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I. Normal Chemical Composition and Growth

I. Normal Chemical Composition and Growth Abstract Introduction This publication relates to the chemical dynamics of skeletal growth in the normal immature male rat. Data presented are introductory to a combined chemical, radiological, and histological interpretation of skeletal growth in this animal from birth through 75 days of age.*During this period of life in the rat, individual skeletal parts as well as the skeleton as a whole undergo continuous and often disproportionate changes in growth and development.† The following studies were undertaken to correlate chemical growth and turnover of the entire skeleton with serial changes in the chemical anatomy and linear growth of long bones. Methods and Materials Male Wistarwere used throughout this study. Litters were arranged at birth to contain approximately 8 to 18male animals. All animals were weaned at 21 days of age to a standard diet (Diet 1),‡ which contained 0.76% calcium and 0.44% phosphorus by wet weight, with a calcium-phosphorus ratio of 1.7.onstant source of References 1. Foran, R. F.; Scott, K. G., and Pickering, D. E.: Chemical Growth Dynamics of the Skeleton in the Immature Rat: Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency, A.M.A. J. Dis. Child., to be published. 2. Pickering, D. E.; Lusted, L. B.; Foran, R. F., and Crane, J. T.: Chemical Growth Dynamics of the Skeleton in the Immature Rat: Correlation of Growth and Morphology of Long Bones with Chemical Growth in Normal and Vitamin D-Deficient Animals, A.M.A. J. Dis. Child, to be published. 3. Hammett, F. S.: A Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: I. Changes in the Ash, Organic Matter, and Water During Growth (Mus Norvegicus Albinus) , J. Biol. Chem. 64:409-428, 1925. 4. Hammett, F. S.: A. Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: II. Changes in the Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus of Bone During Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 64:685-692, 1925. 5. Hammett, F. S.: A Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: III. Changes in the Composition of Ash During Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 64:693-696, 1925. 6. Simpson, M. E.; Asling, C. W., and Evans, H. M.: Some Endocrine Influences on Skeletal Growth and Differentiation , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 23:1-27, 1950. 7. Bauer, G. C. H.: The Importance of Bone Growth as a Factor in the Redistribution of Bone Salt: I. Redistribution of Radio-Active Calcium in the Skeleton of Rats , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 36A:375-380, 1954. 8. Bauer, G. C. H.: The Importance of Bone Growth as a Factor in the Redistribution of Bone Salt: II. Redistribution of Radio-Active Phosphorus in the Skeleton of Rats , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 36A:381-386, 1954. 9. Singer, L., and Armstrong, W. D.: Retention and Turnover of Radiocalcium by the Skeleton of Large Rats , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 76:229-233, 1951. 10. Sobel, A. E., and Hanok, A.: A Rapid Method for the Determination of Ultramicro Quantities of Calcium and Magnesium , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 77:737-740, 1951. 11. Orange, M., and Rhein, H. C.: Microestimation of Magnesium in Body Fluids , J. Biol. Chem. 189:379-386, 1951. 12. Fiske, C. H., and Subbarow, Y.: The Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus , J. Biol. Chem. 66:375-400, 1925. 13. West, P. W.; Folse, P., and Montgomery, D.: Application of Flame Spectrophotometry to Water Analysis , Anal. Chem. 22:667-670, 1950. 14. Kabat, E. A., and Mayer, M. M.: Experimental Immunochemistry , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 282. 15. Kirk, P. L.: Quantitative Ultramicroanalysis , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1950, p. 176. 16. Comar, C. L.; Hansard, S. L.; Hood, S. L.; Plumlee, M. P., and Barrentine, B. F.: Use of Ca45 in Biological Studies , Nucleonics 8:19-31, 1951. 17. Comar, C. L.: Radioisotopes in Biology and Agriculture: Principles and Practice , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955, pp. 218-221. 