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Hyponatremic Syndrome

Hyponatremic Syndrome Abstract The hyponatremic syndrome is a prevalent phenomenon, according to recent reports, perhaps largely owing to the facility with which sodium determinations have been able to be performed by the flame photometer in the last decade. The low-sodium syndrome or, less specifically, the "low salt syndrome" are terms used synonomously. Related to this syndrome are the former descriptions of "hypochloremic azotemia" and also the syndrome of "water intoxication." 1 The term hyponatremic syndrome implies that there are clinical signs and symptoms which are rather specifically related to a low sodium concentration in the serum and extracellular fluid. In recent years, a low sodium concentration has been found frequently to accompany a wide variety of disease states. This has led to some confusion about the syndrome, since many of the symptoms and signs may be associated with the primary diseases and not necessarily with the incidental finding of low sodium concentration. Thus, References 1. References 2-4. 2. References 5-7. 3. References 8-16. 4. References 19-22. 5. References 25 and 26. 6. References 27 and 28. 7. References 29 and 30. 8. References 31 and 32. 9. References 34-38. 10. References 44 and 45. 11. References 46 and 47. 12. References 12 and 48. 13. References 49-51. 14. References 32 and 52. 15. References 53 and 54. 16. References 56 and 57. 17. Kerpel-Fronius, E., and Butler, A. M.: Salt and Water Losses in Diuretin Diuresis and Their Relation to Serum Non-Protein Nitrogen and Electrolyte Concentrations , J. Exper. Med. 61:157-172, 1935.Crossref 18. Schemm, F. R.: A High Fluid Intake in the Management of Edema, Especially Cardiac Edema: II. Clinical Observations and Data , Ann. Int. Med. 21:937-973, 1944.Crossref 19. Schroeder, H. A.: Studies on Congestive Heart Failure: I. The Importance of Restriction of Salt as Compared to Water , Am. Heart J. 22:141-153, 1941.Crossref 20. Schroeder, H. A.: Renal Failure Associated with Low Extracellular Sodium Chloride , J. A. M. A. 141:117-123, 1949.Crossref 21. Deane, N., and Smith, H. W.: The Distribution of Sodium and Potassium in Man , J. Clin. Invest. 31:197-199, 1952.Crossref 22. Edelman, I. S., James, A. H.; Baden, H., and Moore, F. D.: Electrolyte Composition of Bone and the Penetration of Radiosodium and Deuterium Oxide into Dog and Human Bone , J. Clin. Invest. 33:122-131, 1954.Crossref 23. Bergstrom, W. H., and Wallace, W. M.: Bone as a Sodium and Potassium Reservoir , J. Clin. Invest. 33:867-873, 1954.Crossref 24. Lyons, R. H.; Avery, N. L., and Jacobson, S. D.: Effect of Dehydration Produced by Mecupurin on the Plasma Volume of Normal Persons , Am. Heart J. 28:247-255, 1944.Crossref 25. Lyons, R. H.; Jacobson, S. D., and Avery, N. L., Jr.: The Change in Plasma Volume and Body Weight in Normal Subjects After a Low Salt Diet, Ammonium Chloride and Mercupurin , Am. J. M. Sc. 211:460-466, 1946.Crossref 26. Blumgart, H. L.; Gilligan, D. R., and Volk, M. C.: Effect of Diuretic Drugs on Acid-base Equilibrium of Blood in Patients with Cardiac Edema , in Medical Papers Dedicated to Henry Asbury Christian , edited by Robert T. Monroe, Baltimore, Waverly Press, 1936, p. 191. 