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Intensive Individual Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia: A Review of Techniques

Intensive Individual Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia: A Review of Techniques Abstract • I reviewed the substantial psychiatric literature on the technical strategies of intensive individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Numerous issues were covered: the nature of intensive psychotherapy and the nature of schizophrenia from the psychotherapist's point of view, elements of the treatment situation, general technical attitudes, general technical interventions (establishing a relationship, elucidating, tolerating, integrating, and working through), special technical interventions with specific symptoms and resistances, and a final brief discussion of mutative mechanisms. References 1. Freud S: Psychoanalytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia , in Strachey J (ed): Standard Edition of The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London, Hogarth Press, 1971, vol 12, pp 3-82. 2. Jung CG: The psychology of dementia praecox , in Brill AA (ed): Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs . New York, Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co, 1936, vol 3. 3. Meyer A: The evolution of the dementia praecox concept , in Winters EE (ed): Collected Papers . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951, vol 2. 4. Sullivan HS: Schizophrenia as a Human Process . New York, WW Norton & Co Inc, 1962. 5. Fromm-Reichmann F: Principles of Intensive Psychotherapy . Chicago, Phoenix Books, 1967. 6. McGlashan TH: Psychotherapy and the DSM III schizophrenias . J Nerv Ment Dis 1982;120:752-757.Crossref 7. Mullahy PF: Harry Stack Sullivan , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 1, pp 748-774. 8. Schulz CG: An individual psychotherapeutic approach with the schizophrenic patient . Schizophr Bull 1975;1:46-69.Crossref 9. Pao P: Schizophrenic Disorders . New York, International Universities Press, 1979. 10. Orne M: Psychotherapy in contemporary America: Its development and context , in Arieti S (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry , ed 2. New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, vol 5, pp 3-33. 11. Karasu TB: Psychotherapies: An overview . Am J Psychiatry 1977; 134:851-863. 12. Will OA: Schizophrenia: Psychological treatment , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1217-1240. 13. Lidz T: The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1973. 14. Arieti S: Interpretation of Schizophrenia . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974. 15. Arieti S: An overview of schizophrenia from a predominantly psychological approach . Am J Psychiatry 1974;131:241-249. 16. Adler G: The psychotherapy of schizophrenia: Semrad's contributions to current psychoanalytic concepts . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:130-137.Crossref 17. Fromm-Reichmann F: Notes on the development of treatment of schizophrenics by psychoanalytic psychotherapy . Psychiatry 1948;11:263-273. 18. Bion WR: Second Thoughts . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1967, pp 36-42, 43-64, 93-109. 19. Searles HF: Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects . New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 521-559, 654-716. 20. Grotstein JS: The pscyhoanalytic concept of schizophrenia: I. The dilemma . Int J Psychoanal 1977;58:403-425. 21. GrotsteinJS: The psychoanalytic concept of schizophrenia: II. Reconciliation . Int J Psychoanal 1977;58:427-452. 22. Rosenfeld H: Notes on the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic states , in Chiland C (ed): Long-term Treatments of Psychotic States . New York, Human Sciences Press, 1977, pp 202-216. 23. Arieti S: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia: New or revised procedures . Am J Psychother 1980;34:464-476. 24. Hill LB: Psychotherapeutic Intervention in Schizophrenia . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1955. 25. Gedo JE, Goldberg A: Models of the Mind . Chicago, Phoenix Books, 1976. 26. Giovacchini P: Treatment of Primitive Mental States . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1979. 27. Fromm-Reichmann F: Remarks on the philosophy of mental disorder . Psychiatry 1946;9:293-308. 28. Fromm-Reichmann F: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 1954;111:410-419. 29. May PRA, Simpson GM: Schizophrenia: Overview of treatment methods , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1192-1216. 30. Rosenfeld H: Psychotic States . New York, International Universities Press, 1966, pp 155-168. 