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Inhibition of Immune Corneal Graft Rejection by Azathioprine (Imuran)

Inhibition of Immune Corneal Graft Rejection by Azathioprine (Imuran) Abstract Penetrating corneal homografts in vascularized rabbit corneas are regularly rejected if skin from the corneal donor is grafted to the corneal recipient.1-4 The delayed graft reaction and the similarity of the clinical picture in experimental and in human grafts point to a common immunological type of reaction. Corneal vascularization is required for the experimental immune rejection of corneal homografts;5-6 in its absence, even lamellar heterografts can remain clear indefinitely.6-7 One of the problems found in clinical cases of corneal homotransplantation is how to prevent the late corneal graft rejection (or graft sickness) when the transplant has been done in a vascularized host. To a certain extent, corticosteroids can prevent or diminish the reaction,6 but in most cases, they fail to prevent opacification of the transplant. The successful use of antimetabolites, especially 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its derivative azathioprine, in preventing the rejection of highly vascularized organs such References 1. Maumenee, A.E.: The Influence of Donor-Recipient Sensitization on Corneal Grafts , Amer J Ophthal 34:142, 1951. 2. Mueller, H., and Maumenee, A.E.: Considerations sur la maladie du greffon , Arch Ophthal 11:146, 1951. 3. Greaves, D.P.: Experimental Penetrating Keratoplasty , Coll Rep Inst Ophthal 7:135, 1954-1955. 4. Polack, F.M.: Histological and Histochemical Alterations in the Early Stages of Corneal Graft Rejection , J Exp Med 116:709, 1962.Crossref 5. Maumenee, A.E.: The Immune Concept: Its Relation to Corneal Homotransplantation , Ann NY Acad Med 59: 453, 1955.Crossref 6. Maumenee, A.E.: Clinical Aspects of the Corneal Homograft Reaction , Invest Ophthal 1:244, 1962. 7. Polack, F.M.; Smelser, G.K.; and Rose, J.: The Fate of Cells in Heterologous Corneal Transplants , Invest Ophthal 4:355, 1963. 8. Calne, R.Y.: The Rejection of Renal Homografts: Inhibition in Dogs by 6-Mercapto Purine , Lancet 1:417, 1960.Crossref 9. Zukowski, C.F., et al: The Prolongation of Functional Survival of Canine Renal Homografts by 6-Mercapto Purine , Surg Forum 11:470, 1960. 10. Calne, R.Y.: Inhibition of the Rejection of Renal Homografts in Dogs by Burroughs Wellcome 57, 322 , Surg Forum 12:118, 1961. 11. Calne, R.Y.: Inhibition of the Rejection of Renal Homografts in Dogs by Purine Analogs , Transplantation 28:65, 1961. 