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Hyperthyroidism due to Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

Hyperthyroidism due to Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors: Diagnostic and Therapeutic... Abstract • Hyperthyroidism may be caused by the inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from a pituitary tumor. Of 33 reported cases, 17 have occurred in women and 16 have occurred in men. All patients had large tumors, and secretion of a second hormone (growth hormone or prolactin) has been common. Diagnosis requires the detection of TSH in the serum when patients are clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. Ancillary tests supporting the diagnosis includean α-subunit to TSH molar ratio greater than 1.0, an absent TSH response to protirelin, suppression of serum TSH (but not α-subunit) by glucocorticoids, and a lack of suppression of serum TSH by dopaminergic agonists. Successful treatment of this disorder requires pituitary surgery and/or pituitary irradiation. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:503-507) References 1. References 12,14,18,19,22,25,28,33-37,41. 2. References 12-16,18,19,22,26-28,36,38,41. 3. References 12-14,18-20,22,24-31,33-38,40. 4. References 13,18,20,24,26,30,31,33,35-38. 5. Loeb L, Bassett RB: Effect of hormones of anterior pituitary on thyroid gland in the guinea-pig. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1929;26:860-862.Crossref 6. Loeb L, Bassett RB: Comparison of effects of various preparations of anterior pituitary gland on thyroid of guinea pig. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1930;27:490-492.Crossref 7. Cope CL: The anterior pituitary lobe in Graves' disease and in myxoedema. Q J Med 1938;7:151-170. 8. Hershman JM, Pittman JA Jr: Utility of the radioimmunoassay of serum thyrotropin in man. Ann Intern Med 1971;74:481-490.Crossref 9. Dimond RC, Rosen SW: Chromatographic differences between circulating and pituitary thyrotropins. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1974;39: 316-325.Crossref 10. Smith BR, Hall R: Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' disease. Lancet 1974;2:427-431.Crossref 11. Zakarija M, McKenzie JM, Banovac K: Clinical significance of assay of thyroid-stimulating antibody in Graves' disease. Ann Intern Med 1980;93: 28-32.Crossref 12. Ridgway EC, Weintraub BD, Cevallos JL, et al: Suppression of pituitary TSH secretion in the patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. J Clin Invest 1973;52:2783-2792.Crossref 13. Weihl AC, Daniels GH, Ridgway EC, et al: Thyroid function tests during the early phase of subacute thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1977;44:1107-1114.Crossref 14. Woolf PD: Transient painless thyroiditis with hyperthyroidism: A variant of lymphocytic thyroiditis? Endocr Rev 1980;1:411-420.Crossref 15. Jailer JW, Holub DA: Remission of Graves' disease following radiotherapy of a pituitary neoplasm. Am J Med 1960;28:497-500.Crossref 16. Lamberg BA, Ripatti J, Gordin A, et al: Chromophobe pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and TSH-induced hyperthyroidism associated with parathyroid adenoma. Acta Endocrinol 1969;60:157-172. 17. Linquette M, Herlant M, Fossati P, et al: Adénome hypophysaire à cellules thyréotropes avec hyperthyroïdie. Ann Endocrinol 1969;30:731-740. 18. Hamilton CR Jr, Adams LC, Maloof F: Hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary chromophobe adenoma. N Engl J Med 1970;283:1077-1080.Crossref 19. Faglia G, Ferrari C, Neri V, et al: High plasma thyrotropin levels in two patients with pituitary tumour. Acta Endocrinol 1972;69:649-658. 20. Hamilton CR Jr, Maloof F: Acromegaly and toxic goiter: Cure of hyperthyroidism and acromegaly by proton-beam partial hypophysectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1972;35:659-664.Crossref 21. Hrubesch M, Böckel K, Vosberg H, et al: Hyperthyreose durch TSH-produzierendes chromophobes Hypophysenadenom. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 1972;78:1529-1532. 22. Mornex R, Tommasi M, Cure M, et al: Hyperthyroïdie associée à un hypopituitarisme au cours de l'évolution d'une tumeur hypophysaire sécrétant T.S.H. Ann Endocrinol 1972;33:390-396. 23. O'Donnell J, Hadden DR, Weaver JA, et al: Thyrotoxicosis recurring after surgical removal of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumour. Proc R Soc Med 1973;66:441-442. 