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Hyperactivity: Symptom Complex or Complex Symptom?

Hyperactivity: Symptom Complex or Complex Symptom? Abstract • The phenomenon of "hyperactivity" is well recognized. Results of long-term follow-up studies show that children diagnosed as "hyperactive" are at risk for severe problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, no common diagnostic criteria exist for "hyperactivity." The term can refer to a number of very different behaviors, and children diagnosed as "hyperactive" may also exhibit one or more concomitant difficulties. A "hyperactive" child should be carefully assessed to determine the nature of the behavioral problem and its source, and the term "hyperactivity" itself should be used with caution. (Am J Dis Child 134:409-414, 1980) References 1. Weiss G, Hechtman L, Perlman T, et al: Hyperactives as young adults: A controlled prospective ten-year follow-up of 75 children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:657-681, 1979.Crossref 2. Laufer MW: Long-term management and some follow-up findings on the use of drugs with minimal cerebral syndromes . J Learning Dis 4:55-58, 1971.Crossref 3. Mendelson W, Johnson N, Stewart MA: Hyperactive children as teenagers: A follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 153:273-279, 1971.Crossref 4. Huessy HR, Metoyer M, Townsend M: Eight- to ten-year follow-up of 84 children treated for behavior disorder in rural Vermont . Acta Paedopsychiatr 40:230-235, 1974. 5. Ross DM, Ross SA: Hyperactivity: Research. Theory, and Action . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1976. 6. Bugental DB, Whalen CK, Henker B: Causal attributions of hyperactive children and motivational assumptions of two behavior-change approaches: Evidence for an interactionist position . Child Dev 48:874-884, 1977.Crossref 7. Conners CK: A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children . Am J Psychiatry 126:884-888, 1969. 8. Coleman M: Serotonin concentration in whole blood of hyperactive children . J Pediatr 78:985-990, 1971.Crossref 9. Conners CK, Taylor E, Meo G, et al: Magnesium pemoline and dextroamphetamine: A controlled study in children with minimal brain dysfunction . Psychopharmacologia 26:321-336, 1972.Crossref 10. Greenberg LM, Deem MA, McMahon S: Effects of dextroamphetamine, chlorpromazine, and hydroxyzine on behavior and performance in hyperactive children . Am J Psychiatry 129:532-539, 1972. 11. Greenhill L, Puig-Antich J, Sassin J, et al: Hormone and growth response in hyperkinetic children on stimulant medication . Psychopharm Bull 13:33-36, 1977. 12. Conners CK: Symptom patterns in hyperkinetic, neurotic, and normal children . Child Dev 41:667-682, 1970.Crossref 13. Harvey DHP, Marsh RN: The effects of decaffeinated coffee versus whole coffee on hyperactive children . Develop Med Child Neurol 20:81-86, 1976.Crossref 14. Rapoport JL, Quinn PO, Bradbard G, et al: Imipramine and methylphenidate treatments of hyperactive boys . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:789-793, 1974.Crossref 15. Satterfield J, Cantwell D, Lesser L, et al: Physiological studies of the hyperkinetic child . Am J Psychiatry 128:1418-1424, 1972. 16. Stewart MA, Thach BT, Freidin MR: Accidental poisoning and the hyperactive child syndrome . Dis Nerv Syst 31:403-407, 1970. 17. Schain RJ, Reynard CL: Observations on effects of a central stimulant drug (methylphenidate) in children with hyperactive behavior . Pediatrics 55:709-716, 1975. 18. Stewart MA, Pitts FN, Craig AG, et al: The hyperactive child syndrome . Am J Orthopsychiatry 36:861-867, 1966.Crossref 19. Barkley RA: A review of stimulant drug research with hyperactive children . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 18:137-165, 1977.Crossref 20. Myers GJ, Pless IB: Where's the hyperactive child going? Pediatrics 57:1-3, 1976. 21. Shaffer D, Greenhill L: A critical note on the predictive validity of "The Hyperkinetic Syndrome." J Child Psychol Psychiatry 20:61-72, 1979.Crossref 22. Wolraich ML: Stimulant drug therapy in hyperactive children: Research and clinical implications . Pediatrics 60:512-518, 1977. 23. Ross AO: Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities and Reading Disorders : New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1976. 24. Eisenberg L: The clinical use of stimulant drugs in children . Pediatrics 49:709-715, 1972. 25. Levine MD, Liden CB: Food for inefficient thought . Pediatrics 58:145-148, 1976. 