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Intestinal Absorption of Calcium

Intestinal Absorption of Calcium Abstract Although the intestinal sites of calcium absorption were fairly well localized in the past, those mechanisms which conditioned the absorptive process have been incompletely understood. Recent advances in transport physiology and vitamin D and protein chemistry have added a new dimension to prevailing concepts of Ca transport across the intestinal mucosal cell. It has been established that Ca transport depends on active transport processes requiring metabolic energy, intact mitochondria, the sodium ion, a specific adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), a soluble intestinal Ca binding protein and biologically active metabolites of vitamin D. Thus, the more detailed and concise delineation of the mechanisms which normally regulate the intestinal absorption of Ca have led to a better correlated understanding of Ca malabsorption and its resistance to vitamin D, a pattern often considered the hallmark of patients with chronic renal disease. References 1. Heaney RP, Skilman TG: Secretion and excretion of calcium by the human gastrointestinal tract. J Lab Clin Med 64:29-35, 1964. 2. Davis RH, Morgan DB, Rivlin RS: The excretion of calcium in the urine and its relation to calcium intake, sex and age. Clin Sci 39:1-12, 1970. 3. Phang JM, Berman M, Finerman GA, et al: Dietary perturbation of calcium metabolism in normal man. J Clin Invest 48:67-77, 1969.Crossref 4. Kales AN, Phang JM: Dietary calcium perturbation in patients with abnormal calcium deposition. J Clin Endocr 31:204-212, 1970.Crossref 5. Schedl HP, Osbaldiston GW, Mills IH: Absorption, secretion and precipitation of calcium in the small intestine of the dog. Amer J Physiol 214:814-819, 1968. 6. Avioli LV, McDonald JE, Lee SW: The influence of age on the intestinal absorption of 47Ca in women and its relation to 47Ca absorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 44:1960-1967, 1965.Crossref 7. Irving JT: Dynamics and function of phosphorus , in Comar CL, Bronner F (eds): Mineral Metabolism . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1964, vol 2 (A), pp 249-313. 8. Wilson TH: Intestinal Absorption . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1962. 9. Schachter D: Vitamin D and the active transport of calcium by the small intestine , in Wasserman RH (ed): The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1963, pp 197-210. 10. Urban E, Schedl HP: Comparison of in vivo and in vitro effects of vitamin D in calcium transport in the rat. Amer J Physiol 217:126-130, 1969. 11. Cramer CF: Qualitative studies on the absorption and excretion of calcium from Thiry-vella intestinal loops in the dog , in Wasserman RH (ed): The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1963, pp 75-84. 12. Birge SJ, Peck WA, Berman M, et al: Study of calcium absorption in man: A kinetic analysis and physiologic model. J Clin Invest 48:1705-1713, 1969.Crossref 13. Wensel RH, Rich C, Brown AC, et al: Absorption of calcium measured by incubation and perfusion of the intact human small intestine. J Clin Invest 48:1768-1775, 1969.Crossref 14. Schachter D, Dowdle EB, Schenker H: Active absorption of calcium by the small intestine of the rat. Amer J Physiol 198:263-268, 1960. 15. Schachter D, Kowarski S, Finkelstein JD, et al: Tissue concentration differences during active transport of calcium by intestine. Amer J Physiol 211:1131-1136, 1966. 16. Sallis JD, Holdsworth ES: Influence of vitamin D on calcium absorption in the chick. Amer J Physiol 203:497-505, 1962. 17. Harrison HE, Harrison HC: Transfer of 45Ca across intestinal wall in vitro in relation to action of vitamin D and cortisol. Amer J Physiol 199:265-271, 1960. 18. Hashim G, Clark I: Studies on the effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption and transport. Biochem J 112:275-283, 1969. 19. Kimberg DV, Schachter D, Schenker H: Active transport of calcium by intestine: Effects of dietary calcium. Amer J Physiol 200:1256-1262, 1961. 20. Schachter D, Dowdle EB, Schenker H: Accumulation of 45Ca by slices of the small intestine. Amer J Physiol 198:275-279, 1960. 21. Martin DL, DeLuca H: Calcium transport and the role of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys 134:139-148, 1969.Crossref 22. Adams TH, Norman AW: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol. J Biol Chem 245:4421-4431, 1970. 23. Bonnichsen R: Ethanol, determination of ADH and DPN, determination of ADH and AP-DPN , in Bergmeyer HU (ed): Methods of Enzymatic Analysis . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1963, p 285. 24. Krawit EL, Schedl HP: In vivo calcium transport by rat small intestine. Amer J Physiol 214:232-236, 1968. 25. Wilson TH, Wiseman G: The use of sacs of everted small intestine for the study of the transference of substances from mucosal to serosal surface. J Physiol 123:116-119, 1954. 26. Levine RR, McNary WF, Kornguth PJ, et al: Histological reevaluation of everted gut sac technique for studying intestinal absorption. Europ J Pharmacol 9:211-219, 1970.Crossref 27. Alpers DH, Isselbacher KJ: Protein synthesis by rat intestinal mucosa. J Biol Chem 242:5617-5622, 1967. 28. Ussing HH: The distinction by means of tracers between active transport and diffusion. Acta Physiol Scand 19:43-46, 1949.Crossref 29. Helbock HJ, Forte JG, Saltman P: The mechanism of calcium transport by rat intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 126:81-85, 1966.Crossref 30. Dumont PA, Curran PF, Solomon AK: Calcium and strontium in rat small intestine: Their fluxes and their effect on Na flux. J Gen Physiol 43:1119-1136, 1960.Crossref 31. Walling MW, Rothman SS: Phosphate-independent, carrier-mediated transport of calcium by rat intestine. Amer J Physiol 217:1144-1148, 1969. 32. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Some aspects of the intestinal absorption of calcium with special reference to vitamin D , in Comar CL, Bronner F (eds): Mineral Metabolism . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1969, vol 3, pp 321-403. 33. Walling MW, Rothman SS: Apparent increase in carrier affinity for intestinal calcium transport following dietary calcium restriction. J Biol Chem 245:5007-5022, 1970. 34. Wasserman RH, Kallfelz FH: Vitamin D3 and the unidirectional calcium fluxes across the rachitic chick duodenum. Amer J Physiol 203:221-229, 1962. 35. Care AD, van't Klooster AT: In vivo transport of magnesium and other cations across the wall of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. J Physiol 177:174-179, 1965. 36. Lipshitz F, Harrison HC, Harrison HE: Influence of parathyroid function upon the in vitro transport of calcium and phosphate by the rat intestine. Endocrinology 84:912-917, 1969.Crossref 37. Shah BG, Draper HH: Depression of calcium absorption in parathyroidectomized rats. Amer J Physiol 211:963-966, 1966. 38. DeLuca HF: Recent advances in the metabolism and function of vitamin D. Fed Proc 28:1678-1689, 1969. 39. Horsting M, DeLuca HF: In vitro production of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 36:251-255, 1969.Crossref 40. Ponchon G, Kennan AL, DeLuca HF: Activation of vitamin D by the liver. J Clin Invest 48:2032-2037, 1969.Crossref 41. Blunt JW, Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF: The biological activity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D3. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 61:717-718, 1968.Crossref 42. Smith JE, Goodman DS: The turnover and transport of vitamin D and of a polar metabolite with the properties of 25-hydroxycholecaciferol in human plasma. J Clin Invest 50:2159-2168, 1971.Crossref 43. Norman AW, Myrtle JF, Midget RJ, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol: Identification of the proposed active form of vitamin D, in the intestine. Science 173:51-54, 1971.Crossref 44. Holick MF, Schnoes HK, DeLuca HF: Identification of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of vitamin D, metabolically active in the intestine. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:803-804, 1971.Crossref 45. Lawson DEM, Wilson PW, Kodicek E: New vitamin D metabolite localized in intestinal cell nuclei. Nature 222:171-172, 1969.Crossref 46. Murtle JF, Normal AW: Vitamin D: A cholecalciferol metabolite highly active in promoting intestinal calcium transport. Science 171:79-82, 1970.Crossref 47. Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF, Omdahl J, et al: Mechanism of action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on intestinal calcium transport. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:1286-1288, 1971.Crossref 48. Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF: Inhibition of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol by actinomycin D and cyclohexamide. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:605-608,1971.Crossref 49. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Vitamin D3-induced calcium binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa. Science 152:791-793, 1966.Crossref 50. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein: Response to some physiological and nutritional variables. J Biol Chem 243:3987-3993, 1968. 51. MacGregor RR, Hamilton JW, Cohn DV: The induction of calcium binding protein biosynthesis in intestine by vitamin D3. Biochem Biophys Acta 222:482-490, 1970.Crossref 52. Haussler MR, Nagode LA, Rasmussen H: Induction of intestinal brush border alkaline phosphatase by vitamin D and identity with Ca-ATPase. Nature 228:1199-1201, 1970.Crossref 53. Martin DL, Melancon MJ, DeLuca HF: Vitamin D-stimulted, calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase from brush borders of rat small intestine. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 35:819-823, 1969.Crossref 54. Melancon MJ Jr, DeLuca HF: Vitamin D stimulation of calcium dependent adenosine triphosphatase in chick intestinal brush borders. Biochemistry 9:1658-1664, 1970.Crossref 55. Holdsworth ES: Vitamin D and calcium absorption in the chick. Biochem J 96:475-481, 1965. 56. Martin DL, DeLuca HF: Influence of sodium on calcium transport by the rat small intestine. Amer J Physiol 216:1351-1359, 1969. 57. Crane RK: Na+ dependent transport in the intestine and other animal tissues. Fed Proc 24:1000-1006, 1965. 58. Czaky TZ: Significance of sodium ions in active intestinal transport of nonelectrolytes. Amer J Physiol 201:999-1001, 1961. 59. Bar A, Hurwitz S: The accumulation of calcium in laying fowl intestine in vitro. Biochem Biophys Acta 183:591-600, 1969.Crossref 60. Berg GG, Szerczes J: The sodium and potassium activated ATP-ase: II. Comparative study of intestinal epithelium and red cells. J Cell Physiol 67:487-500, 1966.Crossref 61. Cocco AE, Rosenweig NS, Hendrix TR: On phlorzin-sensitivity and Na dependence of sugar absorption in vivo. Clin Res 13:252, 1965. 62. Czaky TZ, Hara Y: Inhibition of active intestinal sugar transport by digitalis. Amer J Physiol 467-472, 1965. 63. Norman AW, Mircheff AK, Adams TH, et al: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol: III. Vitamin D mediated increase of intestinal brush border alkaline phosphatase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 215:348-359, 1970.Crossref 64. Holdsworth ES: The effect of vitamin D on enzyme activities in the mucosal cells of the chick small intestine. J Membrane Biol 3:43-53, 1970.Crossref 65. Wong RG, Adams TH, Roberts PA, et al: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol: IV. Interaction of the polyene antibiotic, filipin, with intestinal mucosal membranes from vitamin D-treated and vitamin D-deficient chicks. Biochim Biophys Acta 219:61-72, 1970.Crossref 66. Moriuchi S, Watanabe T, Hosoya N: Distribution of orally administered 45Ca in rat intestinal tissues and vitamin D, effect. J Vitamin 16:58-63,1970.Crossref 67. Zull JE, Czarnowska-Misztal E, DeLuca HF: On the relationship between vitamin D action and actinomycin-sensitive processes. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 55:177-180, 1966.Crossref 68. Norman AW: Actinomycin D and the response to vitamin D. Science 149:185-188, 1965.Crossref 69. Kallfelz FA, Taylor AN, Wasserman RH: Vitamin D-induced calcium binding factor in rat intestinal mucosa. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 125:54-58, 1967.Crossref 70. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Evidence for a vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in new world primates. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136:25-28, 1970.Crossref 71. Taylor AN, Wasserman RH, Jowsey J: A vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein in canine intestinal mucosa. Fed Proc 27:675, 1968. 72. Alpers D, Lee SW, Avioli LV: Partial isolation of human duodenal calcium-binding proteins. Clin Res 18:605, 1970. 73. Bronner F, in discussion of Wasserman RH, Corradino RA, Taylor AN: Binding proteins from animals with possible transport function , in Membrane Proteins . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, p 134. 74. Wasserman RH, Corradino RA, Taylor AN: Binding proteins from animals with possible transport function , in Membrane Proteins . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1969, p 114. 