31. Rosenfeld H: On the treatment of psychotic states by psychoanalysis: An historical approach . Int J Psychoanal 1969;50:615-631. 32. Giovacchini P: Psychoanalytic treatment of character disorders , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 209-234. 33. London NJ: An essay on psychoanalytic theory: Two theories of schizophrenia: I. Review and critical assessment of the development of the two theories . Int J Psychoanal 1973;54:169-193. 34. Jacobs L: A cognitive approach to persistent delusions . Am J Psychother 1980;34:556-563. 35. Jacobs L: Cognitive therapy for schizophrenia in remission. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New Orleans, May 11, 1981. 36. Will OA: Schizophrenia: The problem of origins , in Romasin J (ed): The Origins of Schizophrenia . Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1967, pp 214-227. 37. Abelin E: Some further observations and comments on the earliest role of the father . Int J Psychoanal 1975;56:293-302. 38. Stanton AH: The significance of ego interpretive states in insightdirected psychotherapy . Psychiatry 1978;41:129-140. 39. Burnham DL, Gladstone AI, Gibson RW: Schizophrenia and the Need-Fear Dilemma . New York, International Universities Press, 1969. 40. Gunderson JG, Moser LR (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1975. 41. Gunderson JG: Individual psychotherapy , in Bellak L (ed): Disorders of the Schizophrenic Syndrome . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1979. 42. Lidz T: The developing guidelines to the psychotherapy of schizophrenia , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 217-226. 43. Day M, Semrad E: Schizophrenic reactions , in Nicholi A (ed): The Harvard Guide to Modern Psychiatry . Cambridge, Mass, Belknap Press, 1978, pp 199-241. 44. Schur M: The Id and the Regulatory Principles of Mental Functioning . New York, International Universities Press, 1966, p 21. 45. Boyer LB: Working with the borderline patient . Psychoanal Q 1977;46:386-424. 46. Bellak L, Loeb L: The Schizophrenic Syndrome . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1969, pp 343-377. 47. Gunderson JG: Patient-therapist matching: A research evaluation . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1193-1197. 48. Bellak L: Enabling conditions for the ambulatory psychotherapy of acute schizophrenics , in Karasu TB, Bellak L (eds): Specialized Techniques in Individual Psychotherapy . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1980, pp 76-84. 49. Boyer LB: Office treatment of schizophrenic patients: The use of psychoanalytic treatment with few parameters , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 129-170. 50. McGlashan TH: Aphanisis: The syndrome of pseudo-depression in chronic schizophrenia . Schizophr Bull 1982;8:118-134.Crossref 51. Karasu TB: General principles of psychotherapy , in Karasu TB, Bellak L (eds): Specialized Techniques in Individual Psychotherapy . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1980, pp 33-44. 52. Rako S, Mazer H (eds): Semrad: The Heart of a Therapist . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980. 53. Khantzian EJ, Dalsimer JS, Semrad EV: The use of interpretation in the psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Am J Psychother 1968;23:182-197. 54. Searles HF: The Nonhuman Environment . New York, International Universities Press, 1960. 55. Will OA: Comments on the 'elements' of schizophrenia, psychotherapy and the schizophrenic person , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TM, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 157-166. 56. Searles HF: Psychoanalytic therapy with schizophrenic patients in a private-practice context , in Countertransference . New York, International Universities Press, 1979, pp 582-602. 57. Will OA: Schizophrenia and psychotherapy , in Marmor J (ed): Modern Psychoanalysis . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1968, pp 551-573. 58. Will OA: Schizophrenia—psychological treatment , in Freedman AM, Kaplan HI (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1967, pp 649-661. 59. Thompson SV: Some considerations regarding psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy . Natl Assoc Priv Psychiatr Hosp 1981;12:34-39. 60. Knight R: Psychotherapy of an adolescent catatonic schizophrenic with mutism . Psychiatry 1946;9:323-341. 61. Burnham D: Varieties of reality restructuring in schizophrenia , in Cancro R (ed): The Schizophrenic Reactions: A Critique of the Concept, Hospital Treatment, and Current Research . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1970, pp 197-214. 62. Benedetti G: Individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Schizophr Bull 1980;6:633-638.Crossref 63. Rubins JL: Five-year results of psychoanalytic therapy and day care for acute schizophrenic patients . Am J Psychoanal 1976;36:3-26.Crossref 64. Ogden TH: On the nature of schizophrenic conflict . Int J Psychoanal 1980;61:513-533. 