26. Nichamin SJ: Recognizing minimal cerebral dysfunction in the infant and toddler . Clinical Pediatr 11:255-257, 1972.Crossref 27. Wender PH: Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Children . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1971. 28. Cantwell DP: Epidemiology, clinical picture, and classification of the hyperactive child syndrome , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 3-15. 29. Levine MD, Brooks R, Shonkoff J: A Pediatric Approach to Learning Disorders . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1980. 30. Forness S: Educational approaches with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 59-72. 31. Keogh B: Hyperactivity and learning disorders: Review and speculation . Except Child 38:101-109, 1971. 32. Kinsbourne M, Caplan PJ: Children's Learning and Attention Problems . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1979. 33. Sykes DH, Douglas VI, Greiss G, et al: Attention in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate (Ritalin) . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:129-139, 1971.Crossref 34. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, to be published. 35. Werry JS: Developmental hyperactivity . Pediatr Clin North Am 15:581-599, 1968. 36. Cohen NJ, Weiss G, Minde K: Cognitive styles in adolescents previously diagnosed as hyperactive . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 13:203-209, 1972.Crossref 37. Browning RM: Hyporesponsiveness as a behavioral correlate of brain damage in children . Psychol Rep 20:251-259, 1967.Crossref 38. Whalen CK, Henker B: Psychostimulants and children: A review and analysis . Psychol Bull 83:1113-1130, 1976.Crossref 39. O'Malley JE, Eisenberg L: The hyperkinetic syndrome . Semin Psychiatry 5:95-103, 1973. 40. Maccoby EE, Dowley EM, Hagen JW, et al: Activity level and intellectual functioning in normal preschool children . Child Dev 36:761-770, 1965.Crossref 41. Campbell SB, Douglas VI, Morgenstern G: Cognitive styles in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:55-67, 1977.Crossref 42. Sykes DH, Douglas VI, Morgenstern G: Sustained attention in hyperactive children . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 14:213-220, 1973.Crossref 43. Laufer M, Denhoff E: Hyperkinetic behavior syndrome in children . J Pediatr 50:463-474, 1957.Crossref 44. Satterfield JH: Neurophysiological studies with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 67-82. 45. Conners CK: The syndrome of MBD: Psychological aspects . Pediatr Clin North Am 14:749-766, 1967. 46. Anderson WW: The hyperkinetic child: A neurological appraisal . Neurology 13:968-973, 1963.Crossref 47. Stewart MA, Olds SW: Raising a Hyperactive Child . New York, Harper & Row Publishers Inc, 1973. 48. Wender PH: The Hyperactive Child: A Handbook for Parents . New York, Crown Publishers Inc, 1973. 49. Zrull JP, McDermott JF, Poznanski E: Hyperkinetic syndrome: The role of depression . Child Psychiatry Human Dev 1:33-40, 1970.Crossref 50. Denckla MB, Rudel RG: Anomalies of motor development in hyperactive boys . Ann Neurol 3:231-233, 1978.Crossref 51. Werry J, Minde K, Guzman A, et al: Studies on the hyperactive child: VII. Neurological status compared with neurotic and normal children . Am J Orthopsychiatry 127:824-825, 1972. 52. Satterfield JH: EEG issues in children with minimal brain dysfunction . Semin Psychiatry 5:35-46, 1973. 53. Weiss G, Minde K, Werry J, et al: Studies on the hyperactive child: VIII. Five-year follow-up . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:409-414, 1971.Crossref 54. Shaywitz SE, Cohen DJ, Shaywitz BA: The biochemical basis of minimal brain dysfunction . J Pediatr 92:179-187, 1978.Crossref 55. Ritvo ER: Biochemical research with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975. 56. Satterfield JH: Neurophysiologic studies with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975. 57. Weiss G, Hechtman L: The hyperactive child syndrome . Science 205:1348-1354, 1979.Crossref 58. Fish B: The "one child, one drug" myth of stimulants in hyperkinesis: Importance of diagnostic categories in evaluating treatment . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:193-203, 1971.Crossref 59. Battle ES, Lacey B: A context for hyperactivity in children, over time . Child Dev 43:757-773, 1972.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Hyperactivity: Symptom Complex or Complex Symptom?

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1980 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1980.04490010063018
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • The phenomenon of "hyperactivity" is well recognized. Results of long-term follow-up studies show that children diagnosed as "hyperactive" are at risk for severe problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, no common diagnostic criteria exist for "hyperactivity." The term can refer to a number of very different behaviors, and children diagnosed as "hyperactive" may also exhibit one or more concomitant difficulties. A "hyperactive" child should be carefully assessed to determine the nature of the behavioral problem and its source, and the term "hyperactivity" itself should be used with caution. (Am J Dis Child 134:409-414, 1980) References 1. Weiss G, Hechtman L, Perlman T, et al: Hyperactives as young adults: A controlled prospective ten-year follow-up of 75 children . Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:657-681, 1979.Crossref 2. Laufer MW: Long-term management and some follow-up findings on the use of drugs with minimal cerebral syndromes . J Learning Dis 4:55-58, 1971.Crossref 3. Mendelson W, Johnson N, Stewart MA: Hyperactive children as teenagers: A follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 153:273-279, 1971.Crossref 4. Huessy HR, Metoyer M, Townsend M: Eight- to ten-year follow-up of 84 children treated for behavior disorder in rural Vermont . Acta Paedopsychiatr 40:230-235, 1974. 5. Ross DM, Ross SA: Hyperactivity: Research. Theory, and Action . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1976. 6. Bugental DB, Whalen CK, Henker B: Causal attributions of hyperactive children and motivational assumptions of two behavior-change approaches: Evidence for an interactionist position . Child Dev 48:874-884, 1977.Crossref 7. Conners CK: A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children . Am J Psychiatry 126:884-888, 1969. 8. Coleman M: Serotonin concentration in whole blood of hyperactive children . J Pediatr 78:985-990, 1971.Crossref 9. Conners CK, Taylor E, Meo G, et al: Magnesium pemoline and dextroamphetamine: A controlled study in children with minimal brain dysfunction . Psychopharmacologia 26:321-336, 1972.Crossref 10. Greenberg LM, Deem MA, McMahon S: Effects of dextroamphetamine, chlorpromazine, and hydroxyzine on behavior and performance in hyperactive children . Am J Psychiatry 129:532-539, 1972. 11. Greenhill L, Puig-Antich J, Sassin J, et al: Hormone and growth response in hyperkinetic children on stimulant medication . Psychopharm Bull 13:33-36, 1977. 12. Conners CK: Symptom patterns in hyperkinetic, neurotic, and normal children . Child Dev 41:667-682, 1970.Crossref 13. Harvey DHP, Marsh RN: The effects of decaffeinated coffee versus whole coffee on hyperactive children . Develop Med Child Neurol 20:81-86, 1976.Crossref 14. Rapoport JL, Quinn PO, Bradbard G, et al: Imipramine and methylphenidate treatments of hyperactive boys . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:789-793, 1974.Crossref 15. Satterfield J, Cantwell D, Lesser L, et al: Physiological studies of the hyperkinetic child . Am J Psychiatry 128:1418-1424, 1972. 16. Stewart MA, Thach BT, Freidin MR: Accidental poisoning and the hyperactive child syndrome . Dis Nerv Syst 31:403-407, 1970. 17. Schain RJ, Reynard CL: Observations on effects of a central stimulant drug (methylphenidate) in children with hyperactive behavior . Pediatrics 55:709-716, 1975. 18. Stewart MA, Pitts FN, Craig AG, et al: The hyperactive child syndrome . Am J Orthopsychiatry 36:861-867, 1966.Crossref 19. Barkley RA: A review of stimulant drug research with hyperactive children . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 18:137-165, 1977.Crossref 20. Myers GJ, Pless IB: Where's the hyperactive child going? Pediatrics 57:1-3, 1976. 21. Shaffer D, Greenhill L: A critical note on the predictive validity of "The Hyperkinetic Syndrome." J Child Psychol Psychiatry 20:61-72, 1979.Crossref 22. Wolraich ML: Stimulant drug therapy in hyperactive children: Research and clinical implications . Pediatrics 60:512-518, 1977. 23. Ross AO: Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities and Reading Disorders : New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1976. 24. Eisenberg L: The clinical use of stimulant drugs in children . Pediatrics 49:709-715, 1972. 25. Levine MD, Liden CB: Food for inefficient thought . Pediatrics 58:145-148, 1976. 26. Nichamin SJ: Recognizing minimal cerebral dysfunction in the infant and toddler . Clinical Pediatr 11:255-257, 1972.Crossref 27. Wender PH: Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Children . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1971. 28. Cantwell DP: Epidemiology, clinical picture, and classification of the hyperactive child syndrome , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 3-15. 29. Levine MD, Brooks R, Shonkoff J: A Pediatric Approach to Learning Disorders . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1980. 30. Forness S: Educational approaches with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 59-72. 31. Keogh B: Hyperactivity and learning disorders: Review and speculation . Except Child 38:101-109, 1971. 32. Kinsbourne M, Caplan PJ: Children's Learning and Attention Problems . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1979. 33. Sykes DH, Douglas VI, Greiss G, et al: Attention in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate (Ritalin) . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:129-139, 1971.Crossref 34. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, to be published. 35. Werry JS: Developmental hyperactivity . Pediatr Clin North Am 15:581-599, 1968. 36. Cohen NJ, Weiss G, Minde K: Cognitive styles in adolescents previously diagnosed as hyperactive . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 13:203-209, 1972.Crossref 37. Browning RM: Hyporesponsiveness as a behavioral correlate of brain damage in children . Psychol Rep 20:251-259, 1967.Crossref 38. Whalen CK, Henker B: Psychostimulants and children: A review and analysis . Psychol Bull 83:1113-1130, 1976.Crossref 39. O'Malley JE, Eisenberg L: The hyperkinetic syndrome . Semin Psychiatry 5:95-103, 1973. 40. Maccoby EE, Dowley EM, Hagen JW, et al: Activity level and intellectual functioning in normal preschool children . Child Dev 36:761-770, 1965.Crossref 41. Campbell SB, Douglas VI, Morgenstern G: Cognitive styles in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 12:55-67, 1977.Crossref 42. Sykes DH, Douglas VI, Morgenstern G: Sustained attention in hyperactive children . J Child Psychol Psychiatry 14:213-220, 1973.Crossref 43. Laufer M, Denhoff E: Hyperkinetic behavior syndrome in children . J Pediatr 50:463-474, 1957.Crossref 44. Satterfield JH: Neurophysiological studies with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975, pp 67-82. 45. Conners CK: The syndrome of MBD: Psychological aspects . Pediatr Clin North Am 14:749-766, 1967. 46. Anderson WW: The hyperkinetic child: A neurological appraisal . Neurology 13:968-973, 1963.Crossref 47. Stewart MA, Olds SW: Raising a Hyperactive Child . New York, Harper & Row Publishers Inc, 1973. 48. Wender PH: The Hyperactive Child: A Handbook for Parents . New York, Crown Publishers Inc, 1973. 49. Zrull JP, McDermott JF, Poznanski E: Hyperkinetic syndrome: The role of depression . Child Psychiatry Human Dev 1:33-40, 1970.Crossref 50. Denckla MB, Rudel RG: Anomalies of motor development in hyperactive boys . Ann Neurol 3:231-233, 1978.Crossref 51. Werry J, Minde K, Guzman A, et al: Studies on the hyperactive child: VII. Neurological status compared with neurotic and normal children . Am J Orthopsychiatry 127:824-825, 1972. 52. Satterfield JH: EEG issues in children with minimal brain dysfunction . Semin Psychiatry 5:35-46, 1973. 53. Weiss G, Minde K, Werry J, et al: Studies on the hyperactive child: VIII. Five-year follow-up . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:409-414, 1971.Crossref 54. Shaywitz SE, Cohen DJ, Shaywitz BA: The biochemical basis of minimal brain dysfunction . J Pediatr 92:179-187, 1978.Crossref 55. Ritvo ER: Biochemical research with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975. 56. Satterfield JH: Neurophysiologic studies with hyperactive children , in Cantwell DP (ed): The Hyperactive Child . New York, Spectrum Publications Inc, 1975. 57. Weiss G, Hechtman L: The hyperactive child syndrome . Science 205:1348-1354, 1979.Crossref 58. Fish B: The "one child, one drug" myth of stimulants in hyperkinesis: Importance of diagnostic categories in evaluating treatment . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:193-203, 1971.Crossref 59. Battle ES, Lacey B: A context for hyperactivity in children, over time . Child Dev 43:757-773, 1972.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1980

References

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