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INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNICS FOR THE CLINICAL TESTING OF LIGHT SENSE: IV. SIZE OF PUPIL AS A VARIABLE FACTOR IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE LIGHT MINIMUM

INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNICS FOR THE CLINICAL TESTING OF LIGHT SENSE: IV. SIZE OF PUPIL AS A VARIABLE... Abstract It is generally recognized that with other factors constant the intensity of light incident on the retina varies with the size of the pupil and that consequently determinations of the sensitivity of the eye to light are influenced by the size of the subject's pupil. Opinions differ, however, both as to the proper method of controlling or correcting for this variable factor and as to the practical necessity for so doing in clinical studies of light sense. Troland1 in 1917 suggested the employment of a special unit of retinal brightness called the "photon," defined by him as "that intensity of stimulation which accompanies the use of a pupillary area of one square millimeter and an external stimulus surface brightness of one candle per square meter." In order to obtain the photon value of any given stimulus, the external brightness in millilamberts is multiplied by10 π times the area References 1. Troland, L. T.: The Measurement of Visual Stimulation Intensities , J. Exper. Psychol. 2:24-32, 1917.Crossref 2. Stiles, W. S., and Crawford, B. H.: The Luminous Efficiency of Rays Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 112:428-450, 1933.Crossref 3. Dziobek, W.: Der Stiles-Crawford Effekt und seine Bedeutung für die Photometrie , Licht 4:150-152, 1934. 4. Wright, W. D., and Nelson, J. H.: The Relation Between the Apparent Intensity of a Beam of Light and the Angle at Which the Beam Strikes the Retina , Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48:401-405, 1936.Crossref 5. Stiles, W. S.: The Luminous Efficiency of Monochromatic Rays Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points and a New Color Effect , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 123:90-118, 1937.Crossref 6. Goodeve, C. F.: Relative Luminosity in the Extreme Red , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.A 155:664-683, 1936.Crossref 7. Crawford, B. H.: The Luminous Efficiency of Light Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points and Its Relation to Brightness Threshold Measurements , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 124:81-96, 1937.Crossref 8. Troland, L. T.: The Theory and Practice of the Artificial Pupil , Psychol. Rev. 22:167-176, 1915.Crossref 9. Waite, J. H.; Derby, G. S., and Kirk, E. B.: The Light-Sense in Early Glaucoma, Particularly the Achromatic Scotopic Threshold at the Macula: A Preliminary Report , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 45:301-331, 1925. 10. Hecht, S., and Mandelbaum, J.: The Relation Between Vitamin A and Dark Adaptation , J. A. M. A. 112:1910-1916 ( (May 13) ) 1939.Crossref 11. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technics for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: III. An Apparatus for Studying Regional Differences in Light Sense , Arch. Ophth. 22:233-251 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref 12. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technics for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: II. Control of Fixation in the Dark-Adapted Eye , Arch. Ophth. 22:228-232 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNICS FOR THE CLINICAL TESTING OF LIGHT SENSE: IV. SIZE OF PUPIL AS A VARIABLE FACTOR IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE LIGHT MINIMUM

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 24 (2) – Aug 1, 1940

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1940 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1940.00870020050006
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract It is generally recognized that with other factors constant the intensity of light incident on the retina varies with the size of the pupil and that consequently determinations of the sensitivity of the eye to light are influenced by the size of the subject's pupil. Opinions differ, however, both as to the proper method of controlling or correcting for this variable factor and as to the practical necessity for so doing in clinical studies of light sense. Troland1 in 1917 suggested the employment of a special unit of retinal brightness called the "photon," defined by him as "that intensity of stimulation which accompanies the use of a pupillary area of one square millimeter and an external stimulus surface brightness of one candle per square meter." In order to obtain the photon value of any given stimulus, the external brightness in millilamberts is multiplied by10 π times the area References 1. Troland, L. T.: The Measurement of Visual Stimulation Intensities , J. Exper. Psychol. 2:24-32, 1917.Crossref 2. Stiles, W. S., and Crawford, B. H.: The Luminous Efficiency of Rays Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 112:428-450, 1933.Crossref 3. Dziobek, W.: Der Stiles-Crawford Effekt und seine Bedeutung für die Photometrie , Licht 4:150-152, 1934. 4. Wright, W. D., and Nelson, J. H.: The Relation Between the Apparent Intensity of a Beam of Light and the Angle at Which the Beam Strikes the Retina , Proc. Phys. Soc. London 48:401-405, 1936.Crossref 5. Stiles, W. S.: The Luminous Efficiency of Monochromatic Rays Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points and a New Color Effect , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 123:90-118, 1937.Crossref 6. Goodeve, C. F.: Relative Luminosity in the Extreme Red , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.A 155:664-683, 1936.Crossref 7. Crawford, B. H.: The Luminous Efficiency of Light Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points and Its Relation to Brightness Threshold Measurements , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 124:81-96, 1937.Crossref 8. Troland, L. T.: The Theory and Practice of the Artificial Pupil , Psychol. Rev. 22:167-176, 1915.Crossref 9. Waite, J. H.; Derby, G. S., and Kirk, E. B.: The Light-Sense in Early Glaucoma, Particularly the Achromatic Scotopic Threshold at the Macula: A Preliminary Report , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 45:301-331, 1925. 10. Hecht, S., and Mandelbaum, J.: The Relation Between Vitamin A and Dark Adaptation , J. A. M. A. 112:1910-1916 ( (May 13) ) 1939.Crossref 11. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technics for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: III. An Apparatus for Studying Regional Differences in Light Sense , Arch. Ophth. 22:233-251 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref 12. Sloan, L. L.: Instruments and Technics for the Clinical Testing of Light Sense: II. Control of Fixation in the Dark-Adapted Eye , Arch. Ophth. 22:228-232 ( (Aug.) ) 1939.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1940

References