Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of age, various forms of cataract, and visual acuity on whole-field scotopic sensitivity screening for glaucoma in a rural population. Design: Clinic-based study with population-based recruitment. Setting: Jin Shan Township near Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects: Three hundred forty-six residents (ages, ≥40 years) of Jin Shan Township. Interventions: Whole-field scotopic testing, ophthalmoscopy with dilation of the pupils, cataract grading against photographic standards, and screening visual field testing in a random one-third subsample. Main Outcome Measures: Whole-field scotopic sensitivity (in decibels) and diagnostic status as a case of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or normal. Results: Participants in Jin Shan Township did not differ significantly in the rate of blindness, low visual acuity, or family history of glaucoma from a random sample of nonrespondents. Scotopic sensitivity testing detected 100% (6/6) of subjects with open-angle glaucoma at a specificity of 80.2%. The mean±SE scotopic sensitivity for six subjects with open-angle glaucoma (32.78±1.51 dB) differed significantly from that of 315 normal individuals (38.51±0.22 dB), when adjusted for age and visual acuity (P=.05, t test). With linear regression modeling, factors that correlated significantly with scotopic sensitivity were intraocular pressure, screening visual field, best corrected visual acuity, presence of cortical cataract, and increasing age. Conclusion: Although cataract affects the whole-field scotopic threshold, it appears that scotopic testing may be of value in field-based screening for glaucoma. References 1. Foster A. Patterns of blindness . In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1990;5(chap 53):1-7. 2. Kass MA, Gordon MO, Hoff MR, et al. Topical timolol administration reduces the incidence of glaucomatous damage in ocular hypertensive individuals: a randomized, double-masked, long-term clinical trial . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1590-1598.Crossref 3. Epstein DL, Krug JH Jr, Hertzmark E, Remiss LL, Edelstein DJ. A long-term clinical trial of timolol therapy versus no treatment in the management of glaucoma suspects . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1460-1467.Crossref 4. Schulzer M, Mikelberg FS, Drance SM. Some observations on the relation between intraocular pressure reduction and the progression of glaucomatous visual loss . Br J Ophthalmol . 1987;71:486-488.Crossref 5. Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, et al. Racial variations in the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Baltimore Eye Survey . JAMA . 1991;266:369-374.Crossref 6. Hollows FC, Graham DA. Intraocular pressure, glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in a defined population . Br J Ophthalmol . 1966;50:570-586.Crossref 7. Leibowitz HM, Krueger DE, Maunder LR, et al. The Framingham Eye Study monograph . Surv Ophthalmol . 1980;24( (suppl) ):335-610.Crossref 8. Banks JLK, Perkins ES, Tsolakis S. Bedford Glaucoma Survey . BMJ . 1968;1:791-796.Crossref 9. Tielsch JM, Katz J, Singh K, et al. A population-based evaluation of glaucoma screening: the Baltimore Eye Survey . Am J Epidemiol . 1991;134:1102-1110. 10. Glovinsky Y, Quigley HA, Drum B, Bissett RA, Jampel HD. A whole-field scotopic retinal sensitivity test for the detection of early glaucoma damage . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:486-490.Crossref 11. Gouras P, Link K. Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells . J Physiol . 1966;184:499-510. 12. Drum B, Armaly MF, Huppert W. Scotopic sensitivity loss in glaucoma . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:712-717.Crossref 13. Quigley HA, Dunkerberger GR, Green WR. Chronic human glaucoma causing selectively greater loss of large optic nerve fibers . Ophthalmology . 1988;95:357-363.Crossref 14. Quigley HA, West SK, Muñoz B, Mmbaga BBO, Glovinsky Y. Examination methods for glaucoma prevalence surveys . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1409-1415.Crossref 15. Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-178. 16. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation . N Engl J Med . 1988;323:1429-1433.Crossref 17. Shiose Y, Kitazawa Y, Tsukuhara S, et al. Epidemiology of glaucoma in Japan: a nationwide glaucoma survey . Jpn J Ophthalmol . 1991;35:133-155. 18. Katz J, Sommer A, Gaasterland DE, Anderson DR. Comparison of analytic algorithms for detecting glaucomatous visual field loss . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:1684-1689.Crossref 19. Coile DC, Baker HD. Foveal dark adaptation, photopigment regeneration, and aging . Vis Neurosci . 1992;8:27-39.Crossref 20. Liem AT, Keunen JE, van Norren D, van der Kraats J. Rod densitometry in the aging human eye . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2676-2682. 21. Bankson DD, Ellis JK, Russell RM. Effects of a vitamin-A-free diet on tissue vitamin A concentration and dark adaptation in aging rats . Exp Gerontol . 1989;24:127-136.Crossref 22. Eisner A, Klein ML, Zilis JD, Watkins MD. Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1992;33:3091-3102. 23. Eisner A, Stoumbos VD, Klein ML, Fleming SA. Relations between fundus appearance and function: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:8-20. 24. Li X, Sun X, Hu Y, Huang J, Zhang H. Electrographic oscillatory potentials in diabetic retinopathy . Doc Ophthalmol . 1992;81:173-179.Crossref 25. Cathelineau G, Cathelineau BV. Diabetic retinopathy: methodologies in practice . Diabet Med . 1991;8:S17-S22.Crossref 26. Siik S, Airaksinen PJ, Tuulonen A. Light scatter in aging and cataractous human lens . Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) . 1992;70:383-388.Crossref 27. Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies: two nutritional intervention trials . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1246-1253.Crossref 28. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL. Relation between lens opacities and vitamin and mineral supplement use . Ophthalmology . 1994;101:315-325.Crossref 29. Ahlgren SC, Khu PM, Chylack LT, et al. Subjective (LOCS II) vs objective (image analysis) measures of human nuclear cataract . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29( (suppl) ):188-193. 30. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Objective measurements of cortical and subcapsular opacification in retroillumination photographs . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22 ( (suppl 1) ):62-70.Crossref 31. Herzberg SE, McCarty D, Kansupada KB, et al. Positional dependence of objective measures of nuclear color in the lens: correlation with LOCS II score . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (suppl) ):352-359.
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Sep 1, 1995
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera