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INDUCTION OF METRAZOL CONVULSIONS WITH THE PATIENT UNDER NITROUS OXIDE ANESTHESIA

INDUCTION OF METRAZOL CONVULSIONS WITH THE PATIENT UNDER NITROUS OXIDE ANESTHESIA Abstract It is common knowledge that apprehension, fear and panic are frequent accompaniments of metrazol shock therapy. This fear is produced by a series of subjective sensations experienced by the patient in the interval between the injection of the drug and the onset of the convulsion. Patients complain variously, stating that the sensation may simulate crushing of the chest, electrocution, bursting open of the head or impending death.1 These profound fear reactions produce a marked and understandable resistiveness in the patient, which is commonly of such degree that treatment must be suspended prematurely. An attempt to alleviate this resistiveness arising from severe fear reactions in the following 2 cases prompted me to induce metrazol convulsions with the patient under anesthesia. A white man aged 56, a machinist, who was suffering from severe and incapacitating melancholia of two years' standing, entered the Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati on Nov. 5, 1939 References 1. Low, A. A.; Sonenthal, I. R.; Blaurock, M. F.; Kaplan, M., and Sherman, I.: Metrazol Shock Treatment of the "Functional" Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:717 ( (April) ) 1938. 2. Postle, B.: Shock Therapy of Schizophrenia , Ohio State M. J. 34:410 ( (April) ) 1938. 3. Shapiro, H. D., and Freeman, W.: Shock Therapy (Insulin and Metrazol) in the Neuroses , M. Ann. District of Columbia 8:65 ( (March) ) 1939. 4. Starks, H. A.: Subjective Experiences in Patients Incident to Insulin and Metrazol Therapy , Psychiatric Quart. 12:699 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 5. Gillespie, J. E. O. N.: Cardiazol Convulsions: The Subjective Aspect , Lancet 1:391 ( (Feb. 18) ) 1939. 6. Neustatter, W. L., and Freeman, H.: The Prevention of Fear in Cardiazol Therapy , Lancet 2:1071 ( (Nov. 18) ) 1939. 7. Polatin, P.; Friedman, M. M., and Harris, M. H.: Vertebral Fractures Produced by Metrazol-Induced Convulsions , J. A. M. A. 112:1684 ( (April 29) ) 1939. 8. Schilder, P.: Notes on the Psychology of Metrazol Treatment of Schizophrenia , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 89:133 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 9. Lipschutz, L. S.; Cavell, R. W.; Leiser, R.; Hinke, E. N., and Ruskin, S. H.: Evaluation of Therapeutic Factors in Pharmacologic Shock , Am. J. Psychiat. 96:347 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 10. Meduna, L. V., and Friedman, E.: The Convulsive-Irritative Therapy of the Psychoses , J. A. M. A. 112:501 ( (Feb. 11) ) 1939. 11. Cook, L. C.: Has Fear Any Therapeutic Significance in Convulsion Therapy? J. Ment. Sc. 86:484 ( (May) ) 1940. 12. Cohen, L. H.: Therapeutic Significance of Fear in Metrazol Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 95:1349 ( (May) ) 1939. 13. Sands, D. E.: Insulin Premedication in Convulsion Therapy , Lancet 2: 250 ( (July 29) ) 1939. 14. Young, G. A.: Treatment of Psychoses by Insulin and Metrazol , Nebraska M. J. 23:383 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 15. Klaesi, cited by Cohen, L. H.: Observations on the Convulsant Treatment of Schizophrenia with Metrazol: A Report of Seven Cases , New England J. Med. 218:1002 ( (June 16) ) 1938. 16. Hauser, A.: Experiences with Convulsive Shock Therapy , M. Rec. & Ann. 34:464 ( (April) ) 1940. 17. Edlin, J. V., and Klein, E. S.: An Improvement in Convulsive Therapy with Metrazol by Premedication with Scopolamine Hydrobromide , Am. J. Psychiat. 97:358 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

