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Induced Intravascular Thromboembolic Phenomena: Direct Observation in the Living Extracorporeal Eye

Induced Intravascular Thromboembolic Phenomena: Direct Observation in the Living Extracorporeal Eye Abstract OUR EXPERIMENTAL preparation, "The Living Extracorporeal Eye,"1,2 permits us to examine thromboembolic phenomena intravascularly under microscopic magnification in the microcirculation of a living organ. Additionally, the composition of the oxygenated arterial blood supply is under our control and not altered by feedback mechanisms triggered by neurogenic or blood-borne signals. In this paper we describe some of our initial attempts to define the sequence and components of thromboembolic phenomena obstructing the microcirculation. These include induced platelet aggregation, thrombin evolution produced by several techniques, and venous erythrothrombosis induced by intravascular hemagglutination. We have studied the influence of sodium heparin, sodium warfarin, and clinical dextran on these events. These phenomena are then related to the events observed when silicone-handled human blood without added anticoagulant is perfused intravascularly until clotting evolves spontaneously. Methods and Materials The living extracorporeal eye is a bovine eye enucleated immediately after slaughter. The ciliary artery is catheterized forthwith References 1. Seaman, A.J. et al: The Living Extracorporeal Eye , Scand J Clin Lab Invert 17( (suppl 84) ):101, 1965. 2. Lutcher, C.L.; Moffat, C.; and Seaman, A.J.: A New Technique for Studying the Microcirculation, abstracted , Clin Res 14:162, 1966. 3. Swank, R.L.: Alteration of Blood on Storage: Measurement of Adhesiveness of "Aging" Platelets and Leukocytes and Their Removal by Filtration ; New Eng J Med 265:728, 1961.Crossref 4. Hellem, A.J.: Demonstration of a Substance in Red cells Affecting the Adhesiveness of Blood Platelets , Proc VII Cong Intern Soc Hemat 2:791, 1958. 5. Gaarder, A., et al: Adenosine Diphosphate in Red Cells as a Factor in the Adhesiveness of Human Blood Platelets , Nature 192:531, 1961.Crossref 6. O'Brien, J.R.: Platelet Aggregation: I: Some Effects of the Adenosine Phosphates, Thrombin and Cocaine Upon Platelet Adhesiveness , J Clin Path 15:446, 1962.Crossref 7. Honour, A.J., and Mitchell, J.R.A.: Platelet Clumping in Injured Vessels , Brit J Exp Path 45:75, 1964. 8. Born, G.V.R., and Cross, M.J. The Aggregation of Blood Platelets , J Physiol 168:178, 1963. 9. Kaser-Glanzmann, R., and Luscher, E.F.: The Mechanism of Platelet Aggregation in Relation to Hemostasis , Thromb Diath Haemorrh 7:480, 1962. 10. Pickering, G.: Symposium on Cardiovascular Disease; Section of Neurology , Proc Roy Soc Med 52:540, 1959. 11. Pickering, G.: Pathogenesis of Myocardial and Cerebral Infarction: Nodular Arteriosclerosis , Brit Med J 1:517, 1964.Crossref 12. McBrien, D.J.; Bradley, R.D.; and Ashton, M.: The Nature of Retinal Emboli in Stenosis of the Internal Carotid Artery , Lancet 1:697, 1963.Crossref 13. Russel, R.W.R.: Observations on the Retinal Blood-Vessels in Monocular Blindness , Lancet 2:1422, 1961.Crossref 14. Mustard, J.R., et al: ADP Platelet Thrombosis, abstracted , J Clin Invest 43:1305, 1964. 15. Grette, K.: Studies on the Mechanism of Thrombin-Catalyzed Hemostatic Reactions in Blood Platelets , Acta Physiol Scand 56 ( (suppl 195) ): 1962. 16. Conner, W.E.; Hoak, J.C.; and Warner, E.D.: Massive Thrombosis Produced by Fatty Acid Infusion , J Clin Invest 42:860, 1963.Crossref 17. Botti, R.E., and Ratnoff, O.D.: The Clot-Promoting Effect of Soaps of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids , J Clin Invest 42:1569, 1963.Crossref 18. Davie, E.W., and Ratnoff, O.D.: Waterfall Sequence for Intrinsic Blood Clotting , Science 145:1310, 1964.Crossref 19. MacFarlane, R.G.: An Enzyme Cascade in the Blood Clotting Mechanism, and Its Function as a Biochemical Amplifier , Nature 202:497, 1964.Crossref 20. Seaman, A.J.; Lutcher, C.L.; and Moffat, C.: First Observations of Intravascular Blood Transfusion Reactions Studied With the Living Extracorporeal Eye, abstracted , Blood 26:882, 1965. 21. Seaman, A.J.; Lutcher, C.L.; and Moffat, C.: Intravascular Hemagglutination Observed in the Living Extracorporeal Eye , Blood , to be published. 22. Richardson, J.H.; Alderfer, H.H.; and Reid, J.D.: Response of Eye and Brain to Micro-emboli , Ann Intern Med 57:1013, 1962.Crossref 23. Ellis, C.J., et al: Medical Investigation of Retinal Vascular Occlusion , Brit Med J 2:1093, 1964.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Induced Intravascular Thromboembolic Phenomena: Direct Observation in the Living Extracorporeal Eye