27. Blumgart, H. L.; Gilligan, D. R.; Levy, R. C.; Brown, M. G., and Volk, M. C.: Action of Diuretic Drugs: I. Action of Diuretics on Normal Persons , Arch. Int. Med. 54:40-81, 1934.Crossref 28. Danowski, T. S.; Winkler, A. W., and Elkinton, J. R.: Biochemical and Hemodynamic Changes Following the Subcutaneous Injection of Glucose Solution , J. Clin. Invest. 26:887-891, 1947.Crossref 29. Danowski, T. S.; Winkler, A. W., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Treatment of Shock Due to Salt Depletion: Comparison of the Hemodynamic Effects of Isotonic Saline, of Hypertonic Saline, and of Isotonic Glucose Solutions , J. Clin Invest. 25:130-138, 1946.Crossref 30. Elkinton, J. R., and Squires, R. D.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: I. Theoretic Considerations , Circulation 4:679-696, 1951.Crossref 31. Elkinton, J. R.; Danowski, T. S., and Winkler, A. W.: Hemodynamic Changes in Salt Depletion and in Dehydration , J. Clin. Invest. 25:120-129, 1946.Crossref 32. Welt, L. A., and Orloff, J.: The Effects of an Increase in Plasma Volume on the Metabolism and Excretion of Water and Electrolytes by Normal Subjects , J. Clin. Invest. 30:751-761, 1951.Crossref 33. Black, D. A. K.; Platt, R., and Stanbury, S. W.: Regulation of Sodium Excretion in Normal and Salt-Depleted Subjects , Clin. Sc. 9:205-221, 1951. 34. Steinbach, H. B.: The Sodium and Potassium Balance of Muscle and Nerve , in Modern Trends in Physiology and Biochemistry: Woods Hole Lectures Dedicated to the Memory of Leonor Michaelis , edited by Guzman Barrón, E. S., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1952, pp. 173-192. 35. Martin, H. E.; Mehl, J. W., and Wertman, M.: Clinical Studies of Magnesium Metabolism , M. Clin. North America 36:1157-1171, 1952. 36. Weisberg, H. F.: Water, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1953. 37. Haynes, B. W., Jr.; Crawford, E. S., and DeBakey, M. E.: Magnesium Metabolism in Surgical Patients , Ann. Surgery 136:659-667, 1952. 38. Flink, E. B.; Stutzman, F. L.; Anderson, A. R.; Konig, T., and Fraser, R.: Magnesium Deficiency After Prolonged Parenteral Fluid Administration and After Chronic Alcoholism Complicated by Delirium Tremens , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 43:169-183, 1954. 39. Mudge, G. H., and Vislocky, K.: Electrolyte Changes in Human Striated Muscle in Acidosis and Alkalosis , J. Clin. Invest. 28:482-486, 1949. 40. Iseri, L. T.; McCaughey, R. S.; Alexander, L.; Boyle, A. J., and Myers, G. B.: Plasma Sodium and Potassium Concentrations in Congestive Heart Failure: Relationship to Pathogenesis of Failure , Am. J. M. Sc. 224:135-145, 1952.Crossref 41. Ricketts, W. E.; Eichelberger, L., and Kirsner, J. B.: Observations on the Alterations in Electrolytes and Fluid Balance in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver With and Without Ascites , J. Clin. Invest. 30:1157-1170, 1951.Crossref 42. Nelson, W. P., III; Rosenbaum, J. D., and Strauss, M. B.: Hyponatremia in Hepatic Cirrhosis Following Paracentesis , J. Clin. Invest. 30:738-744, 1951.Crossref 43. Squires, R. D.; Singer, R. B.; Moffitt, G. R., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: II. Abnormalities in Serum Electrolyte Concentration and Acid-Base Equilibrium , Circulation 4:697-705, 1951.Crossref 44. Squires, R. D.; Crosley, A. P., Jr., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: III. Exchanges in Patients During Diuresis , Circulation 4:868-880, 1951.Crossref 45. Mellors, R. C.; Muntwyler, E., and Mautz, F. R.: Electrolyte and Water Exchange Between Skeletal Muscle and Plasma in the Dog Following Acute and Prolonged Extracellular Electrolyte Loss , J. Biol. Chem. 144:773-784, 1942. 