INDUCTION OF METRAZOL CONVULSIONS WITH THE PATIENT UNDER NITROUS OXIDE ANESTHESIA

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 47 (2) – Feb 1, 1942

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1942 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1942.02290020039003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract It is common knowledge that apprehension, fear and panic are frequent accompaniments of metrazol shock therapy. This fear is produced by a series of subjective sensations experienced by the patient in the interval between the injection of the drug and the onset of the convulsion. Patients complain variously, stating that the sensation may simulate crushing of the chest, electrocution, bursting open of the head or impending death.1 These profound fear reactions produce a marked and understandable resistiveness in the patient, which is commonly of such degree that treatment must be suspended prematurely. An attempt to alleviate this resistiveness arising from severe fear reactions in the following 2 cases prompted me to induce metrazol convulsions with the patient under anesthesia. A white man aged 56, a machinist, who was suffering from severe and incapacitating melancholia of two years' standing, entered the Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati on Nov. 5, 1939 References 1. Low, A. A.; Sonenthal, I. R.; Blaurock, M. F.; Kaplan, M., and Sherman, I.: Metrazol Shock Treatment of the "Functional" Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:717 ( (April) ) 1938. 2. Postle, B.: Shock Therapy of Schizophrenia , Ohio State M. J. 34:410 ( (April) ) 1938. 3. Shapiro, H. D., and Freeman, W.: Shock Therapy (Insulin and Metrazol) in the Neuroses , M. Ann. District of Columbia 8:65 ( (March) ) 1939. 4. Starks, H. A.: Subjective Experiences in Patients Incident to Insulin and Metrazol Therapy , Psychiatric Quart. 12:699 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 5. Gillespie, J. E. O. N.: Cardiazol Convulsions: The Subjective Aspect , Lancet 1:391 ( (Feb. 18) ) 1939. 6. Neustatter, W. L., and Freeman, H.: The Prevention of Fear in Cardiazol Therapy , Lancet 2:1071 ( (Nov. 18) ) 1939. 7. Polatin, P.; Friedman, M. M., and Harris, M. H.: Vertebral Fractures Produced by Metrazol-Induced Convulsions , J. A. M. A. 112:1684 ( (April 29) ) 1939. 8. Schilder, P.: Notes on the Psychology of Metrazol Treatment of Schizophrenia , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 89:133 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 9. Lipschutz, L. S.; Cavell, R. W.; Leiser, R.; Hinke, E. N., and Ruskin, S. H.: Evaluation of Therapeutic Factors in Pharmacologic Shock , Am. J. Psychiat. 96:347 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 10. Meduna, L. V., and Friedman, E.: The Convulsive-Irritative Therapy of the Psychoses , J. A. M. A. 112:501 ( (Feb. 11) ) 1939. 11. Cook, L. C.: Has Fear Any Therapeutic Significance in Convulsion Therapy? J. Ment. Sc. 86:484 ( (May) ) 1940. 12. Cohen, L. H.: Therapeutic Significance of Fear in Metrazol Treatment of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 95:1349 ( (May) ) 1939. 13. Sands, D. E.: Insulin Premedication in Convulsion Therapy , Lancet 2: 250 ( (July 29) ) 1939. 14. Young, G. A.: Treatment of Psychoses by Insulin and Metrazol , Nebraska M. J. 23:383 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 15. Klaesi, cited by Cohen, L. H.: Observations on the Convulsant Treatment of Schizophrenia with Metrazol: A Report of Seven Cases , New England J. Med. 218:1002 ( (June 16) ) 1938. 16. Hauser, A.: Experiences with Convulsive Shock Therapy , M. Rec. & Ann. 34:464 ( (April) ) 1940. 17. Edlin, J. V., and Klein, E. S.: An Improvement in Convulsive Therapy with Metrazol by Premedication with Scopolamine Hydrobromide , Am. J. Psychiat. 97:358 ( (Sept.) ) 1940.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1942

References