Abstract During the last ten years most communities in the United States have experienced at least 11 outbreaks of influenza virus infections. Beginning with the last influenza A virus epidemic of the H2N2 (designates the major surface antigens of influenza A viruses, H for hemagglutinin and N for neuraminidase) (Asian) era in the winter of 1967-1968, we have been assaulted during almost every respiratory disease season with either influenza A or B viruses and on one or two occasions, depending on location, both viruses. Viruses of the influenza A/Hong Kong family (H3N2) first appeared in late 1968 and have produced epidemics with excess mortality on six occasions through the winter of 1976. Influenza B viruses have caused outbreaks in most localities during four different years, including the current one (1977). All of these epidemics produced notable morbidity in the pediatric age group and resulted in hospitalization of many children. References 1. Chanock RM, Parrott RH: Acute respiratory disease in infancy and childhood: Present understanding and prospects for prevention . Pediatrics 36:21-39, 1965. 2. Brandt CD, Margileth AM, Puig JR: Infectious disease epidemiology . Clin Proc Child Hosp DC 24:157-160, 1970. 3. Brandt CD, Kim HW, Arrobio JO, et al: Viruses and M pneumoniae associated with pediatric respiratory illness during 1970 . Clin Proc Child Hosp DC 27:239-241, 1971. 4. Brandt CD, Kim HW, Arrobio JO, et al: Respiratory viruses in infants and young children during 1971 . Clin Proc Child Hosp Natl Med Center 29:115-117, 1973. 5. Kim HW, Brandt CD, Arrobio JO, et al: Respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in infants and young children during 1972 . Clin Proc Child Hosp Natl Med Center 29:228-233, 1973. 6. Kim HW, Brandt CD, Arrobio JO, et al: Virus infections in respiratory disease patients during 1974 . Clin Proc Child Hosp Natl Med Center 32:56-58, 1976. 7. Schoenbaum SC, McNeil BJ, Kavet J: The swine-influenza decision . N Engl J Med 295: 759-765, 1976.Crossref 8. Jordan WS Jr, Denny FW Jr, Badger GF, et al: A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families: XVII. The occurrence of Asian influenza . Am J Hyg 68:190-212, 1958. 9. Davis LE, Caldwell GG, Lynch RE, et al: Hong Kong influenza: The epidemiologic features of a high school family study analyzed and compared with a similar study during the 1957 Asian influenza epidemic . Am J Epidemiol 92:240-247, 1970. 10. Klein JD, Collier AM, Glezen WP: An influenza B epidemic among children in day care . Pediatrics 58:340-345, 1976. 11. Serfling RE, Sherman IL, Houseworth WJ: Excess pneumonia-influenza mortality by age and sex in three major influenza A2 epidemics, United States, 1957-1958, 1960 and 1963 . Am J Epidemiol 86:433-441, 1967. 12. Dietzman DE, Schaller JG, Ray CG, et al: Acute myositis associated with influenza B infection . Pediatrics 57:255-258, 1976. 13. Linneman CC Jr, Shea L, Kauffman CA, et al: Association of Reye's syndrome with viral infection . Lancet 2:179-182, 1974.Crossref 14. Hochberg FH, Nelson K, Janzen W: Influenza type B-related encephalopathy: The 1971 outbreak of Reye's syndrome in Chicago . JAMA 231:817-821, 1975.Crossref 15. Corey L, Rubin RJ, Hattwick MAW, et al: A nationwide outbreak of Reye's syndrome: Its epidemiologic relationship to influenza B . Am J Med 61:615-625, 1976.Crossref 16. Johnson GM, Scurletis TD, Carroll NB: A study of 16 fatal cases of encephalitis-like disease in North Carolina children . NC Med J 24:464-473, 1963. 17. Schoenbaum SC, Coleman MT, Dowdle WR, et al: Epidemiology of influenza in the elderly: Evidence of virus recycling . Am J Epidemiol 103:166-173, 1976. 18. Gardner PS, McQuillin J: Rapid Virus Diagnosis: Application of Immunofluorescence . London, Butterworth & Co, 1974. 19. Langmuir AD, Henderson DA, Serfling RE: The epidemiological basis for the control of influenza . Am J Public Health 54:563-571, 1964.Crossref 20. United States Immunization Survey, 1975 , publication CDC 76-8221, US Dept of Health, Education and Welfare, 1976. 21. Elveback LR, Fox JP, Ackerman E, et al: An influenza simulation model for immunization studies . Am J Epidemiol 103:152-165, 1976.
American Journal of Diseases of Children – American Medical Association
Published: Jun 1, 1977