46. Mellors, R. C.; Muntwyler, E.; Mautz, F. R., and Abbott, W. E.: Changes of the Plasma Volume and "Available (Thiocyanate) Fluid" in Experimental Dehydration , J. Biol. Chem. 144: 785-793, 1942. 47. Weston, R. E.; Hellman, L.; Escher, D. J. W.; Edelman, I. S.; Grossman, J., and Leiter, L.: Studies on the Influence of the Low Sodium Cardiac Diet and the Kempner Regimen on Renal Hemodynamics and Electrolyte Excretion in Hypertensive Subjects , J. Clin. Invest. 29:639-650, 1950.Crossref 48. Weston, R. E.; Hanenson, I. B.; Grossman, J.; Berdasco, G. A., and Wolfman, M.: Natriuresis and Chloruresis Following Pitressin-Induced Water Retention in Non-Edematous Patients: Evidence of a Homeostatic Mechanism Regulating Body Fluid Volume , J. Clin. Invest. 32:611, 1953. 49. Newman, E. V.: Function of the Kidney and Metabolic Changes in Cardiac Failure , Am. J. Med. 7:490-496, 1949.Crossref 50. McCance, R. A.: The Effect of Salt Deficiency in Man on the Volume of the Extracellular Fluids, and on the Composition of Sweat, Saliva, Gastric Juice and Cerebrospinal Fluid , J. Physiol. 92:208-218, 1938. 51. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: II. Sodium Deficiencies in Clinical Medicine , Lancet 1:704-710, 1936.Crossref 52. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: II. Sodium Deficiencies in Clinical Medicine (continued) , Lancet 1:765-768, 1936.Crossref 53. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: III. Experimental Human Salt Deficiency , Lancet 1:823-830, 1936.Crossref 54. Leiter, L.; Weston, R. E., and Grossman, J.: The Low Sodium Syndrome: Its Origins and Varieties , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 29:833-845, 1953. 55. Stewart, J. D., and Rourke, G. M.: The Effects of Large Intravenous Infusions on Body Fluid , J. Clin. Invest. 21:197-205, 1942.Crossref 56. Lown, B.; Salzberg, H.; Enselberg, C. D., and Weston, R. E.: Inter-Relation Between Potassium Metabolism and Digitalis Toxicity in Heart Failure , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 76:797-801, 1951. 57. Laraugh, J. H.: The Effect of Potassium Chloride on Hyponatremia , J. Clin. Invest. 33: 807-818, 1954. 58. Stock, R. J.; Mudge, G. H., and Nurnberg, M. J.: Congestive Heart Failure Variations in Electrolyte Metabolism with Salt Restriction and Mercurial Diuretics , Circulation 4:54-69, 1951. 59. Darrow, D. C.; Pratt, E. L.; Flett, J., Jr.; Gamble, A. H., and Wiese, H. F.: Disturbances of Water and Electrolytes in Infantile Diarrhea , Pediatrics 3:129-156, 1949. 60. Sims, E. A. H.; Welt, L. G.; Orloff, J., and Needham, J. W.: Asymptomatic Hyponatremia in Pulmonary Tuberculosis , J. Clin. Invest. 29:1545-1557, 1950.Crossref 61. Harrison, H. E.; Finberg, L., and Fleishman, E.: Disturbances of Ionic Equilibrium of Intracellular and Extracellular Electrolytes in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis , J. Clin. Invest. 31: 300-308, 1952.Crossref 62. Goodyer, A. V. N., and Glenn, W. W. L.: Observations on the Hyponatremia Following Mitral Valvulotomy, read before the 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, Atlantic City, N. J., May 4, 1954 63. abstracted , J. Clin. Invest. 33:937, 1954. 64. Moore, F. D., and Ball, M. R.: The Metabolic Response to Surgery , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1952. 