65. Arieti S: Individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia , in Arieti S (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry , ed 2. New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, vol 3, pp 627-651. 66. Eissler KR: Remarks on the psychoanalysis of schizophrenia , in Brody EG, Redlich FC (eds): Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics . New York, International Universities Press, 1952, pp 130-167. 67. Feinsilver DB: Transitional relatedness and containment in the treatment of a chronic schizophrenic patient . Int Rev Psychoanal 1980;7:309-318. 68. Wexler M: The structural problem in schizophrenia: The role of the internal object , in Brody EG, Redlich FC (eds): Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics . New York, International Universities Press, 1952, pp 179-201. 69. Rosen J: Direct Analysis . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1953. 70. Semrad EV: Long-term therapy of schizophrenia: Formulation of the clinical approach , in Usdin GL (ed): Psychoneurosis and Schizophrenia . Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co, 1966, pp 155-173. 71. Volkan V: Primitive Internalized Object Relations . New York, International Universities Press, 1976. 72. Eissler KR: Notes upon the emotionality of a schizophrenic patient and its relation to problems of technique . Psychoanal Study Child 1953;8:199-251. 73. Semrad EV, Zaslow SL: Assisting psychotic patients to recompensate . Ment Hosp (July) 1964, pp 361-366. 74. Grotstein J: Psychoanalytic therapy of schizophrenia , in West LF, Flinn DE (eds): Treatment of Schizophrenia: Progress and Prospects . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1976, pp 131-145. 75. Winnicott DW: The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment . New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 140-152. 76. Giovacchini P: Primitive agitation and primal confusion , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 301-340. 77. Segal H: Notes on the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic states , in Chiland C (ed): Long-term Treatments of Psychotic States . New York, Human Sciences Press, 1977, pp 217-223. 78. Giovacchini P: The influence of interpretation upon schizophrenic patients . Int J Psychoanal 1969;50:179-186. 79. Stanton AH: Insight and self observation , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 131-144. 80. McGlashan TH, Levy ST, Carpenter WT: Integration and sealing over: Clinically distinct recovery styles from schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:1269-1272.Crossref 81. Levy ST, McGlashan TH, Carpenter WT: Integration and sealing over as recovery styles from acute psychosis: Metapsychological and dynamic concepts . J Nerv Ment Dis 1975;161:307-312.Crossref 82. McGlashan TH, Docherty JP, Siris S: Integrative and sealing-over recoveries from schizophrenia: Distinguishing case studies . Psychiatry 1976;39:325-338. 83. Meissner WW: The Paranoid Process . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1978. 84. McGlashan TH, Carpenter WT: Postpsychotic depression in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:231-239.Crossref 85. Fleck S: Some observations on the nature and value of psychotherapy with schizophrenic patients , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 55-63. 86. Walker JI, Brodie HK: Paranoid disorders , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1288-1300. 87. Bullard DM: Psychotherapy of paranoid patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1960;2:137-141.Crossref 88. Malin A, Grotstein JS: Projective identification in the therapeutic process . Int J Psychoanal 1966;47:26-31. 89. Leowald H: On the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis . Int J Psychoanal 1960;41:16-33. 90. Hoedemaker E: The therapeutic process in the treatment of schizophrenia . J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1955;1:89-109.Crossref 91. Hoedemaker E: Preanalytic preparation for the therapeutic process of schizophrenia . Psychiatry 1958;21:285-291. 92. Ekstein R: Vicissitudes of the 'internal image' in the recovery of a borderline schizophrenic adolescent . Bull Menninger Clin 1955;19:86-92. 93. Strachey J: The nature of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis . Int J Psychoanal 1934;15:127-159. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Intensive Individual Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia: A Review of Techniques

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 40 (8) – Aug 1, 1983

