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Intellectual and Affective Functions in Multiple Sclerosis: A Quantitative Study

Intellectual and Affective Functions in Multiple Sclerosis: A Quantitative Study Abstract In 1943 Sugar and Nadell1 reviewed the literature concerning mental changes associated with multiple sclerosis. Their survey disclosed considerable disagreement regarding the question of intellectual loss. They said: Charcot and Dupre referred to progressive dementia characterized by defects of memory, hallucinations, markedly expansive moods.... Hunt and Kraeplin were of the opinion that this disease was accompanied by slight mental changes, and that in a large number of cases those psychical alterations were merely transitory. To our knowledge, estimates of intellectual impairment as a consequence of the disease, based upon clinical impressions, have varied from 2% (Cottrell and Wilson2) to 72% (Ombredane3). Although the procedure used by Ombredane did not provide a quantitative basis for group comparisons, he carefully studied 50 patients with multiple sclerosis and concluded that 36, or 72%, had very clear intellectual losses. He believed that the main loss was represented by difficulty in initiating References 1. References 10 and 11. 2. References 13 and 14. 3. References 15 and 16. 4. References 19 and 20. 5. References 22 through 27. 6. References 28 through 30. 7. References 31 through 37. 8. References 31 and 33. 9. Reitan, R. M.: Relationship to Certain Rorschach Variables to the Abstraction and Power Factors of Biological Intelligence, unpublished doctorate's thesis, University of Chicago, 1950. 10. Sugar, C., and Nadell, R.: Mental Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis: A Study of 28 Cases with Review of the Literature , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 98:267, 1943. 11. Cottrell, S. S., and Wilson, S. A. K.: Affective Symptomatology of Disseminated Sclerosis , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 7:1, 1926-1927. 12. Ombredane, A.: Les troubles mentaux de la sclérose en plaques , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1929. 13. Seiffer, W.: Über psychische, insbesondere Intelligenz störungen bei multiplen Sklerose , Arch. Psychiat. 40:252, 1905. 14. Duge: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psychosen bei der multiplen Sklerose des Gehirns und Rückenmarks , Deutsche Ztschr. Nervenh. 51:459, 1914. 15. Dana, C. L., and others, Editors: Multiple Sclerosis , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. , Vol. 2, 1921. 16. Brown, S., and Davis, T. R.: Mental Manifestations and the Emotional and Psychological Factors in Multiple Sclerosis , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 2:75, 1921. 17. Burgemeister, B., and Tallman, G.: Rorschach Patterns in Multiple Sclerosis , Rorschach Res. Exchange 9:111, 1945. 18. Harrower, M.: Mental Health and MS , New York, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, 1952. 19. Canter, A. H.: Direct and Indirect Measures of Psychological Deficit in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Gen. Psychol. 44:3, 1951. 20. Canter, A. H.: Direct and Indirect Measures of Psychological Deficit in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Gen. Psychol. 44:27, 1951. 21. Baldwin, M. V.: A Clinico-Experimental Investigation into the Psychological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 115:299, 1952. 22. Hunt, H. F.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 23. Hunt, H. F.: A Practical Clinical Test for Organic Brain Damage , J. Appl. Psychol. 27:375, 1943. 24. Meehl, P. E., and Jeffery, M. E.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage in Cases of Functional Depression , J. Appl. Psychol. 30:276, 1946. 25. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinovitz, A.: Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25, 1947. 26. Diers, W. C., and Brown, C. C.: Psychometric Patterns Associated with Multiple Sclerosis: I. Wechsler-Bellevue Patterns , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 63:760, 1950. 27. Wechsler, D.: Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944. 28. Halstead, W. C.: Brain and Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of the Frontal Lobes , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1947. 29. Goldstein, K.: Frontal Lobotomy and Impairment of Abstract Attitude , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 110:93, 1949. 30. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: Manual for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 31. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: I. Construction of the Schedule , J. Psychol. 10:249, 1940. 32. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: III. Measurement of Symptomatic Depression , J. Psychol. 14: 73, 1942. 33. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: II. A Differential Study of Hypochondriasis , J. Psychol. 10: 255, 1940. 34. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: IV. Psychasthenia , J. Appl. Psychol. 26:614, 1942. 35. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: V. Hysteria, Hypomania, Psychopathic Deviate , J. Appl. Psychol. 28:153, 1944. 36. Gough, H. E.: Diagnostic Patterns on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , J. Clin. Psychol. 2:23, 1946. 37. Beck, S. J.: Rorschach's Test: I. Basic Processes , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1944. 38. Beck, S. J.: Rorschach's Test: II. A Variety of Personality Pictures , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1945. 39. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D. M.: The Rorschach Technique , New York, World Book Company, 1942. 40. Piotrowski, Z.: The Rorschach Ink-Blot Method in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 86:525, 1937. 41. Harrower-Erickson, M. R.: Personality Changes Accompanying Cerebral Lesions: I. Rorschach Studies of Patients with Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 43:859, 1940. 42. Aita, J. A.; Reitan, R. M., and Ruth, J. M.: Rorschach's Test as a Diagnostic Aid in Brain Damage , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:770, 1947. 43. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual Functions in Aphasic and Non-Aphasic Brain Injured Subjects , Neurology 3:202, 1953. 44. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual Functions in Myxedema , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 69: 436, 1953. 45. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual and Affective Functions in Chronic Brucellosis , Am. J. Psychiat. 110:19, 1953. 46. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual and Affective Changes in Essential Hypertension , Am. J. Psychiat. 110:817, 1954. 47. Canter, A. H.: MMPI Profiles in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Consult. Psychol. 15:253, 1951. 48. Enzer, N.; Simonson, E., and Blankstein, S. S.: Reappearance of Flicker at High Flash Frequency in Patients with Brain Pathology and Normal Subjects , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 29:63, 1944. 49. Simonson, E., and Brozek, J.: Flicker Fusion Frequency: Background and Applications , Randolph Field, Texas, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, 1953. 50. Brunswik, E., and Reiter, L.: Eindruckscharaktere schematisierter Gesichter , Ztschr. Psychol. 142:67, 1937. 51. Halstead, W. C.: Biological Intelligence , J. Person. 20:118, 1951. 52. Reitan, R. M.: Investigation of the Validity of Halstead's Measures of Biological Intelligence , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 73:28, 1955. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Intellectual and Affective Functions in Multiple Sclerosis: A Quantitative Study

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1955.02330120067007
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Abstract

Abstract In 1943 Sugar and Nadell1 reviewed the literature concerning mental changes associated with multiple sclerosis. Their survey disclosed considerable disagreement regarding the question of intellectual loss. They said: Charcot and Dupre referred to progressive dementia characterized by defects of memory, hallucinations, markedly expansive moods.... Hunt and Kraeplin were of the opinion that this disease was accompanied by slight mental changes, and that in a large number of cases those psychical alterations were merely transitory. To our knowledge, estimates of intellectual impairment as a consequence of the disease, based upon clinical impressions, have varied from 2% (Cottrell and Wilson2) to 72% (Ombredane3). Although the procedure used by Ombredane did not provide a quantitative basis for group comparisons, he carefully studied 50 patients with multiple sclerosis and concluded that 36, or 72%, had very clear intellectual losses. He believed that the main loss was represented by difficulty in initiating References 1. References 10 and 11. 2. References 13 and 14. 3. References 15 and 16. 4. References 19 and 20. 5. References 22 through 27. 6. References 28 through 30. 7. References 31 through 37. 8. References 31 and 33. 9. Reitan, R. M.: Relationship to Certain Rorschach Variables to the Abstraction and Power Factors of Biological Intelligence, unpublished doctorate's thesis, University of Chicago, 1950. 10. Sugar, C., and Nadell, R.: Mental Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis: A Study of 28 Cases with Review of the Literature , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 98:267, 1943. 11. Cottrell, S. S., and Wilson, S. A. K.: Affective Symptomatology of Disseminated Sclerosis , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 7:1, 1926-1927. 12. Ombredane, A.: Les troubles mentaux de la sclérose en plaques , Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1929. 13. Seiffer, W.: Über psychische, insbesondere Intelligenz störungen bei multiplen Sklerose , Arch. Psychiat. 40:252, 1905. 14. Duge: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psychosen bei der multiplen Sklerose des Gehirns und Rückenmarks , Deutsche Ztschr. Nervenh. 51:459, 1914. 15. Dana, C. L., and others, Editors: Multiple Sclerosis , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. , Vol. 2, 1921. 16. Brown, S., and Davis, T. R.: Mental Manifestations and the Emotional and Psychological Factors in Multiple Sclerosis , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 2:75, 1921. 