65. Abbott, W. E.; Levey, S.; Foreman, R. C.; Krieger, H., and Holden, W. D.: The Danger of Administering Parenteral Fluids by Hypodermoclysis , Surgery 32:305-315, 1952. 66. Lowe, C. R., and Overy, D. C.: An Evaluation of Rigid Dietary Sodium Restriction in the Management of Ascites in Cirrhosis of the Liver , Ann. Int. Med. 34:1396-1403, 1951.Crossref 67. Epstein, F. H.; Lesser, G. T., and Berger, E. Y.: Renal Function in Decompensated Cirrhosis of the Liver , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 75: 822, 1950. 68. Eisenmenger, W. J.; Blondheim, S. H.; Bongiovanni, A. M., and Kunkel, H. G.: Electrolyte Studies on Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver , J. Clin. Invest. 29:1491-1499, 1950. 69. Leaf, A., and Mamby, A. R.: An Antidiuretic Mechanism not Regulated by Extracellular Fluid Tonicity , J. Clin. Invest. 31:60-71, 1952. 70. Nickel, J. F.; Lowrance, P., and Leifer, E.: Effect of Sodium Depletion and Repletion on Renal Function and Body Fluids During Uremia , J. Clin. Invest. 30:664, 1951. 71. Sirota, J. H., and Kroop, L.: Water and Electrolyte Disturbances in Acute Renal Insufficiency , Fed. Proc. 10:126, 1951. 72. Eliel, L. P.; Pearson, O. H., and White, F. C.: Postoperative Potassium Deficit and Metabolic Alkalosis: The Pathogenic Significance of Operative Trauma and of Potassium and Phosphorus Deprivation , J. Clin. Invest. 31:419-432, 1952. 73. Bristol, W. R.: Relation of Sodium Chloride Depletion to Urine Excretion and Water Intoxication , Am. J. M. Sc. 221:412-416, 1951. 74. Kelly, J. J., Jr., and Deming, Q. B.: Low Sodium Syndrome and Hyperpotassemia Induced in Edematous Patients by Mechanical Removal of Body Fluid , Am. J. Med. 10:766, 1951. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

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Abstract

Abstract The hyponatremic syndrome is a prevalent phenomenon, according to recent reports, perhaps largely owing to the facility with which sodium determinations have been able to be performed by the flame photometer in the last decade. The low-sodium syndrome or, less specifically, the "low salt syndrome" are terms used synonomously. Related to this syndrome are the former descriptions of "hypochloremic azotemia" and also the syndrome of "water intoxication." 1 The term hyponatremic syndrome implies that there are clinical signs and symptoms which are rather specifically related to a low sodium concentration in the serum and extracellular fluid. In recent years, a low sodium concentration has been found frequently to accompany a wide variety of disease states. This has led to some confusion about the syndrome, since many of the symptoms and signs may be associated with the primary diseases and not necessarily with the incidental finding of low sodium concentration. Thus, References 1. References 2-4. 2. References 5-7. 3. References 8-16. 4. References 19-22. 5. References 25 and 26. 6. References 27 and 28. 7. References 29 and 30. 8. References 31 and 32. 9. References 34-38. 10. References 44 and 45. 11. References 46 and 47. 12. References 12 and 48. 13. References 49-51. 14. References 32 and 52. 15. References 53 and 54. 16. References 56 and 57. 