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-990X
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1598-3636
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10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790070099013
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Abstract

Abstract • I reviewed the substantial psychiatric literature on the technical strategies of intensive individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Numerous issues were covered: the nature of intensive psychotherapy and the nature of schizophrenia from the psychotherapist's point of view, elements of the treatment situation, general technical attitudes, general technical interventions (establishing a relationship, elucidating, tolerating, integrating, and working through), special technical interventions with specific symptoms and resistances, and a final brief discussion of mutative mechanisms. References 1. Freud S: Psychoanalytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia , in Strachey J (ed): Standard Edition of The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London, Hogarth Press, 1971, vol 12, pp 3-82. 2. Jung CG: The psychology of dementia praecox , in Brill AA (ed): Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs . New York, Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co, 1936, vol 3. 3. Meyer A: The evolution of the dementia praecox concept , in Winters EE (ed): Collected Papers . Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951, vol 2. 4. Sullivan HS: Schizophrenia as a Human Process . New York, WW Norton & Co Inc, 1962. 5. Fromm-Reichmann F: Principles of Intensive Psychotherapy . Chicago, Phoenix Books, 1967. 6. McGlashan TH: Psychotherapy and the DSM III schizophrenias . J Nerv Ment Dis 1982;120:752-757.Crossref 7. Mullahy PF: Harry Stack Sullivan , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 1, pp 748-774. 8. Schulz CG: An individual psychotherapeutic approach with the schizophrenic patient . Schizophr Bull 1975;1:46-69.Crossref 9. Pao P: Schizophrenic Disorders . New York, International Universities Press, 1979. 10. Orne M: Psychotherapy in contemporary America: Its development and context , in Arieti S (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry , ed 2. New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, vol 5, pp 3-33. 11. Karasu TB: Psychotherapies: An overview . Am J Psychiatry 1977; 134:851-863. 12. Will OA: Schizophrenia: Psychological treatment , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1217-1240. 13. Lidz T: The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1973. 14. Arieti S: Interpretation of Schizophrenia . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974. 15. Arieti S: An overview of schizophrenia from a predominantly psychological approach . Am J Psychiatry 1974;131:241-249. 16. Adler G: The psychotherapy of schizophrenia: Semrad's contributions to current psychoanalytic concepts . Schizophr Bull 1979;5:130-137.Crossref 17. Fromm-Reichmann F: Notes on the development of treatment of schizophrenics by psychoanalytic psychotherapy . Psychiatry 1948;11:263-273. 18. Bion WR: Second Thoughts . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1967, pp 36-42, 43-64, 93-109. 19. Searles HF: Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects . New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 521-559, 654-716. 20. Grotstein JS: The pscyhoanalytic concept of schizophrenia: I. The dilemma . Int J Psychoanal 1977;58:403-425. 21. GrotsteinJS: The psychoanalytic concept of schizophrenia: II. Reconciliation . Int J Psychoanal 1977;58:427-452. 22. Rosenfeld H: Notes on the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic states , in Chiland C (ed): Long-term Treatments of Psychotic States . New York, Human Sciences Press, 1977, pp 202-216. 23. Arieti S: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia: New or revised procedures . Am J Psychother 1980;34:464-476. 24. Hill LB: Psychotherapeutic Intervention in Schizophrenia . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1955. 25. Gedo JE, Goldberg A: Models of the Mind . Chicago, Phoenix Books, 1976. 26. Giovacchini P: Treatment of Primitive Mental States . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1979. 27. Fromm-Reichmann F: Remarks on the philosophy of mental disorder . Psychiatry 1946;9:293-308. 28. Fromm-Reichmann F: Psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 1954;111:410-419. 29. May PRA, Simpson GM: Schizophrenia: Overview of treatment methods , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1192-1216. 30. Rosenfeld H: Psychotic States . New York, International Universities Press, 1966, pp 155-168. 31. Rosenfeld H: On the treatment of psychotic states by psychoanalysis: An historical approach . Int J Psychoanal 1969;50:615-631. 