17. Burgemeister, B., and Tallman, G.: Rorschach Patterns in Multiple Sclerosis , Rorschach Res. Exchange 9:111, 1945. 18. Harrower, M.: Mental Health and MS , New York, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, 1952. 19. Canter, A. H.: Direct and Indirect Measures of Psychological Deficit in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Gen. Psychol. 44:3, 1951. 20. Canter, A. H.: Direct and Indirect Measures of Psychological Deficit in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Gen. Psychol. 44:27, 1951. 21. Baldwin, M. V.: A Clinico-Experimental Investigation into the Psychological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 115:299, 1952. 22. Hunt, H. F.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 23. Hunt, H. F.: A Practical Clinical Test for Organic Brain Damage , J. Appl. Psychol. 27:375, 1943. 24. Meehl, P. E., and Jeffery, M. E.: The Hunt-Minnesota Test for Organic Brain Damage in Cases of Functional Depression , J. Appl. Psychol. 30:276, 1946. 25. Aita, J. A.; Armitage, S. G.; Reitan, R. M., and Rabinovitz, A.: Use of Certain Psychological Tests in the Evaluation of Brain Injury , J. Gen. Psychol. 37:25, 1947. 26. Diers, W. C., and Brown, C. C.: Psychometric Patterns Associated with Multiple Sclerosis: I. Wechsler-Bellevue Patterns , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 63:760, 1950. 27. Wechsler, D.: Measurement of Adult Intelligence , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1944. 28. Halstead, W. C.: Brain and Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of the Frontal Lobes , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1947. 29. Goldstein, K.: Frontal Lobotomy and Impairment of Abstract Attitude , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 110:93, 1949. 30. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: Manual for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1943. 31. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: I. Construction of the Schedule , J. Psychol. 10:249, 1940. 32. Hathaway, S. R., and McKinley, J. C.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: III. Measurement of Symptomatic Depression , J. Psychol. 14: 73, 1942. 33. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: II. A Differential Study of Hypochondriasis , J. Psychol. 10: 255, 1940. 34. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: A Multiphasic Personality Schedule: IV. Psychasthenia , J. Appl. Psychol. 26:614, 1942. 35. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R.: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: V. Hysteria, Hypomania, Psychopathic Deviate , J. Appl. Psychol. 28:153, 1944. 36. Gough, H. E.: Diagnostic Patterns on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , J. Clin. Psychol. 2:23, 1946. 37. Beck, S. J.: Rorschach's Test: I. Basic Processes , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1944. 38. Beck, S. J.: Rorschach's Test: II. A Variety of Personality Pictures , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1945. 39. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D. M.: The Rorschach Technique , New York, World Book Company, 1942. 40. Piotrowski, Z.: The Rorschach Ink-Blot Method in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 86:525, 1937. 41. Harrower-Erickson, M. R.: Personality Changes Accompanying Cerebral Lesions: I. Rorschach Studies of Patients with Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 43:859, 1940. 42. Aita, J. A.; Reitan, R. M., and Ruth, J. M.: Rorschach's Test as a Diagnostic Aid in Brain Damage , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:770, 1947. 43. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual Functions in Aphasic and Non-Aphasic Brain Injured Subjects , Neurology 3:202, 1953. 44. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual Functions in Myxedema , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 69: 436, 1953. 45. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual and Affective Functions in Chronic Brucellosis , Am. J. Psychiat. 110:19, 1953. 46. Reitan, R. M.: Intellectual and Affective Changes in Essential Hypertension , Am. J. Psychiat. 110:817, 1954. 47. Canter, A. H.: MMPI Profiles in Multiple Sclerosis , J. Consult. Psychol. 15:253, 1951. 48. Enzer, N.; Simonson, E., and Blankstein, S. S.: Reappearance of Flicker at High Flash Frequency in Patients with Brain Pathology and Normal Subjects , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 29:63, 1944. 49. Simonson, E., and Brozek, J.: Flicker Fusion Frequency: Background and Applications , Randolph Field, Texas, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, 1953. 50. Brunswik, E., and Reiter, L.: Eindruckscharaktere schematisierter Gesichter , Ztschr. Psychol. 142:67, 1937. 51. Halstead, W. C.: Biological Intelligence , J. Person. 20:118, 1951. 52. Reitan, R. M.: Investigation of the Validity of Halstead's Measures of Biological Intelligence , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 73:28, 1955.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1955

References