17. Kerpel-Fronius, E., and Butler, A. M.: Salt and Water Losses in Diuretin Diuresis and Their Relation to Serum Non-Protein Nitrogen and Electrolyte Concentrations , J. Exper. Med. 61:157-172, 1935.Crossref 18. Schemm, F. R.: A High Fluid Intake in the Management of Edema, Especially Cardiac Edema: II. Clinical Observations and Data , Ann. Int. Med. 21:937-973, 1944.Crossref 19. Schroeder, H. A.: Studies on Congestive Heart Failure: I. The Importance of Restriction of Salt as Compared to Water , Am. Heart J. 22:141-153, 1941.Crossref 20. Schroeder, H. A.: Renal Failure Associated with Low Extracellular Sodium Chloride , J. A. M. A. 141:117-123, 1949.Crossref 21. Deane, N., and Smith, H. W.: The Distribution of Sodium and Potassium in Man , J. Clin. Invest. 31:197-199, 1952.Crossref 22. Edelman, I. S., James, A. H.; Baden, H., and Moore, F. D.: Electrolyte Composition of Bone and the Penetration of Radiosodium and Deuterium Oxide into Dog and Human Bone , J. Clin. Invest. 33:122-131, 1954.Crossref 23. Bergstrom, W. H., and Wallace, W. M.: Bone as a Sodium and Potassium Reservoir , J. Clin. Invest. 33:867-873, 1954.Crossref 24. Lyons, R. H.; Avery, N. L., and Jacobson, S. D.: Effect of Dehydration Produced by Mecupurin on the Plasma Volume of Normal Persons , Am. Heart J. 28:247-255, 1944.Crossref 25. Lyons, R. H.; Jacobson, S. D., and Avery, N. L., Jr.: The Change in Plasma Volume and Body Weight in Normal Subjects After a Low Salt Diet, Ammonium Chloride and Mercupurin , Am. J. M. Sc. 211:460-466, 1946.Crossref 26. Blumgart, H. L.; Gilligan, D. R., and Volk, M. C.: Effect of Diuretic Drugs on Acid-base Equilibrium of Blood in Patients with Cardiac Edema , in Medical Papers Dedicated to Henry Asbury Christian , edited by Robert T. Monroe, Baltimore, Waverly Press, 1936, p. 191. 27. Blumgart, H. L.; Gilligan, D. R.; Levy, R. C.; Brown, M. G., and Volk, M. C.: Action of Diuretic Drugs: I. Action of Diuretics on Normal Persons , Arch. Int. Med. 54:40-81, 1934.Crossref 28. Danowski, T. S.; Winkler, A. W., and Elkinton, J. R.: Biochemical and Hemodynamic Changes Following the Subcutaneous Injection of Glucose Solution , J. Clin. Invest. 26:887-891, 1947.Crossref 29. Danowski, T. S.; Winkler, A. W., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Treatment of Shock Due to Salt Depletion: Comparison of the Hemodynamic Effects of Isotonic Saline, of Hypertonic Saline, and of Isotonic Glucose Solutions , J. Clin Invest. 25:130-138, 1946.Crossref 30. Elkinton, J. R., and Squires, R. D.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: I. Theoretic Considerations , Circulation 4:679-696, 1951.Crossref 31. Elkinton, J. R.; Danowski, T. S., and Winkler, A. W.: Hemodynamic Changes in Salt Depletion and in Dehydration , J. Clin. Invest. 25:120-129, 1946.Crossref 32. Welt, L. A., and Orloff, J.: The Effects of an Increase in Plasma Volume on the Metabolism and Excretion of Water and Electrolytes by Normal Subjects , J. Clin. Invest. 30:751-761, 1951.Crossref 33. Black, D. A. K.; Platt, R., and Stanbury, S. W.: Regulation of Sodium Excretion in Normal and Salt-Depleted Subjects , Clin. Sc. 9:205-221, 1951. 34. Steinbach, H. B.: The Sodium and Potassium Balance of Muscle and Nerve , in Modern Trends in Physiology and Biochemistry: Woods Hole Lectures Dedicated to the Memory of Leonor Michaelis , edited by Guzman Barrón, E. S., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1952, pp. 173-192. 35. Martin, H. E.; Mehl, J. W., and Wertman, M.: Clinical Studies of Magnesium Metabolism , M. Clin. North America 36:1157-1171, 1952. 36. Weisberg, H. F.: Water, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1953. 