75. Taylor AN, Wasserman RH: Immunofluorescent localization of vitamin D-dependent calciumbinding proteins. J Histochem Cytochem 18:107-115, 1970.Crossref 76. Taylor AN, Wasserman RH: Vitamin D-induced calcium binding protein: Partial purification, electrophoretic visualization and tissue distribution. Arch Biochem Biophys 119:536-540, 1967.Crossref 77. Urban E, Schedl H: Vitamin D, tissue calcium and calcium transport in the in vivo rat small intestine. Amer J Physiol 219:944-951, 1970. 78. Anraku Y: Transport of sugars and amino acids in bacteria: I. Purification and specificity of the galactose and leucine binding proteins. J Biol Chem 243:3116-3122, 1968. 79. Kaye M, Silverman M: Calcium metabolism in chronic renal failure. J Lab Clin Med 66:535-548, 1965. 80. Genuth SM, Vertes V, Leonards JR: Oral absorption in patients with renal failure treated by chronic hemodialysis. Metabolism 18:124-131, 1969.Crossref 81. Liu SH, Chu HI: Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism with special reference to the pathogenesis and effect of dihydrotachysterol (AT10) and iron. Medicine 22:103-161, 1943.Crossref 82. Bricker NS, Slatopolsky E, Reiss E, et al: Calcium, phosphorus and bone in renal disease and transplantation. Arch Intern Med 123:543-553, 1969.Crossref 83. Dent CE, Harper CN, Philpot GR: The treatment of renal-glomerular osteodystrophy. Quart J Med 30:1-31, 1961.Crossref 84. Rubini ME, Coburn JW, Massry SG, et al: Renal osteodystrophy: Some therapeutic considerations relative to long-term dialysis and transplantation. Arch Intern Med 124:663-669, 1969.Crossref 85. Avioli LV, Scott S, Lee SW: Intestinal calcium absorption: Nature of defect in chronic renal disease. Science 166:1154-1156, 1969.Crossref 86. Ritz E: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum intestinalen Calcium transport bei Uramie. Z Ges Exp Med 152:313-324, 1970.Crossref 87. Kessner DM, Epstein FH: Effect of renal insufficiency in gastrointestinal transport of calcium. Amer J Physiol 209:141-145, 1965. 88. Baerg RD, Kimberg DV, Gershon E: Effect of renal insufficiency on the active transport of calcium by the small intestine. J Clin Invest 49:1288-1298, 1970.Crossref 89. DeLuca HF, Avioli LV: Treatment of renal osteodystrophy with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Arch Intern Med 126:896-899, 1970.Crossref 90. Aviolo LV, Birge S, Lee SW, et al: The metabolic fate of vitamin D3-3H in chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest 47:2239-2252, 1968.Crossref 91. Avioli LV, Birge SJ, Statopolsky E: The nature of vitamin D resistance of patients with chronic renal disease. J Clin Invest 3:451-454, 1969. 92. Avioli LV, Lee SW, McDonald JE, et al: Metabolism of vitamin D3-3H in human subjects: Distribution in blood, bile, feces and urine. J Clin Invest 46:983-992, 1967.Crossref 93. Manis JG, Schachter D: Active transport of iron by intestine: Features of the two-step mechanism. Amer J Physiol 203:73-78, 1962. 94. Urban E, Schedl HP: Mucosal growth effect of vitamin D on the duodenum. Experimentia 25:1270-1271, 1969.Crossref 95. Bond VP, Fliedner TM, Archembeau JO, in Mammalian Radiation Lethality . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1965, p 39. 96. Lehniger AL: Mitochrondria and calcium ion transport. Biochem J 119:129-138, 1970. 97. Engstrom GW, DeLuca HF: Vitamin D-stimulated release of calcium from mitochrondria. Biochemistry 3:203-209, 1964.Crossref 98. Gonzalez-Licea A: Polarization of mitochrondria in the absorptive cells of the small intestine of suckling rats. Lab Invest 23:163-167,1970. 99. Sampson HW, Matthews JL, Martin JH, et al: An electron microscopic localization of calcium in the small intestine of normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rats. Cale Tiss Res 5:305-316, 1970.Crossref 100. Yamada T, Yoshida A, Koshikawa S: Alteration of oxidative phosphorylation in uremia. Jap Circ J 33:59-62, 1969.Crossref 101. Quigley JP, Gotterer GS: Distribution of Na+-K+-stimulated ATPase activity in rat intestinal mucosa. Biochim Biophys Acta 173:456-468, 1969.Crossref 102. Cole CH, Balfe JW, Welt LG: Induction of a ouabain-sensitive ATPase defect by uremic plasma. Trans Assoc Amer Phys 81:213-220, 1968. 103. Shear L: Internal redistribution of tissue protein synthesis in uremia. J Clin Invest 48:1252-1257, 1969.Crossref 104. Stanbury WS, Lumb GA, Mawer EB: Osteodystrophy developing spontaneously in the course of chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 124:274-291, 1969.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Intestinal Absorption of Calcium