12. Cleasby, G.W., and Byland, S.S.: Modification of the Homograft Reaction in Corneal Transplantation: A Preliminary Report , Ann NY Acad Sci 120:802, 1964.Crossref 13. Robert, L.; Parlebas, J.; Poullain, N.; and Robert, B.: Protides of the Biological Fluids , H. Peeters (ed.), New York: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1964, vol II, p 109. 14. Murray, J.E., et al: Reversibility of the Kidney Homograft Reaction by Retransplantation and Drug Therapy , Ann NY Acad Sci 99:768, 1962.Crossref 15. Hitchings, G.H., and Elion, G.B.: Chemical Suppression of the Immune Response , Pharmacol Rev 15:365, 1963. 16. Berenbaum, M.C.: Effect of Cytotoxic Agent on Antibody Production , Nature 185:167, 1960.Crossref 17. Dixon, F.J., et al: Radiosensitive and Radioresistant Phases in the Antibody Response , J Immun 68:693, 1952. 18. Berenbaum, M.C.: The Action of Antimitotic Substances on the Immune Response , Path Biol 9:963, 1961. 19. Berenbaum, M.C.: The Effect of Cytotoxic Agents on the Production of Antibody to TAB Vaccine in the Mouse , Biochem Pharmacol 11:29, 1962.Crossref 20. Rundles, R.W., et al: Clinical and Hematological Study of 6 (1-Methyl-4-Nitro-5 Imidazolyl-Thio) Purine, (b.W. 57-322) and Related Compounds , Cancer Chemother Rep 14:99, 1961. 21. Elion, G.B.: Personal communication to the author. 22. Andre, J.A., et al: The Morphologic Responses of the Lymphoid System to Homografts. II. The Effect of Anti-Metabolites , Blood 19:334, 1962. 23. Borel, Y., and Schwartz, R.: Inhibition of Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity in the Rabbit by 6-Mercapto Purine , J Immunol 92:755, 1964. 24. Murray, J.E., et al: Kidney Transplantation in Modified Recipients , Ann Surg 156:337, 1962.Crossref 25. Starzl, T.E., et al: Problems in Renal Homotransplantation , JAMA 187:734, 1964.Crossref 26. Zukowski, C.F.: Canine Renal Homografts , JAMA 191:1017, 1965.Crossref 27. Kretschner, R.R., and Perez-Tamyo, R.: The Role of Humoral Antibodies in Reiection of Skin Homografts in Rabbits , J Exp Med 116:879, 1962.Crossref 28. Parks, J.J.; Howard, M.I.; Leibowitz, H.; and Maumenee, A.E.: A Transient Stage of Suspected Delayed Sensitivity During the Early Induction Phase of Immediate Corneal Sensitivity , J Exp Med 115:867, 1962.Crossref 29. Leibowitz, H., and Elliott, J.: Anti-Metabolite Suppression of Corneal Hypersensitivity , Arch Ophthal 73:94, 1965.Crossref 30. Pierce, J.C., and Varco, R.L.: Induction of Tolerance to a Canine Renal Homograft Homotransplant With 6-Mercapto Purine , Lancet 1:781, 1962.Crossref 31. Urrets-Zavalia, A., Jr.: Personal communication to the author. 32. Billingham, R.E., and Boswell, T.: Studies on the Problem of Corneal Homografts , Proc Royal Soc 141:392, 1953.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Inhibition of Immune Corneal Graft Rejection by Azathioprine (Imuran)