37. Haynes, B. W., Jr.; Crawford, E. S., and DeBakey, M. E.: Magnesium Metabolism in Surgical Patients , Ann. Surgery 136:659-667, 1952. 38. Flink, E. B.; Stutzman, F. L.; Anderson, A. R.; Konig, T., and Fraser, R.: Magnesium Deficiency After Prolonged Parenteral Fluid Administration and After Chronic Alcoholism Complicated by Delirium Tremens , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 43:169-183, 1954. 39. Mudge, G. H., and Vislocky, K.: Electrolyte Changes in Human Striated Muscle in Acidosis and Alkalosis , J. Clin. Invest. 28:482-486, 1949. 40. Iseri, L. T.; McCaughey, R. S.; Alexander, L.; Boyle, A. J., and Myers, G. B.: Plasma Sodium and Potassium Concentrations in Congestive Heart Failure: Relationship to Pathogenesis of Failure , Am. J. M. Sc. 224:135-145, 1952.Crossref 41. Ricketts, W. E.; Eichelberger, L., and Kirsner, J. B.: Observations on the Alterations in Electrolytes and Fluid Balance in Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver With and Without Ascites , J. Clin. Invest. 30:1157-1170, 1951.Crossref 42. Nelson, W. P., III; Rosenbaum, J. D., and Strauss, M. B.: Hyponatremia in Hepatic Cirrhosis Following Paracentesis , J. Clin. Invest. 30:738-744, 1951.Crossref 43. Squires, R. D.; Singer, R. B.; Moffitt, G. R., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: II. Abnormalities in Serum Electrolyte Concentration and Acid-Base Equilibrium , Circulation 4:697-705, 1951.Crossref 44. Squires, R. D.; Crosley, A. P., Jr., and Elkinton, J. R.: The Distribution of Body Fluids in Congestive Heart Failure: III. Exchanges in Patients During Diuresis , Circulation 4:868-880, 1951.Crossref 45. Mellors, R. C.; Muntwyler, E., and Mautz, F. R.: Electrolyte and Water Exchange Between Skeletal Muscle and Plasma in the Dog Following Acute and Prolonged Extracellular Electrolyte Loss , J. Biol. Chem. 144:773-784, 1942. 46. Mellors, R. C.; Muntwyler, E.; Mautz, F. R., and Abbott, W. E.: Changes of the Plasma Volume and "Available (Thiocyanate) Fluid" in Experimental Dehydration , J. Biol. Chem. 144: 785-793, 1942. 47. Weston, R. E.; Hellman, L.; Escher, D. J. W.; Edelman, I. S.; Grossman, J., and Leiter, L.: Studies on the Influence of the Low Sodium Cardiac Diet and the Kempner Regimen on Renal Hemodynamics and Electrolyte Excretion in Hypertensive Subjects , J. Clin. Invest. 29:639-650, 1950.Crossref 48. Weston, R. E.; Hanenson, I. B.; Grossman, J.; Berdasco, G. A., and Wolfman, M.: Natriuresis and Chloruresis Following Pitressin-Induced Water Retention in Non-Edematous Patients: Evidence of a Homeostatic Mechanism Regulating Body Fluid Volume , J. Clin. Invest. 32:611, 1953. 49. Newman, E. V.: Function of the Kidney and Metabolic Changes in Cardiac Failure , Am. J. Med. 7:490-496, 1949.Crossref 50. McCance, R. A.: The Effect of Salt Deficiency in Man on the Volume of the Extracellular Fluids, and on the Composition of Sweat, Saliva, Gastric Juice and Cerebrospinal Fluid , J. Physiol. 92:208-218, 1938. 51. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: II. Sodium Deficiencies in Clinical Medicine , Lancet 1:704-710, 1936.Crossref 52. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: II. Sodium Deficiencies in Clinical Medicine (continued) , Lancet 1:765-768, 1936.Crossref 53. McCance, R. A.: Medical Problems in Mineral Metabolism: III. Experimental Human Salt Deficiency , Lancet 1:823-830, 1936.Crossref 54. Leiter, L.; Weston, R. E., and Grossman, J.: The Low Sodium Syndrome: Its Origins and Varieties , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 29:833-845, 1953. 