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Intellectual Deterioration After Focal Brain Injury: A Test Validation Study

Intellectual Deterioration After Focal Brain Injury: A Test Validation Study Abstract Introduction Clinical observations and the more or less systematic use of various test methods have led to broadly defined concepts of the areas of mental functioning which are disturbed as a result of brain injury. Departing from these concepts many "brain injury tests" have been designed with the aim of diagnosing the existence of a brain injury or measuring the degree of intellectual deterioration in brain injury cases. The observation that the ability to solve problems on an "abstract level" is often highly impaired has been utilized for the construction of some tests, e.g., by Goldstein and Scheerer17 and Grassi.20 As memory disturbances of different kinds are often observed, memory tests have been used as diagnostic tools (see e.g., Wechsler,57 Morrow and Cohen39 and Knott, Bilodeau and Umberger33). Graham and Kendall,19 Benton,4 and others have described tests in which the patient is required References 1. Armitage, S. G.: An Analysis of Certain Psychological Tests Used for the Evaluation of Brain Injury , Psychol. Monograph 60:1-48, 1946.Crossref 2. Babcock, H., and Levy, L.: Revised Examination for Measuring the Efficiency of Mental Functioning , Chicago, Stoelting, 1940. 3. Bender, L.: A Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use, Res. Monograph No. 3, Amer. Orthopsychiatric Ass., 1938. 4. Benton, A. L.: The Revised Visual Retention Test: Clinical and Experimental Applications , Iowa City, The State University of Iowa, 1955. 5. Chapman, L., and Wolff, H. G.: The Cerebral Hemispheres and the Highest Integrative Functions of Man , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. 1:357-424, 1959.Crossref 6. Cochran, W. G., and Cox, G. M.: Experimental Designs , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950. 7. Cohen, J.: Factors Underlying Wechsler-Bellevue Performance of 3 Neuropsychiatric Groups , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 47:359-365, 1952.Crossref 8. Cronholm, B., and Blomquist, C.: Memory Disturbances After Electroconvulsive Therapy: 2. Conditions 1 Week After a Series of Treatments , Acta Psychiat. Scand. 34:18-25, 1959.Crossref 9. Cronholm, B., and Jonsson, I.: Memory Functions After Cerebral Concussion , Acta Chir. Scand. 113:263-271, 1957. 10. Cronholm, B., and Molander, L.: Memory Disturbances After Electroconvulsive Therapy: 1. Conditions 6 Hours After Electroshock Treatment , Acta Psychiat. Scand. 32:280-306, 1957.Crossref 11. Cronholm, B., and Ottosson, J. O.: Memory Functions in Endogenous Depression , Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 5:193-199, 1961.Crossref 12. Cronholm, B., and Schalling, D.: Measurement of Intellectual Performance After Brain Injury , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 137:87, 1959.Crossref 13. Cronholm, B., and Swensson, Å.: Några synpunkter på arbetsprövning och rehabilitering: Erfarenheter från Statens Arbetsklinik under åren 1955-1957 , Svensk. Läkartidn. 55:2033-2049, 1958. 14. Delay, J.; Pichot, P., and Perse, J.: Méthodes Psychométriques en Clinique , Paris, Masson et Cie, 1955. 15. Dencker, S. J., and Löfving, B.: A Psychometric Study of Identical Twins Discordant for Head Injury , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 122, 1958. 16. Dixon, W. J., and Massey, F. J.: Introduction to Statistical Analysis , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., 1957. 17. Goldstein, K., and Scheerer, M.: Abstract and Concrete Behaviour: An Experimental Study with Special Tests , Psychol. Monograph 53, No. (2) , 1941. 18. Gordan, K.: Instruktion för Grassi's kubsubstitutionstest , Stockholm, Skandinaviska Testförlaget AB, 1958. 19. Graham, F. K., and Kendall, B.: The Performance of Brain Damaged Cases on a Memory for Designs Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 41:303-314, 1946.Crossref 20. Grassi, J. R.: The Grassi Block Substitution Test for Measuring Organic Brain Pathology , American Lecture Series No. 149, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1953. 