18. Patwardhan, V. N., and Chitre, R. G.: Studies in Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism: I. The Calcium and Phosphorus Content of the Soft Tissues of Normal Rats , Indian J. M. Res. 25:633-642, 1938. 19. Bessey, O. A.; King, C. G.; Quinn, E. J., and Sherman, H. C.: The Normal Distribution of Calcium Between the Skeleton and Soft Tissues , J. Biol. Chem. 111:115-118, 1935. 20. Mitchell, H. H.; Hamilton, T. S.; Steggerda, F. R., and Bean, H. W.: The Chemical Composition of the Adult Human Body and Its Bearing on the Biochemistry of Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 158:625-637, 1945. 21. Forbes, G. B.: Chemical Growth in Infancy and Childhood , J. Pediat. 41:202-232, 1952. 22. Sherman, H. C., and MacLeod, F. L.: The Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to Age , Growth and Food. J. Biol. Chem. 64:429-459, 1925. 23. Rubin, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Litovitz, T. A., and Geschickter, C. F.: Dynamics of Calcium Metabolism , Conf. on Metabolic Interrelations , 5:53-71, 1953. 24. Frederickson, J. M.; Honour, A. J., and Copp, D. H.: Measurement of Initial Bone Clearance of Ca45 from Blood in the Rat , Fed. Proc. 14:49, 1955. 25. Pecher, C.: Biological Investigations with Radioactive Calcium and Strontium , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 46:86-91, 1941. 26. LeBlond, C. P.; Wilkinson, G. W.; Belanger, L. F., and Robichon, J.: Radio-Autographic Visualization of Bone Formation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 86:289-341, 1950.Crossref 27. Harrison, H. E., and Harrison, H. C.: The Uptake of Radiocalcium by the Skeleton: The Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium Intake , J. Biol. Chem. 185:857-867, 1950. 28. Carlsson, A.: On the Mechanism of the Skeletal Turnover of Lime Salts , Acta physiol. scandinav. 26:200-211, 1952.Crossref 29. Hammett, F. S.: Studies of the Thyroid Apparatus: XVI. The Growth of the Humerus and Femur of Male and Female Albino Rats Thyroparathyroidectomized and Parathyroidectomized when 100 Days of Age , J. Exper. Zool. 39:465-504, 1924.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6916
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1956.02060030270005
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction This publication relates to the chemical dynamics of skeletal growth in the normal immature male rat. Data presented are introductory to a combined chemical, radiological, and histological interpretation of skeletal growth in this animal from birth through 75 days of age.*During this period of life in the rat, individual skeletal parts as well as the skeleton as a whole undergo continuous and often disproportionate changes in growth and development.† The following studies were undertaken to correlate chemical growth and turnover of the entire skeleton with serial changes in the chemical anatomy and linear growth of long bones. Methods and Materials Male Wistarwere used throughout this study. Litters were arranged at birth to contain approximately 8 to 18male animals. All animals were weaned at 21 days of age to a standard diet (Diet 1),‡ which contained 0.76% calcium and 0.44% phosphorus by wet weight, with a calcium-phosphorus ratio of 1.7.onstant source of References 1. Foran, R. F.; Scott, K. G., and Pickering, D. E.: Chemical Growth Dynamics of the Skeleton in the Immature Rat: Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency, A.M.A. J. Dis. Child., to be published. 2. Pickering, D. E.; Lusted, L. B.; Foran, R. F., and Crane, J. T.: Chemical Growth Dynamics of the Skeleton in the Immature Rat: Correlation of Growth and Morphology of Long Bones with Chemical Growth in Normal and Vitamin D-Deficient Animals, A.M.A. J. Dis. Child, to be published. 3. Hammett, F. S.: A Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: I. Changes in the Ash, Organic Matter, and Water During Growth (Mus Norvegicus Albinus) , J. Biol. Chem. 64:409-428, 1925. 4. Hammett, F. S.: A. Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: II. Changes in the Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus of Bone During Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 64:685-692, 1925. 