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Impact of Age, Various Forms of Cataract, and Visual Acuity on Whole-Field Scotopic Sensitivity Screening for Glaucoma in Rural Taiwan

Impact of Age, Various Forms of Cataract, and Visual Acuity on Whole-Field Scotopic Sensitivity... Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of age, various forms of cataract, and visual acuity on whole-field scotopic sensitivity screening for glaucoma in a rural population. Design: Clinic-based study with population-based recruitment. Setting: Jin Shan Township near Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects: Three hundred forty-six residents (ages, ≥40 years) of Jin Shan Township. Interventions: Whole-field scotopic testing, ophthalmoscopy with dilation of the pupils, cataract grading against photographic standards, and screening visual field testing in a random one-third subsample. Main Outcome Measures: Whole-field scotopic sensitivity (in decibels) and diagnostic status as a case of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or normal. Results: Participants in Jin Shan Township did not differ significantly in the rate of blindness, low visual acuity, or family history of glaucoma from a random sample of nonrespondents. Scotopic sensitivity testing detected 100% (6/6) of subjects with open-angle glaucoma at a specificity of 80.2%. The mean±SE scotopic sensitivity for six subjects with open-angle glaucoma (32.78±1.51 dB) differed significantly from that of 315 normal individuals (38.51±0.22 dB), when adjusted for age and visual acuity (P=.05, t test). With linear regression modeling, factors that correlated significantly with scotopic sensitivity were intraocular pressure, screening visual field, best corrected visual acuity, presence of cortical cataract, and increasing age. Conclusion: Although cataract affects the whole-field scotopic threshold, it appears that scotopic testing may be of value in field-based screening for glaucoma. References 1. Foster A. Patterns of blindness . In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1990;5(chap 53):1-7. 2. Kass MA, Gordon MO, Hoff MR, et al. Topical timolol administration reduces the incidence of glaucomatous damage in ocular hypertensive individuals: a randomized, double-masked, long-term clinical trial . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1590-1598.Crossref 3. Epstein DL, Krug JH Jr, Hertzmark E, Remiss LL, Edelstein DJ. A long-term clinical trial of timolol therapy versus no treatment in the management of glaucoma suspects . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1460-1467.Crossref 4. Schulzer M, Mikelberg FS, Drance SM. Some observations on the relation between intraocular pressure reduction and the progression of glaucomatous visual loss . Br J Ophthalmol . 1987;71:486-488.Crossref 5. Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, et al. Racial variations in the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Baltimore Eye Survey . JAMA . 1991;266:369-374.Crossref 6. Hollows FC, Graham DA. Intraocular pressure, glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in a defined population . Br J Ophthalmol . 1966;50:570-586.Crossref 7. Leibowitz HM, Krueger DE, Maunder LR, et al. The Framingham Eye Study monograph . Surv Ophthalmol . 1980;24( (suppl) ):335-610.Crossref 8. Banks JLK, Perkins ES, Tsolakis S. Bedford Glaucoma Survey . BMJ . 1968;1:791-796.Crossref 9. Tielsch JM, Katz J, Singh K, et al. A population-based evaluation of glaucoma screening: the Baltimore Eye Survey . Am J Epidemiol . 1991;134:1102-1110. 10. Glovinsky Y, Quigley HA, Drum B, Bissett RA, Jampel HD. A whole-field scotopic retinal sensitivity test for the detection of early glaucoma damage . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:486-490.Crossref 11. Gouras P, Link K. Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells . J Physiol . 1966;184:499-510. 12. Drum B, Armaly MF, Huppert W. Scotopic sensitivity loss in glaucoma . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:712-717.Crossref 13. Quigley HA, Dunkerberger GR, Green WR. Chronic human glaucoma causing selectively greater loss of large optic nerve fibers . Ophthalmology . 1988;95:357-363.Crossref 14. Quigley HA, West SK, Muñoz B, Mmbaga BBO, Glovinsky Y. Examination methods for glaucoma prevalence surveys . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1409-1415.Crossref 15. Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-178. 16. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation . N Engl J Med . 1988;323:1429-1433.Crossref 17. Shiose Y, Kitazawa Y, Tsukuhara S, et al. Epidemiology of glaucoma in Japan: a nationwide glaucoma survey . Jpn J Ophthalmol . 1991;35:133-155. 18. Katz J, Sommer A, Gaasterland DE, Anderson DR. Comparison of analytic algorithms for detecting glaucomatous visual field loss . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:1684-1689.Crossref 19. Coile DC, Baker HD. Foveal dark adaptation, photopigment regeneration, and aging . Vis Neurosci . 1992;8:27-39.Crossref 20. Liem AT, Keunen JE, van Norren D, van der Kraats J. Rod densitometry in the aging human eye . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2676-2682. 21. Bankson DD, Ellis JK, Russell RM. Effects of a vitamin-A-free diet on tissue vitamin A concentration and dark adaptation in aging rats . Exp Gerontol . 1989;24:127-136.Crossref 22. Eisner A, Klein ML, Zilis JD, Watkins MD. Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1992;33:3091-3102. 23. Eisner A, Stoumbos VD, Klein ML, Fleming SA. Relations between fundus appearance and function: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:8-20. 24. Li X, Sun X, Hu Y, Huang J, Zhang H. Electrographic oscillatory potentials in diabetic retinopathy . Doc Ophthalmol . 1992;81:173-179.Crossref 25. Cathelineau G, Cathelineau BV. Diabetic retinopathy: methodologies in practice . Diabet Med . 1991;8:S17-S22.Crossref 26. Siik S, Airaksinen PJ, Tuulonen A. Light scatter in aging and cataractous human lens . Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) . 1992;70:383-388.Crossref 27. Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies: two nutritional intervention trials . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1246-1253.Crossref 28. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL. Relation between lens opacities and vitamin and mineral supplement use . Ophthalmology . 1994;101:315-325.Crossref 29. Ahlgren SC, Khu PM, Chylack LT, et al. Subjective (LOCS II) vs objective (image analysis) measures of human nuclear cataract . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29( (suppl) ):188-193. 30. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Objective measurements of cortical and subcapsular opacification in retroillumination photographs . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22 ( (suppl 1) ):62-70.Crossref 31. Herzberg SE, McCarty D, Kansupada KB, et al. Positional dependence of objective measures of nuclear color in the lens: correlation with LOCS II score . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (suppl) ):352-359. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Impact of Age, Various Forms of Cataract, and Visual Acuity on Whole-Field Scotopic Sensitivity Screening for Glaucoma in Rural Taiwan

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1995.01100090064024
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of age, various forms of cataract, and visual acuity on whole-field scotopic sensitivity screening for glaucoma in a rural population. Design: Clinic-based study with population-based recruitment. Setting: Jin Shan Township near Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects: Three hundred forty-six residents (ages, ≥40 years) of Jin Shan Township. Interventions: Whole-field scotopic testing, ophthalmoscopy with dilation of the pupils, cataract grading against photographic standards, and screening visual field testing in a random one-third subsample. Main Outcome Measures: Whole-field scotopic sensitivity (in decibels) and diagnostic status as a case of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or normal. Results: Participants in Jin Shan Township did not differ significantly in the rate of blindness, low visual acuity, or family history of glaucoma from a random sample of nonrespondents. Scotopic sensitivity testing detected 100% (6/6) of subjects with open-angle glaucoma at a specificity of 80.2%. The mean±SE scotopic sensitivity for six subjects with open-angle glaucoma (32.78±1.51 dB) differed significantly from that of 315 normal individuals (38.51±0.22 dB), when adjusted for age and visual acuity (P=.05, t test). With linear regression modeling, factors that correlated significantly with scotopic sensitivity were intraocular pressure, screening visual field, best corrected visual acuity, presence of cortical cataract, and increasing age. Conclusion: Although cataract affects the whole-field scotopic threshold, it appears that scotopic testing may be of value in field-based screening for glaucoma. References 1. Foster A. Patterns of blindness . In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1990;5(chap 53):1-7. 2. Kass MA, Gordon MO, Hoff MR, et al. Topical timolol administration reduces the incidence of glaucomatous damage in ocular hypertensive individuals: a randomized, double-masked, long-term clinical trial . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1590-1598.Crossref 3. Epstein DL, Krug JH Jr, Hertzmark E, Remiss LL, Edelstein DJ. A long-term clinical trial of timolol therapy versus no treatment in the management of glaucoma suspects . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1460-1467.Crossref 4. Schulzer M, Mikelberg FS, Drance SM. Some observations on the relation between intraocular pressure reduction and the progression of glaucomatous visual loss . Br J Ophthalmol . 1987;71:486-488.Crossref 5. Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, et al. Racial variations in the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Baltimore Eye Survey . JAMA . 1991;266:369-374.Crossref 6. Hollows FC, Graham DA. Intraocular pressure, glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in a defined population . Br J Ophthalmol . 1966;50:570-586.Crossref 7. Leibowitz HM, Krueger DE, Maunder LR, et al. The Framingham Eye Study monograph . Surv Ophthalmol . 1980;24( (suppl) ):335-610.Crossref 8. Banks JLK, Perkins ES, Tsolakis S. Bedford Glaucoma Survey . BMJ . 1968;1:791-796.Crossref 9. Tielsch JM, Katz J, Singh K, et al. A population-based evaluation of glaucoma screening: the Baltimore Eye Survey . Am J Epidemiol . 1991;134:1102-1110. 10. Glovinsky Y, Quigley HA, Drum B, Bissett RA, Jampel HD. A whole-field scotopic retinal sensitivity test for the detection of early glaucoma damage . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:486-490.Crossref 11. Gouras P, Link K. Rod and cone interaction in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells . J Physiol . 1966;184:499-510. 12. Drum B, Armaly MF, Huppert W. Scotopic sensitivity loss in glaucoma . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:712-717.Crossref 13. Quigley HA, Dunkerberger GR, Green WR. Chronic human glaucoma causing selectively greater loss of large optic nerve fibers . Ophthalmology . 1988;95:357-363.Crossref 14. Quigley HA, West SK, Muñoz B, Mmbaga BBO, Glovinsky Y. Examination methods for glaucoma prevalence surveys . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1409-1415.Crossref 15. Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities . Lens Res . 1988;5:175-178. 16. Taylor HR, West SK, Rosenthal FS, et al. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation . N Engl J Med . 1988;323:1429-1433.Crossref 17. Shiose Y, Kitazawa Y, Tsukuhara S, et al. Epidemiology of glaucoma in Japan: a nationwide glaucoma survey . Jpn J Ophthalmol . 1991;35:133-155. 18. Katz J, Sommer A, Gaasterland DE, Anderson DR. Comparison of analytic algorithms for detecting glaucomatous visual field loss . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:1684-1689.Crossref 19. Coile DC, Baker HD. Foveal dark adaptation, photopigment regeneration, and aging . Vis Neurosci . 1992;8:27-39.Crossref 20. Liem AT, Keunen JE, van Norren D, van der Kraats J. Rod densitometry in the aging human eye . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2676-2682. 21. Bankson DD, Ellis JK, Russell RM. Effects of a vitamin-A-free diet on tissue vitamin A concentration and dark adaptation in aging rats . Exp Gerontol . 1989;24:127-136.Crossref 22. Eisner A, Klein ML, Zilis JD, Watkins MD. Visual function and the subsequent development of exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1992;33:3091-3102. 23. Eisner A, Stoumbos VD, Klein ML, Fleming SA. Relations between fundus appearance and function: eyes whose fellow eye has exudative age-related macular degeneration . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:8-20. 24. Li X, Sun X, Hu Y, Huang J, Zhang H. Electrographic oscillatory potentials in diabetic retinopathy . Doc Ophthalmol . 1992;81:173-179.Crossref 25. Cathelineau G, Cathelineau BV. Diabetic retinopathy: methodologies in practice . Diabet Med . 1991;8:S17-S22.Crossref 26. Siik S, Airaksinen PJ, Tuulonen A. Light scatter in aging and cataractous human lens . Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) . 1992;70:383-388.Crossref 27. Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies: two nutritional intervention trials . Arch Ophthalmol . 1993;111:1246-1253.Crossref 28. Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BEK, Klein R, Ritter LL. Relation between lens opacities and vitamin and mineral supplement use . Ophthalmology . 1994;101:315-325.Crossref 29. Ahlgren SC, Khu PM, Chylack LT, et al. Subjective (LOCS II) vs objective (image analysis) measures of human nuclear cataract . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1988;29( (suppl) ):188-193. 30. Wolfe JK, Chylack LT Jr. Objective measurements of cortical and subcapsular opacification in retroillumination photographs . Ophthalmic Res . 1990;22 ( (suppl 1) ):62-70.Crossref 31. Herzberg SE, McCarty D, Kansupada KB, et al. Positional dependence of objective measures of nuclear color in the lens: correlation with LOCS II score . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31( (suppl) ):352-359.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1995

References

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