Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Increased Platelet Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Patients With Bipolar Affective Disorders

Increased Platelet Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Patients With Bipolar Affective Disorders Abstract • Using the fluorescent indicator Fura 2, we measured the free intracellular calcium ion concentration in blood platelets of patients with untreated mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression; patients who had recovered from bipolar depression or mania; and age- and sex-matched controls. The baseline intracellular calcium ion concentration was significantly increased in platelets from patients with mania compared with controls. The free intracellular calcium ion concentration after stimulation with platelet-activating factor and thrombin was significantly higher in platelets of manic and bipolar depressed patients than in all other groups. The degree to which intracellular calcium ion concentration increased over baseline after stimulation was significantly lower in unipolar than in bipolar patients. These findings suggest that platelets of manic and depressed bipolar patients have a similar enhancement of intracellular calcium ion activity that is distinctly different from the decreased ability of platelets of unipolar patients to mobilize intracellular calcium in response to stimulation. References 1. References 15,16, 40, 45, 50, 57-59, 63, 65, 66. 2. Rasmussen H: The calcium messenger system: I . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1094-1101.Crossref 3. Dubovsky SL, Franks RD: Intracellular calcium ions in affective disorders: A review and an hypothesis . Biol Psychiatry 1983;18:781-797. 4. Snyder SH, Reynolds IJ: Calcium antagonist drugs: Receptor interactions that clarify therapeutic effects . N Engl J Med 1985;313:995-1002.Crossref 5. Cheung WY: Calmodulin plays a pivotal role in cellular regulation . Science 1980;207:19-27.Crossref 6. Rasmussen H: The calcium messenger system: II . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1164-1170.Crossref 7. DeLorenzo RS, Freedman SD, Yoke WB, Maurer SC: Stimulation of Ca2 + dependent neurotransmitter release and presynaptic nerve terminal phosphorylation by calmodulin and a calmodulin-like protein isolated from synaptic vesicles . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:1838-1842.Crossref 8. McGoon MD, Vliestra RE, Holmes DR, Osborn JE: The clinical use of verapamil . Mayo Clin Proc 1982;57:495-510. 9. Packer M, Frishman WH (eds): Calcium Channel Antagonists in Cardiovascular Disease . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1984, pp 343-349. 10. Alkon D, Kubota M, Neary JT, Naito S, Coulter D, Rasmussen H: Ckinase activation prolongs Ca2+ dependent inactivation of K+ currents . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;134:1245-1243.Crossref 11. Mendels J, Frazer A: Intracellular lithium concentration and clinical responses: Toward a membrane theory of depression . J Psychiatry Res 1973;10:9-18.Crossref 12. Heninger GR, Mueller PS: Carbohydrate metabolism in mania before and after lithium carbonate treatment . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1970;23:310-319.Crossref 13. Aranoff MS, Stone PH, Muller DE, Evens RG, Durell J: Effects of lithium salts on electrolyte metabolism . J Psychiatry Res 1971;8:139-159.Crossref 14. Mullins LJ, Brinley FJ: Calcium binding and regulation in nerve fibers , in Wasserman RH, Corradino RH, Caragoli E (eds): Calcium Binding Protein and Calcium Function . New York, North-Holland Publishing Co, 1977, pp 87-95. 15. Gutman D, Lichtenberg J, Cohen J, Boonyaviroj P: Increase and reduction of catecholamine release from adrenal medulla by liposomes loaded with various stimulants and inhibitors . Israel J Med Sci 1978;14:998-999. 