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 129 (2) – Feb 1, 1972

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1972 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
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10.1001/archinte.1972.00320020189016
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Abstract

Abstract Although the intestinal sites of calcium absorption were fairly well localized in the past, those mechanisms which conditioned the absorptive process have been incompletely understood. Recent advances in transport physiology and vitamin D and protein chemistry have added a new dimension to prevailing concepts of Ca transport across the intestinal mucosal cell. It has been established that Ca transport depends on active transport processes requiring metabolic energy, intact mitochondria, the sodium ion, a specific adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), a soluble intestinal Ca binding protein and biologically active metabolites of vitamin D. Thus, the more detailed and concise delineation of the mechanisms which normally regulate the intestinal absorption of Ca have led to a better correlated understanding of Ca malabsorption and its resistance to vitamin D, a pattern often considered the hallmark of patients with chronic renal disease. References 1. Heaney RP, Skilman TG: Secretion and excretion of calcium by the human gastrointestinal tract. J Lab Clin Med 64:29-35, 1964. 2. Davis RH, Morgan DB, Rivlin RS: The excretion of calcium in the urine and its relation to calcium intake, sex and age. Clin Sci 39:1-12, 1970. 3. Phang JM, Berman M, Finerman GA, et al: Dietary perturbation of calcium metabolism in normal man. J Clin Invest 48:67-77, 1969.Crossref 4. Kales AN, Phang JM: Dietary calcium perturbation in patients with abnormal calcium deposition. J Clin Endocr 31:204-212, 1970.Crossref 5. Schedl HP, Osbaldiston GW, Mills IH: Absorption, secretion and precipitation of calcium in the small intestine of the dog. Amer J Physiol 214:814-819, 1968. 6. Avioli LV, McDonald JE, Lee SW: The influence of age on the intestinal absorption of 47Ca in women and its relation to 47Ca absorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 44:1960-1967, 1965.Crossref 7. Irving JT: Dynamics and function of phosphorus , in Comar CL, Bronner F (eds): Mineral Metabolism . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1964, vol 2 (A), pp 249-313. 8. Wilson TH: Intestinal Absorption . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1962. 9. Schachter D: Vitamin D and the active transport of calcium by the small intestine , in Wasserman RH (ed): The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1963, pp 197-210. 10. Urban E, Schedl HP: Comparison of in vivo and in vitro effects of vitamin D in calcium transport in the rat. Amer J Physiol 217:126-130, 1969. 11. Cramer CF: Qualitative studies on the absorption and excretion of calcium from Thiry-vella intestinal loops in the dog , in Wasserman RH (ed): The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1963, pp 75-84. 12. Birge SJ, Peck WA, Berman M, et al: Study of calcium absorption in man: A kinetic analysis and physiologic model. J Clin Invest 48:1705-1713, 1969.Crossref 13. Wensel RH, Rich C, Brown AC, et al: Absorption of calcium measured by incubation and perfusion of the intact human small intestine. J Clin Invest 48:1768-1775, 1969.Crossref 14. Schachter D, Dowdle EB, Schenker H: Active absorption of calcium by the small intestine of the rat. Amer J Physiol 198:263-268, 1960. 15. Schachter D, Kowarski S, Finkelstein JD, et al: Tissue concentration differences during active transport of calcium by intestine. Amer J Physiol 211:1131-1136, 1966. 16. Sallis JD, Holdsworth ES: Influence of vitamin D on calcium absorption in the chick. Amer J Physiol 203:497-505, 1962. 17. Harrison HE, Harrison HC: Transfer of 45Ca across intestinal wall in vitro in relation to action of vitamin D and cortisol. Amer J Physiol 199:265-271, 1960. 18. Hashim G, Clark I: Studies on the effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption and transport. Biochem J 112:275-283, 1969. 19. Kimberg DV, Schachter D, Schenker H: Active transport of calcium by intestine: Effects of dietary calcium. Amer J Physiol 200:1256-1262, 1961. 