 1976.Crossref 42. Gutin PH, Wilson CB, Vansantha KA, et al: Phase II study of procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine combination chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant brain tumors . Cancer 35:1398-1404, 1975.Crossref 43. Walker MD, Gehan EA: Clinical studies in malignant gliomas and their treatment with nitrosoureas . Cancer Treat Rep 60:713-716, 1976. 44. Brooks WH, Netsky MG, Normalsell DE, et al: Depressed cellmediated immunity in patients with primary intracranial tumors . J Exp Med 136:1631-1647, 1972.Crossref 45. Bloom HJG, Peckham MJ, Richardson AE, et al: Glioblastoma multiforme: A controlled trial to assess the value of specific immunotherapy in patients treated by radical surgery and radiotherapy . Br J Cancer 27:253-267, 1973.Crossref 46. Urtasun R, Band P, Chapman JD, et al: Radiation and high-dose metronidazole in supratentorial glioblastomas . N Engl J Med 294:1364-1367, 1976.Crossref 47. Brownell GL, Murray BW, Sweet WH, et al: A reassessment of neutron capture therapy in the treatment of cerebral gliomas in Seventh National Cancer Conference Proceedings. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co, 1973, pp 827-837. 48. Thomsen J: Suboccipital removal of acoustic neuromas: Results of 125 operations . Acta Otolaryngol 81:406-414, 1976.Crossref 49. House WF, Hitselberger WE: Acoustic neuromas , in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology . Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co, 1974, vol 17, pp 666-692. 50. Martins AN: Pituitary tumors and intrasellar cysts , in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology . Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co, 1974, vol 17, pp 375-439. 51. Broughman M, Heusner AP, Adams RD: Acute degenerative changes in adenomas of the pituitary body—with special reference to pituitary apoplexy . J Neurosurg 7:421, 1950.Crossref 52. Johnston I, Paterson A: Benign intracranial hypertension: I. Diagnosis and prognosis. II. 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Archives of Neurology – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1979
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