16. Tsien RY, Rink TJ, Poenie M: Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ in individual small cells using fluorescence microscopy with dual excitation wavelengths . Cell Calcium 1985;6:145-157.Crossref 17. Rink TJ, Smith SW, Tsien RY: Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ in human platelets: Ca2+ thresholds and Ca-independent activation for shape-change and secretion . FEBS Lett 1982;148:21-26.Crossref 18. Waeber B, Brunner HR, Burckardt P, Gavras H: Hypertension in a patient with hypercalcemia . Arch Intern Med 1982;142:143-145.Crossref 19. Rojdmark S: Effect of verapamil on insulin response to alcohol hypoglycemia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism . Diabetes 1979;28:20-25.Crossref 20. Carman JS, Post RM, Runkle DC, et al: Increased serum calcium and phosphorus with the 'switch' into manic or excited psychotic states . Br J Psychiatry 1979;135:55-61.Crossref 21. Carman JS, Wyatt ES, Smith W, Post RM, Ballenger JC: Calcium and calcitonin in bipolar affective disorder , in Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds): Neurobiology of Mood Disorders . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 340-355. 22. Cheung JY, Bonventre JV, Malis CD, Leaf A: Calcium and ischemic injury . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1670-1676.Crossref 23. Thorn NA, Russel JT, Robinson IC: Factors affecting intracellular concentrations of free calcium ions in neurosecretory nerve endings , in Carafoli E, Clementi F, Drabikowski W (eds): Calcium Transport in Contraction and Secretion . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1975, pp 261-269. 24. Berridge MJ: Inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers . Biochem J 1984;220:345-360. 25. Franks RD, Dubovsky SL, Lifschitz ML, Coen P, Subryan V, Walker S: Long-term lithium carbonate therapy causes hyperparathyroidism . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1074-1077.Crossref 26. Flamant MF, Rapaport JL, Murphy DL, Berg CJ, Lake CR: Biochemical changes during clomipramine treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:219-225.Crossref 27. Gould RJ, Murphy KMM, Reynolds IJ, Snyder SH: Antischizophrenic drugs of the diphenylbutylpiperidine type act as calcium channel antagonists . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:5122-5124.Crossref 28. Greenberg DA: Calcium channels and calcium channel antagonists . Ann Neurol 1987;21:317-330.Crossref 29. Dubovsky SL, Franks RD, Allen S, Murphy J: Calcium antagonists in mania: A double-blind study of verapamil . Psychiatry Res 1986;18:309-320.Crossref 30. Giannini AJ, Houser WL, Loiselle RH, Giannini M, Price WA: Antimanic effects of verapamil . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1602-1603. 31. Hoschl C, Blahos J, Kabes J: The use of calcium channel blockers in psychiatry , in Shagass CE, Josiassen RC, Bridger WH, et al (eds): Biological Psychiatry 1985 . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1986, pp 330-332. 32. Pollack MH, Rosenbaum JF: Verapamil in the treatment of recurrent unipolar depression . Biol Psychiatry 1987;22:779-782.Crossref 33. Grynkyewicz G, Poenie M, Tsien RY: A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties . J Biol Chem 1985;260:3440-3450. 34. Highsmith S, Bloebaum P, Snowdowne KW: Sarcoplasmic reticulum interacts with the Ca2+ indicator precursor Fura-2-AM . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;138:1153-1162.Crossref 35. Malagoroli A, Milani D, Meldolesi J, Pozzan T: Fura-2 measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ in monolayers and suspensions of various types of animal cells . J Cell Biol 1987;105:2145-2155.Crossref 36. Poenie M, Alderton J, Tsien RY, Steinhardt RA: Changes of free calcium levels with stages of the cell division cycle . Nature 1985;315:147-149.Crossref 37. Rink TJ: Measurement of cytosolic calcium: Fluorescent calcium indicators . Miner Electrolyte Metab 1988;14:7-14. 38. Sneddon JM: Blood platelets as a model for monamine-containing neurons . Prog Neurobiol 1973;1:151-198.Crossref 39. Pletcher A: Platelets as models for monaminergic neurons , in Youdim MBH, Lovenberg W, Sharman DF, Lagnado JR (eds): Essays in Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology . New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1978, vol 3, pp 49-102. 40. Sage SO, Rink TJ: Effects of ionic substitution on [Ca2 + ]i rises evoked by thromin and PAF in human platelets . Eur J Pharmacol 1986;128:99-107.Crossref 41. Doyle VM, Ruegg UR: Lack of evidence for voltage dependent calcium channels on platelets . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1985;127:161-167.Crossref 42. Hallam TJ, Thompson NT, Scrutton MC, Rink TJ: The role of cytoplasmic free calcium in the responses of Quin2 loaded human platelets to vasopressin . Biochem J 1984;221:897-901. 43. Young WE: Human monoamine oxidase: Lack of brain and platelet correlation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:604-609.Crossref 44. Stahl SM: The human platelet: A diagnostic and research tool for the study of biogenic amines in psychiatric and neurologic disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:509-516.Crossref 45. Paul SM, Rehavi M, Rice KC, Ittah Y, Skolnick P: Does high-affinity 3Himipramine binding label serotonin reuptake sites in brain and platelet? Life Sci 1981;28:2753-2760.Crossref 46. Erne P, Bolli P, Burgisser E, Buhler FR: Correlation of platelet calcium with blood pressure: Effect of antihypertensive therapy . N Engl J Med 1984;310:1084-1088.Crossref 47. Piletz JE, Schubert DSP, Halaris A: Evaluation of studies on platelet alpha2 adrenoreceptors in depressive illness . Life Sci 1986;39:1589-1616.Crossref 48. Rittenhouse SE: Inositol lipid metabolism in the responses of stimulated platelets . Cell Calcium 1982;3:311-322.Crossref 49. Bowden CL, Huang LG, Javors MA, Johnson JM, Seleshi E, McIntyre K, Contreras S, Maas JW: Calcium function in affective disorders and healthy controls . Biol Psychiatry 1988;23:367-376.Crossref 50. O'Rourke FA, Halenda SP, Zavacco GB, Feinstein MB: Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate releases Ca2 + from a Ca2 + -transporting membrane vesicle fraction derived from human platelets . J Biol Chem 1985;260:956-962. 51. Avdonin PV, Cheglakov IB, Boogry EM, Svitina-Ultina IV, Mazaev AV, Tkachuk VA: Evidence for the receptor-operated calcium channels . Thrombosis Res 1987;46:29-37.Crossref 52. Sandler M, Reveley M, Glover V: Human platelet monamine oxidase activity in health and disease: A review . J Clin Pathol 1981;34:292-302.Crossref 53. Kanof PD, Coccaro EF, Johns CA, Siever LJ, Davis KL: Platelet [3H] imipramine binding in psychiatric disorders . Biol Psychiatry 1987;22:278-286.Crossref 54. Baron M, Barkai A, Gruen R, Peselow E, Fieve RR, Quitkin F: Platelet [3H] imipramine binding in affective disorders: Trait vs state characteristics . Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:711-717. 55. Tofler GH, Brezinski D, Schafer AI, Czeisler CA, Rutherford JD, Willich SN, Gleason RE, Williams GL, Muller JE: Concurrent morning increase in platelet aggregability and the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death . N Engl J Med 1987;316:1514-1518.Crossref 56. Rink TJ, Sanchez A, Hallem TJ: Diacylglycerol and phorbol ester stimulate secretion without raising cytoplasmic free calcium in human platelets . Nature 1983;305:317-319.Crossref 57. Ware JA, Smith M, Salzman EW: Synergism of platelet-aggregating agents . J Clin Invest 1987;80:267-271.Crossref 58. Sage SO, Rink TJ: Kinetic differences between thrombin-induced and ADP-induced calcium influx and release from internal stores in Fura-2 loaded human platelets . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;136:1124-1129.Crossref 59. Rao GHR, Peller JD, White JG: Measurement of ionized calcium in blood platelets with a new generation calcium indicator . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1985;132:652-657.Crossref 60. Pollock WK, Rink TJ: Thrombin and ionomycin can raise platelet cytosolic Ca2 + to micromolar levels by discharge of internal Ca2 + stores: Studies using Fura-2 . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;139:308-314.Crossref 61. Knight DE, Kesteven NT: Evoked transient intracellular free Ca2 + changes and secretion in isolated bovine adrenal medullary cells . Proc R Soc Lond Biol 1983;218:177-199.Crossref 62. Rink TJ, Pozzan T: Using Quin 2 in cell suspensions . Cell Calcium 1985;6:133-144.Crossref 63. Lechi A, Lechi C, Bonadonna G, Sinigaglia D, Corradini P, Polignano R, Arosio E, Covi G, Togni PD: Increased basal and thrombin-induced free calcium in platelets of essential hypertensive patients . Hypertension 1987;9:230-235.Crossref 64. Hallam TJ, Sanchez A, Rink TJ: Stimulus-response coupling in human platelets . Biochem J 1984;218:819-827. 65. Pollock WK, Sage SO, Rink TJ: Stimulation of Ca2 + efflux from fura-2-loaded platelets activated by thrombin or phorbol myristate acetate . FEBS Lett 1987;210:132-136.Crossref 66. Haller H, Lenz T, Ludersdorf M et al: Platelet intracellular free calcium during dynamic exercise . Am J Nephrol 1986;6( (suppl 1) ):57-59.Crossref 67. Erne P, Buhler FR, Affotter H, Burgisser E: Excitatory and inhibitory modulation of intracellular free calcium in human platelets by hormones and drugs . Eur J Pharmacol 1983;91:331-332.Crossref 68. Sang KHLQ, Laude D, Devynck M-A: Platelet cytosolic free Ca2 + concentration and serotonin (5HT) content in essential hypertension . J Hypertens 1987;5:237-240.Crossref 69. Drummond AH: Bidirectional control of cytosolic free calcium by thyrotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary cells . Nature 1985;315:752-755.Crossref 70. Lindner A, Kenny M, Meacham AJ: Effects of a circulating factor in patients with essential hypertension on intracellular free calcium in normal platelets . N Engl J Med 1987;316:509-513.Crossref 71. Muscettola G, DiLauro A, Giannini CP: Platelet 3H-imipramine binding in depressed patients . Psychiatry Res 1986;18:343-353.Crossref 72. Linnoila M, MacDonald E, Reinila M, Leroy A, Rubinow DR, Goodwin FK: Red blood cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in patients with major affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:1021-1026.Crossref 73. Choi SJ, Taylor MA, Abrams R: Depression, ECT and erythrocyte adensosine-triphosphatase activity . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:75-81. 74. Rybakowski J, Potok E, Strzyzewski W: Erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in patients with endogenous depression and healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Invest 1981;11:61-64.Crossref 75. Meltzer HL, Kassir S: Abnormal calmodulin-activated CaATPase in manic-depressive subjects . J Psychiatr Res 1983;17:29-35.Crossref 76. Meltzer HL: Lithium mechanisms in bipolar illness and altered intracellular calcium functions . Biol Psychiatry 1986;21:492-510.Crossref 77. Landowski J, Lysiak W, Angielski S: Monoamine oxidase activity in blood platelets from patients with cyclophrenic depressive syndromes . Biochem Med 1975;14:347-354.Crossref 78. Coryell W, Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Keller M: The significance of past mania or hypomania in the course and outcome of major depression . Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:309-315. 79. MacDonald E, Rubinow D, Linnoila M: Sensitivity of RBC membrane Ca2 + -adensosine triphosphatase to calmodulin stimulation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:487-493.Crossref 80. Siever LJ, Davis KL: Overview: Toward a dysregulation hypothesis of depression . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1017-1031. 81. Golden RN, Markey SP, Risby ED, Rudorfer MV, Cowdry RW, Potter WZ: Antidepressants reduce whole-body norepinephrine turnover while enhancing 6-hydroxymelatonin output . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:150-154.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Increased Platelet Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Patients With Bipolar Affective Disorders