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 74 (5) – Nov 1, 1965

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1965 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1965.00970040685018
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Penetrating corneal homografts in vascularized rabbit corneas are regularly rejected if skin from the corneal donor is grafted to the corneal recipient.1-4 The delayed graft reaction and the similarity of the clinical picture in experimental and in human grafts point to a common immunological type of reaction. Corneal vascularization is required for the experimental immune rejection of corneal homografts;5-6 in its absence, even lamellar heterografts can remain clear indefinitely.6-7 One of the problems found in clinical cases of corneal homotransplantation is how to prevent the late corneal graft rejection (or graft sickness) when the transplant has been done in a vascularized host. To a certain extent, corticosteroids can prevent or diminish the reaction,6 but in most cases, they fail to prevent opacification of the transplant. The successful use of antimetabolites, especially 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its derivative azathioprine, in preventing the rejection of highly vascularized organs such References 1. Maumenee, A.E.: The Influence of Donor-Recipient Sensitization on Corneal Grafts , Amer J Ophthal 34:142, 1951. 2. Mueller, H., and Maumenee, A.E.: Considerations sur la maladie du greffon , Arch Ophthal 11:146, 1951. 3. Greaves, D.P.: Experimental Penetrating Keratoplasty , Coll Rep Inst Ophthal 7:135, 1954-1955. 4. Polack, F.M.: Histological and Histochemical Alterations in the Early Stages of Corneal Graft Rejection , J Exp Med 116:709, 1962.Crossref 5. Maumenee, A.E.: The Immune Concept: Its Relation to Corneal Homotransplantation , Ann NY Acad Med 59: 453, 1955.Crossref 6. Maumenee, A.E.: Clinical Aspects of the Corneal Homograft Reaction , Invest Ophthal 1:244, 1962. 7. Polack, F.M.; Smelser, G.K.; and Rose, J.: The Fate of Cells in Heterologous Corneal Transplants , Invest Ophthal 4:355, 1963. 8. Calne, R.Y.: The Rejection of Renal Homografts: Inhibition in Dogs by 6-Mercapto Purine , Lancet 1:417, 1960.Crossref 9. Zukowski, C.F., et al: The Prolongation of Functional Survival of Canine Renal Homografts by 6-Mercapto Purine , Surg Forum 11:470, 1960. 10. Calne, R.Y.: Inhibition of the Rejection of Renal Homografts in Dogs by Burroughs Wellcome 57, 322 , Surg Forum 12:118, 1961. 11. Calne, R.Y.: Inhibition of the Rejection of Renal Homografts in Dogs by Purine Analogs , Transplantation 28:65, 1961. 12. Cleasby, G.W., and Byland, S.S.: Modification of the Homograft Reaction in Corneal Transplantation: A Preliminary Report , Ann NY Acad Sci 120:802, 1964.Crossref 13. Robert, L.; Parlebas, J.; Poullain, N.; and Robert, B.: Protides of the Biological Fluids , H. Peeters (ed.), New York: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1964, vol II, p 109. 14. Murray, J.E., et al: Reversibility of the Kidney Homograft Reaction by Retransplantation and Drug Therapy , Ann NY Acad Sci 99:768, 1962.Crossref 15. Hitchings, G.H., and Elion, G.B.: Chemical Suppression of the Immune Response , Pharmacol Rev 15:365, 1963. 16. Berenbaum, M.C.: Effect of Cytotoxic Agent on Antibody Production , Nature 185:167, 1960.Crossref 17. Dixon, F.J., et al: Radiosensitive and Radioresistant Phases in the Antibody Response , J Immun 68:693, 1952. 18. Berenbaum, M.C.: The Action of Antimitotic Substances on the Immune Response , Path Biol 9:963, 1961. 19. Berenbaum, M.C.: The Effect of Cytotoxic Agents on the Production of Antibody to TAB Vaccine in the Mouse , Biochem Pharmacol 11:29, 1962.Crossref 20. Rundles, R.W., et al: Clinical and Hematological Study of 6 (1-Methyl-4-Nitro-5 Imidazolyl-Thio) Purine, (b.W. 57-322) and Related Compounds , Cancer Chemother Rep 14:99, 1961. 21. Elion, G.B.: Personal communication to the author. 22. Andre, J.A., et al: The Morphologic Responses of the Lymphoid System to Homografts. II. The Effect of Anti-Metabolites , Blood 19:334, 1962. 23. Borel, Y., and Schwartz, R.: Inhibition of Immediate and Delayed Hypersensitivity in the Rabbit by 6-Mercapto Purine , J Immunol 92:755, 1964. 24. Murray, J.E., et al: Kidney Transplantation in Modified Recipients , Ann Surg 156:337, 1962.Crossref 25. Starzl, T.E., et al: Problems in Renal Homotransplantation , JAMA 187:734, 1964.Crossref 26. Zukowski, C.F.: Canine Renal Homografts , JAMA 191:1017, 1965.Crossref 27. Kretschner, R.R., and Perez-Tamyo, R.: The Role of Humoral Antibodies in Reiection of Skin Homografts in Rabbits , J Exp Med 116:879, 1962.Crossref 28. Parks, J.J.; Howard, M.I.; Leibowitz, H.; and Maumenee, A.E.: A Transient Stage of Suspected Delayed Sensitivity During the Early Induction Phase of Immediate Corneal Sensitivity , J Exp Med 115:867, 1962.Crossref 29. Leibowitz, H., and Elliott, J.: Anti-Metabolite Suppression of Corneal Hypersensitivity , Arch Ophthal 73:94, 1965.Crossref 30. Pierce, J.C., and Varco, R.L.: Induction of Tolerance to a Canine Renal Homograft Homotransplant With 6-Mercapto Purine , Lancet 1:781, 1962.Crossref 31. Urrets-Zavalia, A., Jr.: Personal communication to the author. 32. Billingham, R.E., and Boswell, T.: Studies on the Problem of Corneal Homografts , Proc Royal Soc 141:392, 1953.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1965

References

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