21. Gruvstad, M., and Kebbon, L.: Some Methodological Aspects of Psychological-Psychiatric Investigation of Traumatic Head Injuries , Acta Soc. Med. Upsal. 63:88-100, 1958. 22. Guilford, J. P.: Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw Hill, Book Co., Inc., 1950. 23. Hague, H. R.: An Investigation of Abstract Behaviour in Patients with Cerebral Vascular Accidents , Amer. J. Occup. Ther. 13:83-87, 1959. 24. Halstead, W. C.: Brain and Intelligence , Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1947. 25. Harris, P.: Validity of the Grassi-Fairfield Block Substitution Test in Differential Diagnosis , J. Consult. Psychol. 19:330, 1955.Crossref 26. Henrysson, S.: Applicability of Factor Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences , Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksells, International Booksellers, 1957. 27. Hirt, M.: An Evaluation of the Grassi Test for Organic Involvement , J. Clin. Psychol. 14:48-54, 1958.Crossref 28. Hunt, H. F.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 29. Hunt, H. F.: Testing for Psychological Deficit , in Brower, D., and Abt, L., Editors: Progress in Clinical Psychology I , 1:91-107, New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1952. 30. Husén, T.: CVB-skalan, Lund, Håkan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, 1949. 31. Klebanoff, S. G.: Psychological Changes in Organic Brain Lesions and Ablations , Psychol. Bull. 42:585-623, 1945.Crossref 32. Klebanoff, S. G.; Singer, J., and Wilensky, H.: Psychological Consequences of Brain Lesions and Ablations , Psychol. Bull. 51:1-41, 1954.Crossref 33. Knott, J. R.; Umberger, J. P., and Bilodeau, I. M.: The Application of an Experimental "Memory Battery" in the Psychiatric Clinic , J. Clin. Psychol. 8:355-361, 1952.Crossref 34. Kral, V. A.: The Amnestic Syndrome , Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol. 132:65-80, 1956.Crossref 35. Lunn, V.: Om Anvendelsen af Psykologiske Tests ved Analysen af det Organiske Demenssyndrom , Copenhagen, Ejnar Munksgaard a/s, 1950. 36. Meehl, P. E.: Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1954. 37. Meehl, P. E.: When Shall We Use Our Heads Instead of the Formula? J. Counsel. Psychol. 4:268-273, 1957.Crossref 38. Meehl, P. E., and Rosen, A.: Antecedent Probability and the Efficiency of Psychometric Signs, Patterns or Cutting Scores , Psychol. Bull. 52:194-216, 1955.Crossref 39. Morrow, R. S., and Cohen, J.: The Diagnostic Memory Scale I: Comparison of Brain Damaged Patients and Normal Controls , Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 14:241-246, 1952.Crossref 40. Ottosson, J. O.: Experimental Studies of Memory Impairment After Electroconvulsive Therapy , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 145:103-131, 1960.Crossref 41. Penfield, W., and Milner, B.: Memory Deficit Produced by Bilateral Lesions in the Hippocampal Zone , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 79:475-497, 1958.Crossref 42. Pichot, P.: Les Tests mentaux en psychiatrie , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1949. 43. Pichot, P.: Language Disturbances in Cerebral Disease: Concept of Latent Aphasia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 74:92-96, 1955.Crossref 44. Pichot, P.; Rennes, P., and Taver, G.: Quelques Considérations àpropos des tests D. 48 et vocabulaire , Rev. Psychol. Appl. 3:395-405, 1953. 45. Ptacek, J. E., and Young, F. M.: Comparison of the Grassi Block Substitution Test with the Wechsler-Bellevue in the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Damage , J. Clin. Psychol. 10:375-378, 1954.Crossref 46. Reitan, R. M.: The Comparative Effects of Brain Damage on the Halstead Impairment Index and the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale , J. Clin. Psychol. 15:281-285, 1959.Crossref 47. Russell, W. R.: Brain, Memory, Learning , London, The Oxford University Press, 1959. 