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/increased-platelet-intracellular-calcium-concentration-in-patients-MgDF086Chq
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1989 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810070058010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Using the fluorescent indicator Fura 2, we measured the free intracellular calcium ion concentration in blood platelets of patients with untreated mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression; patients who had recovered from bipolar depression or mania; and age- and sex-matched controls. The baseline intracellular calcium ion concentration was significantly increased in platelets from patients with mania compared with controls. The free intracellular calcium ion concentration after stimulation with platelet-activating factor and thrombin was significantly higher in platelets of manic and bipolar depressed patients than in all other groups. The degree to which intracellular calcium ion concentration increased over baseline after stimulation was significantly lower in unipolar than in bipolar patients. These findings suggest that platelets of manic and depressed bipolar patients have a similar enhancement of intracellular calcium ion activity that is distinctly different from the decreased ability of platelets of unipolar patients to mobilize intracellular calcium in response to stimulation. References 1. References 15,16, 40, 45, 50, 57-59, 63, 65, 66. 2. Rasmussen H: The calcium messenger system: I . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1094-1101.Crossref 3. Dubovsky SL, Franks RD: Intracellular calcium ions in affective disorders: A review and an hypothesis . Biol Psychiatry 1983;18:781-797. 4. Snyder SH, Reynolds IJ: Calcium antagonist drugs: Receptor interactions that clarify therapeutic effects . N Engl J Med 1985;313:995-1002.Crossref 5. Cheung WY: Calmodulin plays a pivotal role in cellular regulation . Science 1980;207:19-27.Crossref 6. Rasmussen H: The calcium messenger system: II . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1164-1170.Crossref 7. DeLorenzo RS, Freedman SD, Yoke WB, Maurer SC: Stimulation of Ca2 + dependent neurotransmitter release and presynaptic nerve terminal phosphorylation by calmodulin and a calmodulin-like protein isolated from synaptic vesicles . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:1838-1842.Crossref 8. McGoon MD, Vliestra RE, Holmes DR, Osborn JE: The clinical use of verapamil . Mayo Clin Proc 1982;57:495-510. 9. Packer M, Frishman WH (eds): Calcium Channel Antagonists in Cardiovascular Disease . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1984, pp 343-349. 10. Alkon D, Kubota M, Neary JT, Naito S, Coulter D, Rasmussen H: Ckinase activation prolongs Ca2+ dependent inactivation of K+ currents . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;134:1245-1243.Crossref 11. Mendels J, Frazer A: Intracellular lithium concentration and clinical responses: Toward a membrane theory of depression . J Psychiatry Res 1973;10:9-18.Crossref 12. Heninger GR, Mueller PS: Carbohydrate metabolism in mania before and after lithium carbonate treatment . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1970;23:310-319.Crossref 13. Aranoff MS, Stone PH, Muller DE, Evens RG, Durell J: Effects of lithium salts on electrolyte metabolism . J Psychiatry Res 1971;8:139-159.Crossref 14. Mullins LJ, Brinley FJ: Calcium binding and regulation in nerve fibers , in Wasserman RH, Corradino RH, Caragoli E (eds): Calcium Binding Protein and Calcium Function . New York, North-Holland Publishing Co, 1977, pp 87-95. 15. Gutman D, Lichtenberg J, Cohen J, Boonyaviroj P: Increase and reduction of catecholamine release from adrenal medulla by liposomes loaded with various stimulants and inhibitors . Israel J Med Sci 1978;14:998-999. 