32. Giovacchini P: Psychoanalytic treatment of character disorders , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 209-234. 33. London NJ: An essay on psychoanalytic theory: Two theories of schizophrenia: I. Review and critical assessment of the development of the two theories . Int J Psychoanal 1973;54:169-193. 34. Jacobs L: A cognitive approach to persistent delusions . Am J Psychother 1980;34:556-563. 35. Jacobs L: Cognitive therapy for schizophrenia in remission. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New Orleans, May 11, 1981. 36. Will OA: Schizophrenia: The problem of origins , in Romasin J (ed): The Origins of Schizophrenia . Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1967, pp 214-227. 37. Abelin E: Some further observations and comments on the earliest role of the father . Int J Psychoanal 1975;56:293-302. 38. Stanton AH: The significance of ego interpretive states in insightdirected psychotherapy . Psychiatry 1978;41:129-140. 39. Burnham DL, Gladstone AI, Gibson RW: Schizophrenia and the Need-Fear Dilemma . New York, International Universities Press, 1969. 40. Gunderson JG, Moser LR (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1975. 41. Gunderson JG: Individual psychotherapy , in Bellak L (ed): Disorders of the Schizophrenic Syndrome . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1979. 42. Lidz T: The developing guidelines to the psychotherapy of schizophrenia , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 217-226. 43. Day M, Semrad E: Schizophrenic reactions , in Nicholi A (ed): The Harvard Guide to Modern Psychiatry . Cambridge, Mass, Belknap Press, 1978, pp 199-241. 44. Schur M: The Id and the Regulatory Principles of Mental Functioning . New York, International Universities Press, 1966, p 21. 45. Boyer LB: Working with the borderline patient . Psychoanal Q 1977;46:386-424. 46. Bellak L, Loeb L: The Schizophrenic Syndrome . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1969, pp 343-377. 47. Gunderson JG: Patient-therapist matching: A research evaluation . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1193-1197. 48. Bellak L: Enabling conditions for the ambulatory psychotherapy of acute schizophrenics , in Karasu TB, Bellak L (eds): Specialized Techniques in Individual Psychotherapy . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1980, pp 76-84. 49. Boyer LB: Office treatment of schizophrenic patients: The use of psychoanalytic treatment with few parameters , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 129-170. 50. McGlashan TH: Aphanisis: The syndrome of pseudo-depression in chronic schizophrenia . Schizophr Bull 1982;8:118-134.Crossref 51. Karasu TB: General principles of psychotherapy , in Karasu TB, Bellak L (eds): Specialized Techniques in Individual Psychotherapy . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1980, pp 33-44. 52. Rako S, Mazer H (eds): Semrad: The Heart of a Therapist . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980. 53. Khantzian EJ, Dalsimer JS, Semrad EV: The use of interpretation in the psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Am J Psychother 1968;23:182-197. 54. Searles HF: The Nonhuman Environment . New York, International Universities Press, 1960. 55. Will OA: Comments on the 'elements' of schizophrenia, psychotherapy and the schizophrenic person , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TM, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 157-166. 56. Searles HF: Psychoanalytic therapy with schizophrenic patients in a private-practice context , in Countertransference . New York, International Universities Press, 1979, pp 582-602. 57. Will OA: Schizophrenia and psychotherapy , in Marmor J (ed): Modern Psychoanalysis . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1968, pp 551-573. 58. Will OA: Schizophrenia—psychological treatment , in Freedman AM, Kaplan HI (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1967, pp 649-661. 59. Thompson SV: Some considerations regarding psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy . Natl Assoc Priv Psychiatr Hosp 1981;12:34-39. 60. Knight R: Psychotherapy of an adolescent catatonic schizophrenic with mutism . Psychiatry 1946;9:323-341. 61. Burnham D: Varieties of reality restructuring in schizophrenia , in Cancro R (ed): The Schizophrenic Reactions: A Critique of the Concept, Hospital Treatment, and Current Research . New York, Brunner/Mazel Inc, 1970, pp 197-214. 62. Benedetti G: Individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia . Schizophr Bull 1980;6:633-638.Crossref 63. Rubins JL: Five-year results of psychoanalytic therapy and day care for acute schizophrenic patients . Am J Psychoanal 1976;36:3-26.Crossref 64. Ogden TH: On the nature of schizophrenic conflict . Int J Psychoanal 1980;61:513-533. 