5. Hammett, F. S.: A Biochemical Study of Bone Growth: III. Changes in the Composition of Ash During Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 64:693-696, 1925. 6. Simpson, M. E.; Asling, C. W., and Evans, H. M.: Some Endocrine Influences on Skeletal Growth and Differentiation , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 23:1-27, 1950. 7. Bauer, G. C. H.: The Importance of Bone Growth as a Factor in the Redistribution of Bone Salt: I. Redistribution of Radio-Active Calcium in the Skeleton of Rats , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 36A:375-380, 1954. 8. Bauer, G. C. H.: The Importance of Bone Growth as a Factor in the Redistribution of Bone Salt: II. Redistribution of Radio-Active Phosphorus in the Skeleton of Rats , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 36A:381-386, 1954. 9. Singer, L., and Armstrong, W. D.: Retention and Turnover of Radiocalcium by the Skeleton of Large Rats , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 76:229-233, 1951. 10. Sobel, A. E., and Hanok, A.: A Rapid Method for the Determination of Ultramicro Quantities of Calcium and Magnesium , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 77:737-740, 1951. 11. Orange, M., and Rhein, H. C.: Microestimation of Magnesium in Body Fluids , J. Biol. Chem. 189:379-386, 1951. 12. Fiske, C. H., and Subbarow, Y.: The Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus , J. Biol. Chem. 66:375-400, 1925. 13. West, P. W.; Folse, P., and Montgomery, D.: Application of Flame Spectrophotometry to Water Analysis , Anal. Chem. 22:667-670, 1950. 14. Kabat, E. A., and Mayer, M. M.: Experimental Immunochemistry , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 282. 15. Kirk, P. L.: Quantitative Ultramicroanalysis , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1950, p. 176. 16. Comar, C. L.; Hansard, S. L.; Hood, S. L.; Plumlee, M. P., and Barrentine, B. F.: Use of Ca45 in Biological Studies , Nucleonics 8:19-31, 1951. 17. Comar, C. L.: Radioisotopes in Biology and Agriculture: Principles and Practice , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955, pp. 218-221. 18. Patwardhan, V. N., and Chitre, R. G.: Studies in Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism: I. The Calcium and Phosphorus Content of the Soft Tissues of Normal Rats , Indian J. M. Res. 25:633-642, 1938. 19. Bessey, O. A.; King, C. G.; Quinn, E. J., and Sherman, H. C.: The Normal Distribution of Calcium Between the Skeleton and Soft Tissues , J. Biol. Chem. 111:115-118, 1935. 20. Mitchell, H. H.; Hamilton, T. S.; Steggerda, F. R., and Bean, H. W.: The Chemical Composition of the Adult Human Body and Its Bearing on the Biochemistry of Growth , J. Biol. Chem. 158:625-637, 1945. 21. Forbes, G. B.: Chemical Growth in Infancy and Childhood , J. Pediat. 41:202-232, 1952. 22. Sherman, H. C., and MacLeod, F. L.: The Calcium Content of the Body in Relation to Age , Growth and Food. J. Biol. Chem. 64:429-459, 1925. 23. Rubin, M.; Thomas, R. D.; Litovitz, T. A., and Geschickter, C. F.: Dynamics of Calcium Metabolism , Conf. on Metabolic Interrelations , 5:53-71, 1953. 24. Frederickson, J. M.; Honour, A. J., and Copp, D. H.: Measurement of Initial Bone Clearance of Ca45 from Blood in the Rat , Fed. Proc. 14:49, 1955. 25. Pecher, C.: Biological Investigations with Radioactive Calcium and Strontium , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 46:86-91, 1941. 26. LeBlond, C. P.; Wilkinson, G. W.; Belanger, L. F., and Robichon, J.: Radio-Autographic Visualization of Bone Formation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 86:289-341, 1950.Crossref 27. Harrison, H. E., and Harrison, H. C.: The Uptake of Radiocalcium by the Skeleton: The Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium Intake , J. Biol. Chem. 185:857-867, 1950. 28. Carlsson, A.: On the Mechanism of the Skeletal Turnover of Lime Salts , Acta physiol. scandinav. 26:200-211, 1952.Crossref 29. Hammett, F. S.: Studies of the Thyroid Apparatus: XVI. The Growth of the Humerus and Femur of Male and Female Albino Rats Thyroparathyroidectomized and Parathyroidectomized when 100 Days of Age , J. Exper. Zool. 39:465-504, 1924.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1956

References