16. Tsien RY, Rink TJ, Poenie M: Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ in individual small cells using fluorescence microscopy with dual excitation wavelengths . Cell Calcium 1985;6:145-157.Crossref 17. Rink TJ, Smith SW, Tsien RY: Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ in human platelets: Ca2+ thresholds and Ca-independent activation for shape-change and secretion . FEBS Lett 1982;148:21-26.Crossref 18. Waeber B, Brunner HR, Burckardt P, Gavras H: Hypertension in a patient with hypercalcemia . Arch Intern Med 1982;142:143-145.Crossref 19. Rojdmark S: Effect of verapamil on insulin response to alcohol hypoglycemia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism . Diabetes 1979;28:20-25.Crossref 20. Carman JS, Post RM, Runkle DC, et al: Increased serum calcium and phosphorus with the 'switch' into manic or excited psychotic states . Br J Psychiatry 1979;135:55-61.Crossref 21. Carman JS, Wyatt ES, Smith W, Post RM, Ballenger JC: Calcium and calcitonin in bipolar affective disorder , in Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds): Neurobiology of Mood Disorders . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 340-355. 22. Cheung JY, Bonventre JV, Malis CD, Leaf A: Calcium and ischemic injury . N Engl J Med 1986;314:1670-1676.Crossref 23. Thorn NA, Russel JT, Robinson IC: Factors affecting intracellular concentrations of free calcium ions in neurosecretory nerve endings , in Carafoli E, Clementi F, Drabikowski W (eds): Calcium Transport in Contraction and Secretion . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1975, pp 261-269. 24. Berridge MJ: Inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers . Biochem J 1984;220:345-360. 25. Franks RD, Dubovsky SL, Lifschitz ML, Coen P, Subryan V, Walker S: Long-term lithium carbonate therapy causes hyperparathyroidism . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:1074-1077.Crossref 26. Flamant MF, Rapaport JL, Murphy DL, Berg CJ, Lake CR: Biochemical changes during clomipramine treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44:219-225.Crossref 27. Gould RJ, Murphy KMM, Reynolds IJ, Snyder SH: Antischizophrenic drugs of the diphenylbutylpiperidine type act as calcium channel antagonists . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:5122-5124.Crossref 28. Greenberg DA: Calcium channels and calcium channel antagonists . Ann Neurol 1987;21:317-330.Crossref 29. Dubovsky SL, Franks RD, Allen S, Murphy J: Calcium antagonists in mania: A double-blind study of verapamil . Psychiatry Res 1986;18:309-320.Crossref 30. Giannini AJ, Houser WL, Loiselle RH, Giannini M, Price WA: Antimanic effects of verapamil . Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1602-1603. 31. Hoschl C, Blahos J, Kabes J: The use of calcium channel blockers in psychiatry , in Shagass CE, Josiassen RC, Bridger WH, et al (eds): Biological Psychiatry 1985 . New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, 1986, pp 330-332. 32. Pollack MH, Rosenbaum JF: Verapamil in the treatment of recurrent unipolar depression . Biol Psychiatry 1987;22:779-782.Crossref 33. Grynkyewicz G, Poenie M, Tsien RY: A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties . J Biol Chem 1985;260:3440-3450. 34. Highsmith S, Bloebaum P, Snowdowne KW: Sarcoplasmic reticulum interacts with the Ca2+ indicator precursor Fura-2-AM . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;138:1153-1162.Crossref 35. Malagoroli A, Milani D, Meldolesi J, Pozzan T: Fura-2 measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ in monolayers and suspensions of various types of animal cells . J Cell Biol 1987;105:2145-2155.Crossref 36. Poenie M, Alderton J, Tsien RY, Steinhardt RA: Changes of free calcium levels with stages of the cell division cycle . Nature 1985;315:147-149.Crossref 37. Rink TJ: Measurement of cytosolic calcium: Fluorescent calcium indicators . Miner Electrolyte Metab 1988;14:7-14. 