65. Arieti S: Individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia , in Arieti S (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry , ed 2. New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, vol 3, pp 627-651. 66. Eissler KR: Remarks on the psychoanalysis of schizophrenia , in Brody EG, Redlich FC (eds): Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics . New York, International Universities Press, 1952, pp 130-167. 67. Feinsilver DB: Transitional relatedness and containment in the treatment of a chronic schizophrenic patient . Int Rev Psychoanal 1980;7:309-318. 68. Wexler M: The structural problem in schizophrenia: The role of the internal object , in Brody EG, Redlich FC (eds): Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics . New York, International Universities Press, 1952, pp 179-201. 69. Rosen J: Direct Analysis . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1953. 70. Semrad EV: Long-term therapy of schizophrenia: Formulation of the clinical approach , in Usdin GL (ed): Psychoneurosis and Schizophrenia . Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co, 1966, pp 155-173. 71. Volkan V: Primitive Internalized Object Relations . New York, International Universities Press, 1976. 72. Eissler KR: Notes upon the emotionality of a schizophrenic patient and its relation to problems of technique . Psychoanal Study Child 1953;8:199-251. 73. Semrad EV, Zaslow SL: Assisting psychotic patients to recompensate . Ment Hosp (July) 1964, pp 361-366. 74. Grotstein J: Psychoanalytic therapy of schizophrenia , in West LF, Flinn DE (eds): Treatment of Schizophrenia: Progress and Prospects . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1976, pp 131-145. 75. Winnicott DW: The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment . New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 140-152. 76. Giovacchini P: Primitive agitation and primal confusion , in Boyer LB, Giovacchini PL (eds): Psychoanalytic Treatment of Schizophrenic, Borderline and Characterological Disorders . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1980, pp 301-340. 77. Segal H: Notes on the psychoanalytic treatment of psychotic states , in Chiland C (ed): Long-term Treatments of Psychotic States . New York, Human Sciences Press, 1977, pp 217-223. 78. Giovacchini P: The influence of interpretation upon schizophrenic patients . Int J Psychoanal 1969;50:179-186. 79. Stanton AH: Insight and self observation , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 131-144. 80. McGlashan TH, Levy ST, Carpenter WT: Integration and sealing over: Clinically distinct recovery styles from schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;32:1269-1272.Crossref 81. Levy ST, McGlashan TH, Carpenter WT: Integration and sealing over as recovery styles from acute psychosis: Metapsychological and dynamic concepts . J Nerv Ment Dis 1975;161:307-312.Crossref 82. McGlashan TH, Docherty JP, Siris S: Integrative and sealing-over recoveries from schizophrenia: Distinguishing case studies . Psychiatry 1976;39:325-338. 83. Meissner WW: The Paranoid Process . New York, Jason Aronson Inc, 1978. 84. McGlashan TH, Carpenter WT: Postpsychotic depression in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:231-239.Crossref 85. Fleck S: Some observations on the nature and value of psychotherapy with schizophrenic patients , in Strauss JS, Bowers M, Downey TW, et al (eds): Psychotherapy of Schizophrenia . New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 55-63. 86. Walker JI, Brodie HK: Paranoid disorders , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , ed 3. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 1288-1300. 87. Bullard DM: Psychotherapy of paranoid patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1960;2:137-141.Crossref 88. Malin A, Grotstein JS: Projective identification in the therapeutic process . Int J Psychoanal 1966;47:26-31. 89. Leowald H: On the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis . Int J Psychoanal 1960;41:16-33. 90. Hoedemaker E: The therapeutic process in the treatment of schizophrenia . J Am Psychoanal Assoc 1955;1:89-109.Crossref 91. Hoedemaker E: Preanalytic preparation for the therapeutic process of schizophrenia . Psychiatry 1958;21:285-291. 92. Ekstein R: Vicissitudes of the 'internal image' in the recovery of a borderline schizophrenic adolescent . Bull Menninger Clin 1955;19:86-92. 93. Strachey J: The nature of the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis . Int J Psychoanal 1934;15:127-159.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1983

References