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Infant Botulism in 1931: Discovery of a Misclassified Case

Infant Botulism in 1931: Discovery of a Misclassified Case Abstract The identification in 1976 in California of infants with botulism (for references, see the companion article in this issue, p 586) prompted a review of state records of all 603 officially classified cases known to have occurred in California between 1899 and 1976. None of these cases occurred in an infant; the youngest case found was that of a 15-month-old child who became ill as part of a common-source outbreak of food-borne botulism. As part of our efforts to elucidate the pathogenesis of infant botulism, we noted that milk products have rarely been associated with food-borne botulism1 even though pasteurization does not kill Clostridium botulinum spores.2 Because milk is the principal food of infants, we therefore undertook in 1978 a further review of all reported food-borne botulism cases linked to milk products. One such case that occurred in California in 1931 was listed as "suspected botulism" in Dr References 1. Gangarosa EJ, Donadio JA, Armstrong RW, et al: Botulism in the United States, 1899-1969 . Am J Epidemiol 93:93-101, 1971. 2. Franklin JG: Spores in milk: Problems associated with UHT processing . J Appl Bacteriol 33:180-191, 1970.Crossref 3. Meyer KF, Eddie B: Sixty-five years of human botulism in the United States and Canada: Epidemiology and tabulations of reported cases 1899 through 1964 . George Williams Hooper Foundation, the University of California at San Francisco, 1965, p 75. 4. Meyer KF, Geiger JC: Some suggestions concerning the bacteriological diagnosis of human botulism . Public Health Rep 36:1313-1317, 1921.Crossref 5. Craig JM, Iida H, Inoue K: A recent case of botulism in Hokkaido, Japan . Japan J Med Sci Biol 23:193-198, 1970.Crossref 6. Fukuda T, Kitao T, Tanikawa H, et al: An outbreak of type B botulism occurring in Miyazaki Prefecture . Japan J Med Sci Biol 23:243-248, 1970.Crossref 7. Midura TF, Arnon SS: Infant botulism: Identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin in faeces . Lancet 2:934-936, 1976.Crossref 8. Dowell VR Jr, McCroskey LM, Hatheway CL, et al: Coproexamination for botulinal toxin and Clostridium botulinum: A new procedure for laboratory diagnosis of botulism . JAMA 238:1829-1832, 1977.Crossref 9. Pickett J, Berg B, Chaplin E, et al: Syndrome of botulism in infancy: Clinical and electrophysiologic study . N Engl J Med 295:770-772, 1976.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Infant Botulism in 1931: Discovery of a Misclassified Case

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1979.02130060020002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The identification in 1976 in California of infants with botulism (for references, see the companion article in this issue, p 586) prompted a review of state records of all 603 officially classified cases known to have occurred in California between 1899 and 1976. None of these cases occurred in an infant; the youngest case found was that of a 15-month-old child who became ill as part of a common-source outbreak of food-borne botulism. As part of our efforts to elucidate the pathogenesis of infant botulism, we noted that milk products have rarely been associated with food-borne botulism1 even though pasteurization does not kill Clostridium botulinum spores.2 Because milk is the principal food of infants, we therefore undertook in 1978 a further review of all reported food-borne botulism cases linked to milk products. One such case that occurred in California in 1931 was listed as "suspected botulism" in Dr References 1. Gangarosa EJ, Donadio JA, Armstrong RW, et al: Botulism in the United States, 1899-1969 . Am J Epidemiol 93:93-101, 1971. 2. Franklin JG: Spores in milk: Problems associated with UHT processing . J Appl Bacteriol 33:180-191, 1970.Crossref 3. Meyer KF, Eddie B: Sixty-five years of human botulism in the United States and Canada: Epidemiology and tabulations of reported cases 1899 through 1964 . George Williams Hooper Foundation, the University of California at San Francisco, 1965, p 75. 4. Meyer KF, Geiger JC: Some suggestions concerning the bacteriological diagnosis of human botulism . Public Health Rep 36:1313-1317, 1921.Crossref 5. Craig JM, Iida H, Inoue K: A recent case of botulism in Hokkaido, Japan . Japan J Med Sci Biol 23:193-198, 1970.Crossref 6. Fukuda T, Kitao T, Tanikawa H, et al: An outbreak of type B botulism occurring in Miyazaki Prefecture . Japan J Med Sci Biol 23:243-248, 1970.Crossref 7. Midura TF, Arnon SS: Infant botulism: Identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin in faeces . Lancet 2:934-936, 1976.Crossref 8. Dowell VR Jr, McCroskey LM, Hatheway CL, et al: Coproexamination for botulinal toxin and Clostridium botulinum: A new procedure for laboratory diagnosis of botulism . JAMA 238:1829-1832, 1977.Crossref 9. Pickett J, Berg B, Chaplin E, et al: Syndrome of botulism in infancy: Clinical and electrophysiologic study . N Engl J Med 295:770-772, 1976.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1979

References