38. Sneddon JM: Blood platelets as a model for monamine-containing neurons . Prog Neurobiol 1973;1:151-198.Crossref 39. Pletcher A: Platelets as models for monaminergic neurons , in Youdim MBH, Lovenberg W, Sharman DF, Lagnado JR (eds): Essays in Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology . New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1978, vol 3, pp 49-102. 40. Sage SO, Rink TJ: Effects of ionic substitution on [Ca2 + ]i rises evoked by thromin and PAF in human platelets . Eur J Pharmacol 1986;128:99-107.Crossref 41. Doyle VM, Ruegg UR: Lack of evidence for voltage dependent calcium channels on platelets . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1985;127:161-167.Crossref 42. Hallam TJ, Thompson NT, Scrutton MC, Rink TJ: The role of cytoplasmic free calcium in the responses of Quin2 loaded human platelets to vasopressin . Biochem J 1984;221:897-901. 43. Young WE: Human monoamine oxidase: Lack of brain and platelet correlation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:604-609.Crossref 44. Stahl SM: The human platelet: A diagnostic and research tool for the study of biogenic amines in psychiatric and neurologic disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1977;34:509-516.Crossref 45. Paul SM, Rehavi M, Rice KC, Ittah Y, Skolnick P: Does high-affinity 3Himipramine binding label serotonin reuptake sites in brain and platelet? Life Sci 1981;28:2753-2760.Crossref 46. Erne P, Bolli P, Burgisser E, Buhler FR: Correlation of platelet calcium with blood pressure: Effect of antihypertensive therapy . N Engl J Med 1984;310:1084-1088.Crossref 47. Piletz JE, Schubert DSP, Halaris A: Evaluation of studies on platelet alpha2 adrenoreceptors in depressive illness . Life Sci 1986;39:1589-1616.Crossref 48. Rittenhouse SE: Inositol lipid metabolism in the responses of stimulated platelets . Cell Calcium 1982;3:311-322.Crossref 49. Bowden CL, Huang LG, Javors MA, Johnson JM, Seleshi E, McIntyre K, Contreras S, Maas JW: Calcium function in affective disorders and healthy controls . Biol Psychiatry 1988;23:367-376.Crossref 50. O'Rourke FA, Halenda SP, Zavacco GB, Feinstein MB: Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate releases Ca2 + from a Ca2 + -transporting membrane vesicle fraction derived from human platelets . J Biol Chem 1985;260:956-962. 51. Avdonin PV, Cheglakov IB, Boogry EM, Svitina-Ultina IV, Mazaev AV, Tkachuk VA: Evidence for the receptor-operated calcium channels . Thrombosis Res 1987;46:29-37.Crossref 52. Sandler M, Reveley M, Glover V: Human platelet monamine oxidase activity in health and disease: A review . J Clin Pathol 1981;34:292-302.Crossref 53. Kanof PD, Coccaro EF, Johns CA, Siever LJ, Davis KL: Platelet [3H] imipramine binding in psychiatric disorders . Biol Psychiatry 1987;22:278-286.Crossref 54. Baron M, Barkai A, Gruen R, Peselow E, Fieve RR, Quitkin F: Platelet [3H] imipramine binding in affective disorders: Trait vs state characteristics . Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:711-717. 55. Tofler GH, Brezinski D, Schafer AI, Czeisler CA, Rutherford JD, Willich SN, Gleason RE, Williams GL, Muller JE: Concurrent morning increase in platelet aggregability and the risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death . N Engl J Med 1987;316:1514-1518.Crossref 56. Rink TJ, Sanchez A, Hallem TJ: Diacylglycerol and phorbol ester stimulate secretion without raising cytoplasmic free calcium in human platelets . Nature 1983;305:317-319.Crossref 57. Ware JA, Smith M, Salzman EW: Synergism of platelet-aggregating agents . J Clin Invest 1987;80:267-271.Crossref 58. Sage SO, Rink TJ: Kinetic differences between thrombin-induced and ADP-induced calcium influx and release from internal stores in Fura-2 loaded human platelets . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;136:1124-1129.Crossref 59. Rao GHR, Peller JD, White JG: Measurement of ionized calcium in blood platelets with a new generation calcium indicator . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1985;132:652-657.Crossref 60. Pollock WK, Rink TJ: Thrombin and ionomycin can raise platelet cytosolic Ca2 + to micromolar levels by discharge of internal Ca2 + stores: Studies using Fura-2 . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;139:308-314.Crossref 61. Knight DE, Kesteven NT: Evoked transient intracellular free Ca2 + changes and secretion in isolated bovine adrenal medullary cells . Proc R Soc Lond Biol 1983;218:177-199.Crossref 62. Rink TJ, Pozzan T: Using Quin 2 in cell suspensions . Cell Calcium 1985;6:133-144.Crossref 63. Lechi A, Lechi C, Bonadonna G, Sinigaglia D, Corradini P, Polignano R, Arosio E, Covi G, Togni PD: Increased basal and thrombin-induced free calcium in platelets of essential hypertensive patients . Hypertension 1987;9:230-235.Crossref 64. Hallam TJ, Sanchez A, Rink TJ: Stimulus-response coupling in human platelets . Biochem J 1984;218:819-827. 65. Pollock WK, Sage SO, Rink TJ: Stimulation of Ca2 + efflux from fura-2-loaded platelets activated by thrombin or phorbol myristate acetate . FEBS Lett 1987;210:132-136.Crossref 66. Haller H, Lenz T, Ludersdorf M et al: Platelet intracellular free calcium during dynamic exercise . Am J Nephrol 1986;6( (suppl 1) ):57-59.Crossref 67. Erne P, Buhler FR, Affotter H, Burgisser E: Excitatory and inhibitory modulation of intracellular free calcium in human platelets by hormones and drugs . Eur J Pharmacol 1983;91:331-332.Crossref 68. Sang KHLQ, Laude D, Devynck M-A: Platelet cytosolic free Ca2 + concentration and serotonin (5HT) content in essential hypertension . J Hypertens 1987;5:237-240.Crossref 69. Drummond AH: Bidirectional control of cytosolic free calcium by thyrotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary cells . Nature 1985;315:752-755.Crossref 70. Lindner A, Kenny M, Meacham AJ: Effects of a circulating factor in patients with essential hypertension on intracellular free calcium in normal platelets . N Engl J Med 1987;316:509-513.Crossref 71. Muscettola G, DiLauro A, Giannini CP: Platelet 3H-imipramine binding in depressed patients . Psychiatry Res 1986;18:343-353.Crossref 72. Linnoila M, MacDonald E, Reinila M, Leroy A, Rubinow DR, Goodwin FK: Red blood cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in patients with major affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:1021-1026.Crossref 73. Choi SJ, Taylor MA, Abrams R: Depression, ECT and erythrocyte adensosine-triphosphatase activity . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:75-81. 74. Rybakowski J, Potok E, Strzyzewski W: Erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in patients with endogenous depression and healthy subjects . Eur J Clin Invest 1981;11:61-64.Crossref 75. Meltzer HL, Kassir S: Abnormal calmodulin-activated CaATPase in manic-depressive subjects . J Psychiatr Res 1983;17:29-35.Crossref 76. Meltzer HL: Lithium mechanisms in bipolar illness and altered intracellular calcium functions . Biol Psychiatry 1986;21:492-510.Crossref 77. Landowski J, Lysiak W, Angielski S: Monoamine oxidase activity in blood platelets from patients with cyclophrenic depressive syndromes . Biochem Med 1975;14:347-354.Crossref 78. Coryell W, Andreasen NC, Endicott J, Keller M: The significance of past mania or hypomania in the course and outcome of major depression . Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:309-315. 79. MacDonald E, Rubinow D, Linnoila M: Sensitivity of RBC membrane Ca2 + -adensosine triphosphatase to calmodulin stimulation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:487-493.Crossref 80. Siever LJ, Davis KL: Overview: Toward a dysregulation hypothesis of depression . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:1017-1031. 81. Golden RN, Markey SP, Risby ED, Rudorfer MV, Cowdry RW, Potter WZ: Antidepressants reduce whole-body norepinephrine turnover while enhancing 6-hydroxymelatonin output . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45:150-154.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1989

References