55. Stewart, J. D., and Rourke, G. M.: The Effects of Large Intravenous Infusions on Body Fluid , J. Clin. Invest. 21:197-205, 1942.Crossref 56. Lown, B.; Salzberg, H.; Enselberg, C. D., and Weston, R. E.: Inter-Relation Between Potassium Metabolism and Digitalis Toxicity in Heart Failure , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 76:797-801, 1951. 57. Laraugh, J. H.: The Effect of Potassium Chloride on Hyponatremia , J. Clin. Invest. 33: 807-818, 1954. 58. Stock, R. J.; Mudge, G. H., and Nurnberg, M. J.: Congestive Heart Failure Variations in Electrolyte Metabolism with Salt Restriction and Mercurial Diuretics , Circulation 4:54-69, 1951. 59. Darrow, D. C.; Pratt, E. L.; Flett, J., Jr.; Gamble, A. H., and Wiese, H. F.: Disturbances of Water and Electrolytes in Infantile Diarrhea , Pediatrics 3:129-156, 1949. 60. Sims, E. A. H.; Welt, L. G.; Orloff, J., and Needham, J. W.: Asymptomatic Hyponatremia in Pulmonary Tuberculosis , J. Clin. Invest. 29:1545-1557, 1950.Crossref 61. Harrison, H. E.; Finberg, L., and Fleishman, E.: Disturbances of Ionic Equilibrium of Intracellular and Extracellular Electrolytes in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis , J. Clin. Invest. 31: 300-308, 1952.Crossref 62. Goodyer, A. V. N., and Glenn, W. W. L.: Observations on the Hyponatremia Following Mitral Valvulotomy, read before the 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, Atlantic City, N. J., May 4, 1954 63. abstracted , J. Clin. Invest. 33:937, 1954. 64. Moore, F. D., and Ball, M. R.: The Metabolic Response to Surgery , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1952. 65. Abbott, W. E.; Levey, S.; Foreman, R. C.; Krieger, H., and Holden, W. D.: The Danger of Administering Parenteral Fluids by Hypodermoclysis , Surgery 32:305-315, 1952. 66. Lowe, C. R., and Overy, D. C.: An Evaluation of Rigid Dietary Sodium Restriction in the Management of Ascites in Cirrhosis of the Liver , Ann. Int. Med. 34:1396-1403, 1951.Crossref 67. Epstein, F. H.; Lesser, G. T., and Berger, E. Y.: Renal Function in Decompensated Cirrhosis of the Liver , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 75: 822, 1950. 68. Eisenmenger, W. J.; Blondheim, S. H.; Bongiovanni, A. M., and Kunkel, H. G.: Electrolyte Studies on Patients with Cirrhosis of the Liver , J. Clin. Invest. 29:1491-1499, 1950. 69. Leaf, A., and Mamby, A. R.: An Antidiuretic Mechanism not Regulated by Extracellular Fluid Tonicity , J. Clin. Invest. 31:60-71, 1952. 70. Nickel, J. F.; Lowrance, P., and Leifer, E.: Effect of Sodium Depletion and Repletion on Renal Function and Body Fluids During Uremia , J. Clin. Invest. 30:664, 1951. 71. Sirota, J. H., and Kroop, L.: Water and Electrolyte Disturbances in Acute Renal Insufficiency , Fed. Proc. 10:126, 1951. 72. Eliel, L. P.; Pearson, O. H., and White, F. C.: Postoperative Potassium Deficit and Metabolic Alkalosis: The Pathogenic Significance of Operative Trauma and of Potassium and Phosphorus Deprivation , J. Clin. Invest. 31:419-432, 1952. 73. Bristol, W. R.: Relation of Sodium Chloride Depletion to Urine Excretion and Water Intoxication , Am. J. M. Sc. 221:412-416, 1951. 74. Kelly, J. J., Jr., and Deming, Q. B.: Low Sodium Syndrome and Hyperpotassemia Induced in Edematous Patients by Mechanical Removal of Body Fluid , Am. J. Med. 10:766, 1951.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1955

References