48. Rylander, G.: Personality Changes After Operations on the Frontal Lobes , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 20, 1939. 49. Schalling, D.: Qualitative Changes in Vocabulary Test Performance After Lobotomy and Selective Frontal Operations , Acta Psychol. 13: 279-287, 1957.Crossref 50. Schalling, D., and Cronholm, B.: CVB-skalan i klinisk diagnostisk användning , Nord. Med. 59: 330-334, 1958. 51. Shapiro, M. B., and Nelson, E.: An Investigation of the Nature of Cognitive Impairment in Cooperative Psychiatric Patients , Brit. J. Med. Psychol. 28:239-256, 1955.Crossref 52. Sharp, A. A.: The Diagnostic Significance of a Visual Memory Drawing Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 44:517-527, 1949.Crossref 53. Shipley, W. C.: The Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale for Measuring Intellectual Impairment , Hartford, Conn., Hartford Retreat, 1940. 54. Snedecor, G. W.: Statistical Methods , Ed. 5, Ames, Iowa, The Iowa State College Press, 1956. 55. Wahler, H. J.: A Comparison of Errors Made by Brain-Damaged and Control Patients on a Memory-for-Designs Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 52:251-255, 1956.Crossref 56. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 3, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944. 57. Wechsler, D.: The Wechsler Memory Scale , New York, Psychological Corporation, 1945. 58. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 4, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958. 59. Williams, M., and Pennybacker, J.: Memory Disturbances in Third Ventricle Tumours , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 17:115-123, 1954.Crossref 60. Yates, A. J.: The Validity of Some Psychological Tests of Brain Damage , Psychol. Bull. 51:359-379, 1954.Crossref 61. Yates, A. J.: The Use of the Vocabulary in the Measurement of Intellectual Deterioration: A Review , J. Ment Sci. 102:409-440, 1956. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Intellectual Deterioration After Focal Brain Injury: A Test Validation Study

Archives of Surgery , Volume 86 (4) – Apr 1, 1963

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1963 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
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1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310100154025
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Clinical observations and the more or less systematic use of various test methods have led to broadly defined concepts of the areas of mental functioning which are disturbed as a result of brain injury. Departing from these concepts many "brain injury tests" have been designed with the aim of diagnosing the existence of a brain injury or measuring the degree of intellectual deterioration in brain injury cases. The observation that the ability to solve problems on an "abstract level" is often highly impaired has been utilized for the construction of some tests, e.g., by Goldstein and Scheerer17 and Grassi.20 As memory disturbances of different kinds are often observed, memory tests have been used as diagnostic tools (see e.g., Wechsler,57 Morrow and Cohen39 and Knott, Bilodeau and Umberger33). Graham and Kendall,19 Benton,4 and others have described tests in which the patient is required References 1. Armitage, S. G.: An Analysis of Certain Psychological Tests Used for the Evaluation of Brain Injury , Psychol. Monograph 60:1-48, 1946.Crossref 2. Babcock, H., and Levy, L.: Revised Examination for Measuring the Efficiency of Mental Functioning , Chicago, Stoelting, 1940. 3. Bender, L.: A Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Its Clinical Use, Res. Monograph No. 3, Amer. Orthopsychiatric Ass., 1938. 4. Benton, A. L.: The Revised Visual Retention Test: Clinical and Experimental Applications , Iowa City, The State University of Iowa, 1955. 5. Chapman, L., and Wolff, H. G.: The Cerebral Hemispheres and the Highest Integrative Functions of Man , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. 1:357-424, 1959.Crossref 6. Cochran, W. G., and Cox, G. M.: Experimental Designs , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950. 7. Cohen, J.: Factors Underlying Wechsler-Bellevue Performance of 3 Neuropsychiatric Groups , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 47:359-365, 1952.Crossref 8. Cronholm, B., and Blomquist, C.: Memory Disturbances After Electroconvulsive Therapy: 2. Conditions 1 Week After a Series of Treatments , Acta Psychiat. Scand. 34:18-25, 1959.Crossref 9. Cronholm, B., and Jonsson, I.: Memory Functions After Cerebral Concussion , Acta Chir. Scand. 113:263-271, 1957. 10. Cronholm, B., and Molander, L.: Memory Disturbances After Electroconvulsive Therapy: 1. Conditions 6 Hours After Electroshock Treatment , Acta Psychiat. Scand. 32:280-306, 1957.Crossref 11. Cronholm, B., and Ottosson, J. O.: Memory Functions in Endogenous Depression , Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 5:193-199, 1961.Crossref 12. Cronholm, B., and Schalling, D.: Measurement of Intellectual Performance After Brain Injury , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 137:87, 1959.Crossref 13. Cronholm, B., and Swensson, Å.: Några synpunkter på arbetsprövning och rehabilitering: Erfarenheter från Statens Arbetsklinik under åren 1955-1957 , Svensk. Läkartidn. 55:2033-2049, 1958. 14. Delay, J.; Pichot, P., and Perse, J.: Méthodes Psychométriques en Clinique , Paris, Masson et Cie, 1955. 15. Dencker, S. J., and Löfving, B.: A Psychometric Study of Identical Twins Discordant for Head Injury , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 122, 1958. 16. Dixon, W. J., and Massey, F. J.: Introduction to Statistical Analysis , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., 1957. 17. Goldstein, K., and Scheerer, M.: Abstract and Concrete Behaviour: An Experimental Study with Special Tests , Psychol. Monograph 53, No. (2) , 1941. 18. Gordan, K.: Instruktion för Grassi's kubsubstitutionstest , Stockholm, Skandinaviska Testförlaget AB, 1958. 19. Graham, F. K., and Kendall, B.: The Performance of Brain Damaged Cases on a Memory for Designs Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 41:303-314, 1946.Crossref 20. Grassi, J. R.: The Grassi Block Substitution Test for Measuring Organic Brain Pathology , American Lecture Series No. 149, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1953. 21. Gruvstad, M., and Kebbon, L.: Some Methodological Aspects of Psychological-Psychiatric Investigation of Traumatic Head Injuries , Acta Soc. Med. Upsal. 63:88-100, 1958. 22. Guilford, J. P.: Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw Hill, Book Co., Inc., 1950. 23. Hague, H. R.: An Investigation of Abstract Behaviour in Patients with Cerebral Vascular Accidents , Amer. J. Occup. Ther. 13:83-87, 1959. 24. Halstead, W. C.: Brain and Intelligence , Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1947. 25. Harris, P.: Validity of the Grassi-Fairfield Block Substitution Test in Differential Diagnosis , J. Consult. Psychol. 19:330, 1955.Crossref 26. Henrysson, S.: Applicability of Factor Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences , Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksells, International Booksellers, 1957. 27. Hirt, M.: An Evaluation of the Grassi Test for Organic Involvement , J. Clin. Psychol. 14:48-54, 1958.Crossref 28. Hunt, H. F.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 29. Hunt, H. F.: Testing for Psychological Deficit , in Brower, D., and Abt, L., Editors: Progress in Clinical Psychology I , 1:91-107, New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1952. 30. Husén, T.: CVB-skalan, Lund, Håkan Ohlssons Boktryckeri, 1949. 31. Klebanoff, S. G.: Psychological Changes in Organic Brain Lesions and Ablations , Psychol. Bull. 42:585-623, 1945.Crossref 32. Klebanoff, S. G.; Singer, J., and Wilensky, H.: Psychological Consequences of Brain Lesions and Ablations , Psychol. Bull. 51:1-41, 1954.Crossref 33. Knott, J. R.; Umberger, J. P., and Bilodeau, I. M.: The Application of an Experimental "Memory Battery" in the Psychiatric Clinic , J. Clin. Psychol. 