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1967.00290240122010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract OUR EXPERIMENTAL preparation, "The Living Extracorporeal Eye,"1,2 permits us to examine thromboembolic phenomena intravascularly under microscopic magnification in the microcirculation of a living organ. Additionally, the composition of the oxygenated arterial blood supply is under our control and not altered by feedback mechanisms triggered by neurogenic or blood-borne signals. In this paper we describe some of our initial attempts to define the sequence and components of thromboembolic phenomena obstructing the microcirculation. These include induced platelet aggregation, thrombin evolution produced by several techniques, and venous erythrothrombosis induced by intravascular hemagglutination. We have studied the influence of sodium heparin, sodium warfarin, and clinical dextran on these events. These phenomena are then related to the events observed when silicone-handled human blood without added anticoagulant is perfused intravascularly until clotting evolves spontaneously. Methods and Materials The living extracorporeal eye is a bovine eye enucleated immediately after slaughter. The ciliary artery is catheterized forthwith References 1. Seaman, A.J. et al: The Living Extracorporeal Eye , Scand J Clin Lab Invert 17( (suppl 84) ):101, 1965. 2. Lutcher, C.L.; Moffat, C.; and Seaman, A.J.: A New Technique for Studying the Microcirculation, abstracted , Clin Res 14:162, 1966. 3. Swank, R.L.: Alteration of Blood on Storage: Measurement of Adhesiveness of "Aging" Platelets and Leukocytes and Their Removal by Filtration ; New Eng J Med 265:728, 1961.Crossref 4. Hellem, A.J.: Demonstration of a Substance in Red cells Affecting the Adhesiveness of Blood Platelets , Proc VII Cong Intern Soc Hemat 2:791, 1958. 5. Gaarder, A., et al: Adenosine Diphosphate in Red Cells as a Factor in the Adhesiveness of Human Blood Platelets , Nature 192:531, 1961.Crossref 6. O'Brien, J.R.: Platelet Aggregation: I: Some Effects of the Adenosine Phosphates, Thrombin and Cocaine Upon Platelet Adhesiveness , J Clin Path 15:446, 1962.Crossref 7. Honour, A.J., and Mitchell, J.R.A.: Platelet Clumping in Injured Vessels , Brit J Exp Path 45:75, 1964. 8. Born, G.V.R., and Cross, M.J. The Aggregation of Blood Platelets , J Physiol 168:178, 1963. 9. Kaser-Glanzmann, R., and Luscher, E.F.: The Mechanism of Platelet Aggregation in Relation to Hemostasis , Thromb Diath Haemorrh 7:480, 1962. 10. Pickering, G.: Symposium on Cardiovascular Disease; Section of Neurology , Proc Roy Soc Med 52:540, 1959. 11. Pickering, G.: Pathogenesis of Myocardial and Cerebral Infarction: Nodular Arteriosclerosis , Brit Med J 1:517, 1964.Crossref 12. McBrien, D.J.; Bradley, R.D.; and Ashton, M.: The Nature of Retinal Emboli in Stenosis of the Internal Carotid Artery , Lancet 1:697, 1963.Crossref 13. Russel, R.W.R.: Observations on the Retinal Blood-Vessels in Monocular Blindness , Lancet 2:1422, 1961.Crossref 14. Mustard, J.R., et al: ADP Platelet Thrombosis, abstracted , J Clin Invest 43:1305, 1964. 15. Grette, K.: Studies on the Mechanism of Thrombin-Catalyzed Hemostatic Reactions in Blood Platelets , Acta Physiol Scand 56 ( (suppl 195) ): 1962. 16. Conner, W.E.; Hoak, J.C.; and Warner, E.D.: Massive Thrombosis Produced by Fatty Acid Infusion , J Clin Invest 42:860, 1963.Crossref 17. Botti, R.E., and Ratnoff, O.D.: The Clot-Promoting Effect of Soaps of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids , J Clin Invest 42:1569, 1963.Crossref 18. Davie, E.W., and Ratnoff, O.D.: Waterfall Sequence for Intrinsic Blood Clotting , Science 145:1310, 1964.Crossref 19. MacFarlane, R.G.: An Enzyme Cascade in the Blood Clotting Mechanism, and Its Function as a Biochemical Amplifier , Nature 202:497, 1964.Crossref 20. Seaman, A.J.; Lutcher, C.L.; and Moffat, C.: First Observations of Intravascular Blood Transfusion Reactions Studied With the Living Extracorporeal Eye, abstracted , Blood 26:882, 1965. 21. Seaman, A.J.; Lutcher, C.L.; and Moffat, C.: Intravascular Hemagglutination Observed in the Living Extracorporeal Eye , Blood , to be published. 22. Richardson, J.H.; Alderfer, H.H.; and Reid, J.D.: Response of Eye and Brain to Micro-emboli , Ann Intern Med 57:1013, 1962.Crossref 23. Ellis, C.J., et al: Medical Investigation of Retinal Vascular Occlusion , Brit Med J 2:1093, 1964.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1967

References