24. Horn K, Erhardt F, Fahlbusch R, et al: Recurrent goiter, hyperthyroidism, galactorrhea and amenorrhea due to a thyrotropin and prolactin-producing pituitary tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:137-143.Crossref 25. Kourides IA, Weintraub BD, Rosen SW, et al: Secretion of α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones by pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:97-106.Crossref 26. Baylis PH: Case of hyperthyroidism due to a chromophobe adenoma. Clin Endocrinol 1976;5:145-150.Crossref 27. Reschini E, Guistina G, Cantalamessa L, et al: Hyperthyroidism with elevated plasma TSH levels and pituitary tumor: Study with somatostatin. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:924-927.Crossref 28. Duello TM, Halmi NS: Pituitary adenoma producing thyrotropin and prolactin. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 1977;376:255-265.Crossref 29. Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, Weintraub BD, et al: Thyrotropininduced hyperthyroidism: Use of α- and β-subunit levels to identify patients with pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1977;45:534-543.Crossref 30. Tolis G, Bird C, Bertrand G, et al: Pituitary hyperthyroidism. Am J Med 1978;64:177-181.Crossref 31. Lamberg BA, Pelkonen R, Gordin A: TSH-induced hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to pituitary tumor, Abstracted. Ann Endocrinol 1978;39:24. 32. Smallridge RC, Wartofsky L, Dimond RC: Inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin: Discordance between the suppressive effects of corticosteroids and thyroid hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1979;48:700-705.Crossref 33. Werner S: Human pituitary adenomas with hypersecretion of TSH and prolactin (evidence that receptor sites for dopamine may be absent on TSH producing while present on prolactin-producing cells). Horm Metab Res Suppl 1979;11:452-453.Crossref 34. Afrasiabi A, Valenta L, Gwinup G: A TSH-secreting pituitary tumour causing hyperthyroidism: Presentation of a case and review of the literature. Acta Endocrinol 1979;92:448-454. 35. Waldhäusl W, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P, et al: Secondary hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin hypersecretion: Study of pituitary tumor morphology and thyrotropin chemistry and release. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1979;49:879-887.Crossref 36. Kourides IA, Pekonen F, Weintraub BD: Absence of thyroid-binding immunoglobulins in patients with thyrotropin-mediated hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1980;51:271-274.Crossref 37. Benoit R, Pearson-Murphy BE, Robert F, et al: Hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary TSH-secreting tumour with amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea. Clin Endocrinol 1980;12:11-19.Crossref 38. Salti IS, Nuwayri-Salti N, Bergman RA, et al: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumours: A cause of hyperthyroidism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:1141-1145.Crossref 39. Barbarino A, De Marinis L, Anile C, et al: Normal pituitary function and reserve after selective transsphenoidal removal of a thyrotropin-producing pituitary adenoma. Metabolism 1980;29:739-744.Crossref 40. Azukizawa M, Morimoto S, Miyai K, et al: TSH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with Graves' disease , in Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds): Thyroid Research VIII . New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, pp 645-648. 41. Takano K, Kogawa M, Tsushima T, et al: A TSH-secreting pituitary tumor accompanied by high stature: Presentation of a case and review of the literature. Endocrinol Jpn 1981;28:215-223.Crossref 42. Yovos JG, Falko JM, O'Dorisio TM, et al: Thyrotoxicosis and a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor causing unilateral exophthalmos. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1981;53:338-343.Crossref 43. Gershengorn MC, Kourides IA, Fein H: Inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ann Intern Med 1981;95:339-351.Crossref 44. Filetti S, Rapoport B, Aron DC, et al: TSH and TSH-subunit production by human thyrotropic tumour cells in monolayer culture. Acta Endocrinol 1982;99:224-231. 45. Smith CE, Smallridge RC, Dimond RC, et al: Hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma: Studies of thyrotropin and subunit secretion. Arch Intern Med 1982;142:1709-1711.Crossref 46. Emerson CH, Utiger RD: Hyperthyroidism and excessive thyrotropin secretion. N Engl J Med 1972;287:328-333.Crossref 47. Spanheimer RG, Bar RS, Hayford JC: Hyperthyroidism caused by inappropriate thyrotropin hypersecretion: Studies in patients with selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. Arch Intern Med 1982;142:1283-1286.Crossref 48. Refetoff S, DeGroot LJ, Bernard B, et al: Studies of a sibship with apparent hereditary resistance to the intracellular action of thyroid hormone. Metabolism 1972;21:723-756.Crossref 49. Sandier R: Recurrent hyperthyroidism in an acromegalic patient previously treated with proton beam irradiation: Graves' disease as probable etiology based on follow-up observations. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;42:163-168.Crossref 50. Koide Y, Kugai N, Kimura S, et al: A case of pituitary adenoma with possible simultaneous secretion of thyrotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1982;54:397-403.Crossref 51. Ormston BJ, Garry R, Cryer RJ, et al: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone as a thyroid-function test. Lancet 1971;2:10-14.Crossref 52. Scanlon MF, Weightman DR, Shale DJ, et al: Dopamine is a physiological regulator of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in normal man. Clin Endocrinol 1979;10:7-15.Crossref 53. Snyder PJ, Utiger RD: Inhibition of thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone by small quantities of thyroid hormones. J Clin Invest 1972;51:2077-2084.Crossref 54. Besses GS, Burrow GN, Spaulding SW, et al: Dopamine infusion acutely inhibits the TSH and prolactin responses to TRH. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1975;41:985-988.Crossref 55. Spaulding SW, Burrow GN, Donabedian R, et al: L-dopa suppression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone response in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1972;35:182-185.Crossref 56. Zgliczyński S, Kaniewski M: Evidence for α-adrenergic receptor-mediated TSH release in men. Acta Endocrinol 1980;95:172-176. 57. Siler TM, Yen SSC, Vale W, et al: Inhibition by somatostatin on the release of TSH induced in man by thyrotropin-releasing factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1974;38:742-745.Crossref 58. Re RN, Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, et al: The effect of glucocorticoid administration on human pituitary secretion of thyrotropin and prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:338-346.Crossref 59. Kourides IA, Weintraub BD, Re RN, et al: Thyroid hormone, estrogen, and glucocorticoid effects on two different pituitary glycoprotein hormone α-subunit pools. Clin Endocrinol 1978;9:535-542.Crossref 60. Wass JAH, Moult PJA, Thorner MO, et al: Reduction of pituitarytumour size in patients with prolactinomas and acromegaly treated with bromocriptine with or without radiotherapy. Lancet 1979;2:66-69.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Hyperthyroidism due to Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1983.00350030117019
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Abstract

Abstract • Hyperthyroidism may be caused by the inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from a pituitary tumor. Of 33 reported cases, 17 have occurred in women and 16 have occurred in men. All patients had large tumors, and secretion of a second hormone (growth hormone or prolactin) has been common. Diagnosis requires the detection of TSH in the serum when patients are clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. Ancillary tests supporting the diagnosis includean α-subunit to TSH molar ratio greater than 1.0, an absent TSH response to protirelin, suppression of serum TSH (but not α-subunit) by glucocorticoids, and a lack of suppression of serum TSH by dopaminergic agonists. Successful treatment of this disorder requires pituitary surgery and/or pituitary irradiation. (Arch Intern Med 1983;143:503-507) References 1. References 12,14,18,19,22,25,28,33-37,41. 2. References 12-16,18,19,22,26-28,36,38,41. 3. References 12-14,18-20,22,24-31,33-38,40. 4. References 13,18,20,24,26,30,31,33,35-38. 5. Loeb L, Bassett RB: Effect of hormones of anterior pituitary on thyroid gland in the guinea-pig. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1929;26:860-862.Crossref 6. Loeb L, Bassett RB: Comparison of effects of various preparations of anterior pituitary gland on thyroid of guinea pig. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1930;27:490-492.Crossref 7. Cope CL: The anterior pituitary lobe in Graves' disease and in myxoedema. Q J Med 1938;7:151-170. 8. Hershman JM, Pittman JA Jr: Utility of the radioimmunoassay of serum thyrotropin in man. Ann Intern Med 1971;74:481-490.Crossref 9. Dimond RC, Rosen SW: Chromatographic differences between circulating and pituitary thyrotropins. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1974;39: 316-325.Crossref 10. Smith BR, Hall R: Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' disease. Lancet 1974;2:427-431.Crossref 11. Zakarija M, McKenzie JM, Banovac K: Clinical significance of assay of thyroid-stimulating antibody in Graves' disease. Ann Intern Med 1980;93: 28-32.Crossref 12. Ridgway EC, Weintraub BD, Cevallos JL, et al: Suppression of pituitary TSH secretion in the patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. J Clin Invest 1973;52:2783-2792.Crossref 13. Weihl AC, Daniels GH, Ridgway EC, et al: Thyroid function tests during the early phase of subacute thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1977;44:1107-1114.Crossref 14. Woolf PD: Transient painless thyroiditis with hyperthyroidism: A variant of lymphocytic thyroiditis? Endocr Rev 1980;1:411-420.Crossref 15. Jailer JW, Holub DA: Remission of Graves' disease following radiotherapy of a pituitary neoplasm. Am J Med 1960;28:497-500.Crossref 16. Lamberg BA, Ripatti J, Gordin A, et al: Chromophobe pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and TSH-induced hyperthyroidism associated with parathyroid adenoma. Acta Endocrinol 1969;60:157-172. 17. Linquette M, Herlant M, Fossati P, et al: Adénome hypophysaire à cellules thyréotropes avec hyperthyroïdie. Ann Endocrinol 1969;30:731-740. 18. Hamilton CR Jr, Adams LC, Maloof F: Hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin-producing pituitary chromophobe adenoma. N Engl J Med 1970;283:1077-1080.Crossref 19. Faglia G, Ferrari C, Neri V, et al: High plasma thyrotropin levels in two patients with pituitary tumour. Acta Endocrinol 1972;69:649-658. 20. Hamilton CR Jr, Maloof F: Acromegaly and toxic goiter: Cure of hyperthyroidism and acromegaly by proton-beam partial hypophysectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1972;35:659-664.Crossref 21. Hrubesch M, Böckel K, Vosberg H, et al: Hyperthyreose durch TSH-produzierendes chromophobes Hypophysenadenom. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 1972;78:1529-1532. 22. Mornex R, Tommasi M, Cure M, et al: Hyperthyroïdie associée à un hypopituitarisme au cours de l'évolution d'une tumeur hypophysaire sécrétant T.S.H. Ann Endocrinol 1972;33:390-396. 23. O'Donnell J, Hadden DR, Weaver JA, et al: Thyrotoxicosis recurring after surgical removal of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumour. Proc R Soc Med 1973;66:441-442. 24. Horn K, Erhardt F, Fahlbusch R, et al: Recurrent goiter, hyperthyroidism, galactorrhea and amenorrhea due to a thyrotropin and prolactin-producing pituitary tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:137-143.Crossref 25. Kourides IA, Weintraub BD, Rosen SW, et al: Secretion of α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones by pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:97-106.Crossref 26. Baylis PH: Case of hyperthyroidism due to a chromophobe adenoma. Clin Endocrinol 1976;5:145-150.Crossref 27. Reschini E, Guistina G, Cantalamessa L, et al: Hyperthyroidism with elevated plasma TSH levels and pituitary tumor: Study with somatostatin. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:924-927.Crossref 28. Duello TM, Halmi NS: Pituitary adenoma producing thyrotropin and prolactin. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat 1977;376:255-265.Crossref 29. Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, Weintraub BD, et al: Thyrotropininduced hyperthyroidism: Use of α- and β-subunit levels to identify patients with pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1977;45:534-543.Crossref 30. Tolis G, Bird C, Bertrand G, et al: Pituitary hyperthyroidism. Am J Med 1978;64:177-181.Crossref 31. Lamberg BA, Pelkonen R, Gordin A: TSH-induced hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to pituitary tumor, Abstracted. Ann Endocrinol 1978;39:24. 32. Smallridge RC, Wartofsky L, Dimond RC: Inappropriate secretion of thyrotropin: Discordance between the suppressive effects of corticosteroids and thyroid hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1979;48:700-705.Crossref 33. Werner S: Human pituitary adenomas with hypersecretion of TSH and prolactin (evidence that receptor sites for dopamine may be absent on TSH producing while present on prolactin-producing cells). Horm Metab Res Suppl 1979;11:452-453.Crossref 34. Afrasiabi A, Valenta L, Gwinup G: A TSH-secreting pituitary tumour causing hyperthyroidism: Presentation of a case and review of the literature. Acta Endocrinol 1979;92:448-454. 35. Waldhäusl W, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P, et al: Secondary hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin hypersecretion: Study of pituitary tumor morphology and thyrotropin chemistry and release. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1979;49:879-887.Crossref 36. Kourides IA, Pekonen F, Weintraub BD: Absence of thyroid-binding immunoglobulins in patients with thyrotropin-mediated hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1980;51:271-274.Crossref 37. Benoit R, Pearson-Murphy BE, Robert F, et al: Hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary TSH-secreting tumour with amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea. Clin Endocrinol 1980;12:11-19.Crossref 38. Salti IS, Nuwayri-Salti N, Bergman RA, et al: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumours: A cause of hyperthyroidism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:1141-1145.Crossref 39. Barbarino A, De Marinis L, Anile C, et al: Normal pituitary function and reserve after selective transsphenoidal removal of a thyrotropin-producing pituitary adenoma. Metabolism 1980;29:739-744.Crossref 40. Azukizawa M, Morimoto S, Miyai K, et al: TSH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with Graves' disease , in Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds): Thyroid Research VIII . New York, Pergamon Press, 1980, pp 645-648. 41. Takano K, Kogawa M, Tsushima T, et al: A TSH-secreting pituitary tumor accompanied by high stature: Presentation of a case and review of the literature. Endocrinol Jpn 1981;28:215-223.Crossref 42. Yovos JG, Falko JM, O'Dorisio TM, et al: Thyrotoxicosis and a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor causing unilateral exophthalmos. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1981;53:338-343.Crossref 43. Gershengorn MC, Kourides IA, Fein H: Inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ann Intern Med 1981;95:339-351.Crossref 44. Filetti S, Rapoport B, Aron DC, et al: TSH and TSH-subunit production by human thyrotropic tumour cells in monolayer culture. Acta Endocrinol 1982;99:224-231. 45. Smith CE, Smallridge RC, Dimond RC, et al: Hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma: Studies of thyrotropin and subunit secretion. Arch Intern Med 1982;142:1709-1711.Crossref 46. Emerson CH, Utiger RD: Hyperthyroidism and excessive thyrotropin secretion. N Engl J Med 1972;287:328-333.Crossref 47. Spanheimer RG, Bar RS, Hayford JC: Hyperthyroidism caused by inappropriate thyrotropin hypersecretion: Studies in patients with selective pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. Arch Intern Med 1982;142:1283-1286.Crossref 48. Refetoff S, DeGroot LJ, Bernard B, et al: Studies of a sibship with apparent hereditary resistance to the intracellular action of thyroid hormone. Metabolism 1972;21:723-756.Crossref 49. Sandier R: Recurrent hyperthyroidism in an acromegalic patient previously treated with proton beam irradiation: Graves' disease as probable etiology based on follow-up observations. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;42:163-168.Crossref 50. Koide Y, Kugai N, Kimura S, et al: A case of pituitary adenoma with possible simultaneous secretion of thyrotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1982;54:397-403.Crossref 51. Ormston BJ, Garry R, Cryer RJ, et al: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone as a thyroid-function test. Lancet 1971;2:10-14.Crossref 52. Scanlon MF, Weightman DR, Shale DJ, et al: Dopamine is a physiological regulator of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in normal man. Clin Endocrinol 1979;10:7-15.Crossref 53. Snyder PJ, Utiger RD: Inhibition of thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone by small quantities of thyroid hormones. J Clin Invest 1972;51:2077-2084.Crossref 54. Besses GS, Burrow GN, Spaulding SW, et al: Dopamine infusion acutely inhibits the TSH and prolactin responses to TRH. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1975;41:985-988.Crossref 55. Spaulding SW, Burrow GN, Donabedian R, et al: L-dopa suppression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone response in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1972;35:182-185.Crossref 56. Zgliczyński S, Kaniewski M: Evidence for α-adrenergic receptor-mediated TSH release in men. Acta Endocrinol 1980;95:172-176. 57. Siler TM, Yen SSC, Vale W, et al: Inhibition by somatostatin on the release of TSH induced in man by thyrotropin-releasing factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1974;38:742-745.Crossref 58. Re RN, Kourides IA, Ridgway EC, et al: The effect of glucocorticoid administration on human pituitary secretion of thyrotropin and prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1976;43:338-346.Crossref 59. Kourides IA, Weintraub BD, Re RN, et al: Thyroid hormone, estrogen, and glucocorticoid effects on two different pituitary glycoprotein hormone α-subunit pools. Clin Endocrinol 1978;9:535-542.Crossref 60. Wass JAH, Moult PJA, Thorner MO, et al: Reduction of pituitarytumour size in patients with prolactinomas and acromegaly treated with bromocriptine with or without radiotherapy. Lancet 1979;2:66-69.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1983

References