8:355-361, 1952.Crossref 34. Kral, V. A.: The Amnestic Syndrome , Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol. 132:65-80, 1956.Crossref 35. Lunn, V.: Om Anvendelsen af Psykologiske Tests ved Analysen af det Organiske Demenssyndrom , Copenhagen, Ejnar Munksgaard a/s, 1950. 36. Meehl, P. E.: Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1954. 37. Meehl, P. E.: When Shall We Use Our Heads Instead of the Formula? J. Counsel. Psychol. 4:268-273, 1957.Crossref 38. Meehl, P. E., and Rosen, A.: Antecedent Probability and the Efficiency of Psychometric Signs, Patterns or Cutting Scores , Psychol. Bull. 52:194-216, 1955.Crossref 39. Morrow, R. S., and Cohen, J.: The Diagnostic Memory Scale I: Comparison of Brain Damaged Patients and Normal Controls , Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 14:241-246, 1952.Crossref 40. Ottosson, J. O.: Experimental Studies of Memory Impairment After Electroconvulsive Therapy , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 145:103-131, 1960.Crossref 41. Penfield, W., and Milner, B.: Memory Deficit Produced by Bilateral Lesions in the Hippocampal Zone , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 79:475-497, 1958.Crossref 42. Pichot, P.: Les Tests mentaux en psychiatrie , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1949. 43. Pichot, P.: Language Disturbances in Cerebral Disease: Concept of Latent Aphasia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 74:92-96, 1955.Crossref 44. Pichot, P.; Rennes, P., and Taver, G.: Quelques Considérations àpropos des tests D. 48 et vocabulaire , Rev. Psychol. Appl. 3:395-405, 1953. 45. Ptacek, J. E., and Young, F. M.: Comparison of the Grassi Block Substitution Test with the Wechsler-Bellevue in the Diagnosis of Organic Brain Damage , J. Clin. Psychol. 10:375-378, 1954.Crossref 46. Reitan, R. M.: The Comparative Effects of Brain Damage on the Halstead Impairment Index and the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale , J. Clin. Psychol. 15:281-285, 1959.Crossref 47. Russell, W. R.: Brain, Memory, Learning , London, The Oxford University Press, 1959. 48. Rylander, G.: Personality Changes After Operations on the Frontal Lobes , Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 20, 1939. 49. Schalling, D.: Qualitative Changes in Vocabulary Test Performance After Lobotomy and Selective Frontal Operations , Acta Psychol. 13: 279-287, 1957.Crossref 50. Schalling, D., and Cronholm, B.: CVB-skalan i klinisk diagnostisk användning , Nord. Med. 59: 330-334, 1958. 51. Shapiro, M. B., and Nelson, E.: An Investigation of the Nature of Cognitive Impairment in Cooperative Psychiatric Patients , Brit. J. Med. Psychol. 28:239-256, 1955.Crossref 52. Sharp, A. A.: The Diagnostic Significance of a Visual Memory Drawing Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 44:517-527, 1949.Crossref 53. Shipley, W. C.: The Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale for Measuring Intellectual Impairment , Hartford, Conn., Hartford Retreat, 1940. 54. Snedecor, G. W.: Statistical Methods , Ed. 5, Ames, Iowa, The Iowa State College Press, 1956. 55. Wahler, H. J.: A Comparison of Errors Made by Brain-Damaged and Control Patients on a Memory-for-Designs Test , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 52:251-255, 1956.Crossref 56. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 3, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944. 57. Wechsler, D.: The Wechsler Memory Scale , New York, Psychological Corporation, 1945. 58. Wechsler, D.: The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence , Ed. 4, Baltimore, The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1958. 59. Williams, M., and Pennybacker, J.: Memory Disturbances in Third Ventricle Tumours , J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 17:115-123, 1954.Crossref 60. Yates, A. J.: The Validity of Some Psychological Tests of Brain Damage , Psychol. Bull. 51:359-379, 1954.Crossref 61. Yates, A. J.: The Use of the Vocabulary in the Measurement of Intellectual Deterioration: A Review , J. Ment Sci. 102:409-440, 1956.

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1963

References

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