20. Schachter D, Dowdle EB, Schenker H: Accumulation of 45Ca by slices of the small intestine. Amer J Physiol 198:275-279, 1960. 21. Martin DL, DeLuca H: Calcium transport and the role of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys 134:139-148, 1969.Crossref 22. Adams TH, Norman AW: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol. J Biol Chem 245:4421-4431, 1970. 23. Bonnichsen R: Ethanol, determination of ADH and DPN, determination of ADH and AP-DPN , in Bergmeyer HU (ed): Methods of Enzymatic Analysis . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1963, p 285. 24. Krawit EL, Schedl HP: In vivo calcium transport by rat small intestine. Amer J Physiol 214:232-236, 1968. 25. Wilson TH, Wiseman G: The use of sacs of everted small intestine for the study of the transference of substances from mucosal to serosal surface. J Physiol 123:116-119, 1954. 26. Levine RR, McNary WF, Kornguth PJ, et al: Histological reevaluation of everted gut sac technique for studying intestinal absorption. Europ J Pharmacol 9:211-219, 1970.Crossref 27. Alpers DH, Isselbacher KJ: Protein synthesis by rat intestinal mucosa. J Biol Chem 242:5617-5622, 1967. 28. Ussing HH: The distinction by means of tracers between active transport and diffusion. Acta Physiol Scand 19:43-46, 1949.Crossref 29. Helbock HJ, Forte JG, Saltman P: The mechanism of calcium transport by rat intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 126:81-85, 1966.Crossref 30. Dumont PA, Curran PF, Solomon AK: Calcium and strontium in rat small intestine: Their fluxes and their effect on Na flux. J Gen Physiol 43:1119-1136, 1960.Crossref 31. Walling MW, Rothman SS: Phosphate-independent, carrier-mediated transport of calcium by rat intestine. Amer J Physiol 217:1144-1148, 1969. 32. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Some aspects of the intestinal absorption of calcium with special reference to vitamin D , in Comar CL, Bronner F (eds): Mineral Metabolism . New York and London, Academic Press Inc, 1969, vol 3, pp 321-403. 33. Walling MW, Rothman SS: Apparent increase in carrier affinity for intestinal calcium transport following dietary calcium restriction. J Biol Chem 245:5007-5022, 1970. 34. Wasserman RH, Kallfelz FH: Vitamin D3 and the unidirectional calcium fluxes across the rachitic chick duodenum. Amer J Physiol 203:221-229, 1962. 35. Care AD, van't Klooster AT: In vivo transport of magnesium and other cations across the wall of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. J Physiol 177:174-179, 1965. 36. Lipshitz F, Harrison HC, Harrison HE: Influence of parathyroid function upon the in vitro transport of calcium and phosphate by the rat intestine. Endocrinology 84:912-917, 1969.Crossref 37. Shah BG, Draper HH: Depression of calcium absorption in parathyroidectomized rats. Amer J Physiol 211:963-966, 1966. 38. DeLuca HF: Recent advances in the metabolism and function of vitamin D. Fed Proc 28:1678-1689, 1969. 39. Horsting M, DeLuca HF: In vitro production of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 36:251-255, 1969.Crossref 40. Ponchon G, Kennan AL, DeLuca HF: Activation of vitamin D by the liver. J Clin Invest 48:2032-2037, 1969.Crossref 41. Blunt JW, Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF: The biological activity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, a metabolite of vitamin D3. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 61:717-718, 1968.Crossref 42. Smith JE, Goodman DS: The turnover and transport of vitamin D and of a polar metabolite with the properties of 25-hydroxycholecaciferol in human plasma. J Clin Invest 50:2159-2168, 1971.Crossref 43. Norman AW, Myrtle JF, Midget RJ, et al: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol: Identification of the proposed active form of vitamin D, in the intestine. Science 173:51-54, 1971.Crossref 44. Holick MF, Schnoes HK, DeLuca HF: Identification of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a form of vitamin D, metabolically active in the intestine. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:803-804, 1971.Crossref 45. Lawson DEM, Wilson PW, Kodicek E: New vitamin D metabolite localized in intestinal cell nuclei. Nature 222:171-172, 1969.Crossref 46. Murtle JF, Normal AW: Vitamin D: A cholecalciferol metabolite highly active in promoting intestinal calcium transport. Science 171:79-82, 1970.Crossref 47. Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF, Omdahl J, et al: Mechanism of action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on intestinal calcium transport. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:1286-1288, 1971.Crossref 48. Tanaka Y, DeLuca HF: Inhibition of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol by actinomycin D and cyclohexamide. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 68:605-608,1971.Crossref 49. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Vitamin D3-induced calcium binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa. Science 152:791-793, 1966.Crossref 50. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein: Response to some physiological and nutritional variables. J Biol Chem 243:3987-3993, 1968. 51. MacGregor RR, Hamilton JW, Cohn DV: The induction of calcium binding protein biosynthesis in intestine by vitamin D3. Biochem Biophys Acta 222:482-490, 1970.Crossref 52. Haussler MR, Nagode LA, Rasmussen H: Induction of intestinal brush border alkaline phosphatase by vitamin D and identity with Ca-ATPase. Nature 228:1199-1201, 1970.Crossref 53. Martin DL, Melancon MJ, DeLuca HF: Vitamin D-stimulted, calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase from brush borders of rat small intestine. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 35:819-823, 1969.Crossref 54. Melancon MJ Jr, DeLuca HF: Vitamin D stimulation of calcium dependent adenosine triphosphatase in chick intestinal brush borders. Biochemistry 9:1658-1664, 1970.Crossref 55. Holdsworth ES: Vitamin D and calcium absorption in the chick. Biochem J 96:475-481, 1965. 56. Martin DL, DeLuca HF: Influence of sodium on calcium transport by the rat small intestine. Amer J Physiol 216:1351-1359, 1969. 57. Crane RK: Na+ dependent transport in the intestine and other animal tissues. Fed Proc 24:1000-1006, 1965. 58. Czaky TZ: Significance of sodium ions in active intestinal transport of nonelectrolytes. Amer J Physiol 201:999-1001, 1961. 59. Bar A, Hurwitz S: The accumulation of calcium in laying fowl intestine in vitro. Biochem Biophys Acta 183:591-600, 1969.Crossref 60. Berg GG, Szerczes J: The sodium and potassium activated ATP-ase: II. Comparative study of intestinal epithelium and red cells. J Cell Physiol 67:487-500, 1966.Crossref 61. Cocco AE, Rosenweig NS, Hendrix TR: On phlorzin-sensitivity and Na dependence of sugar absorption in vivo. Clin Res 13:252, 1965. 62. Czaky TZ, Hara Y: Inhibition of active intestinal sugar transport by digitalis. Amer J Physiol 467-472, 1965. 63. Norman AW, Mircheff AK, Adams TH, et al: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol: III. Vitamin D mediated increase of intestinal brush border alkaline phosphatase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 215:348-359, 1970.Crossref 64. Holdsworth ES: The effect of vitamin D on enzyme activities in the mucosal cells of the chick small intestine. J Membrane Biol 3:43-53, 1970.Crossref 65. Wong RG, Adams TH, Roberts PA, et al: Studies on the mechanism of action of calciferol: IV. Interaction of the polyene antibiotic, filipin, with intestinal mucosal membranes from vitamin D-treated and vitamin D-deficient chicks. Biochim Biophys Acta 219:61-72, 1970.Crossref 66. Moriuchi S, Watanabe T, Hosoya N: Distribution of orally administered 45Ca in rat intestinal tissues and vitamin D, effect. J Vitamin 16:58-63,1970.Crossref 67. Zull JE, Czarnowska-Misztal E, DeLuca HF: On the relationship between vitamin D action and actinomycin-sensitive processes. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 55:177-180, 1966.Crossref 68. Norman AW: Actinomycin D and the response to vitamin D. Science 149:185-188, 1965.Crossref 69. Kallfelz FA, Taylor AN, Wasserman RH: Vitamin D-induced calcium binding factor in rat intestinal mucosa. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 125:54-58, 1967.Crossref 70. Wasserman RH, Taylor AN: Evidence for a vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in new world primates. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136:25-28, 1970.Crossref 71. Taylor AN, Wasserman RH, Jowsey J: A vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein in canine intestinal mucosa. Fed Proc 27:675, 1968. 72. Alpers D, Lee SW, Avioli LV: Partial isolation of human duodenal calcium-binding proteins. Clin Res 18:605, 1970. 73. 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1972

References