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Human Milk Supplementation: Delivery of Energy, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc

Human Milk Supplementation: Delivery of Energy, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc Abstract • Human milk when fed to preterm infants is frequently supplemented with human milk fortifiers that provide an additional source of protein, energy, and minerals. Human milk that was provided by the mother of a preterm infant, and that was supplemented with commercially available human milk fortifiers, was assessed under simulated syringepump and bolus feeding circumstances for the delivery of energy, calcium, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, and zinc to an infant. In general, the nutrients were not completely delivered with syringe-pump feedings, with the greatest losses occurring in the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. The losses were more pronounced with the use of a powdered fortifier than with the use of a liquid fortifier. Little or no change in the concentrations of the various nutrients were observed with simulated bolus feeding. We suggest that human milk fortified with supplements be fed with care to assure complete delivery of the nutrients and that infants receiving such feedings be monitored to assure adequate nutritional status. (AJDC 1988;142:445-447) References 1. Anderson GH: Human milk feeding . Pediatr Clin North Am 1985;32:335-353. 2. Gross SJ: Growth and biochemical responses of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula . N Engl J Med 1983;308:237-241.Crossref 3. Forbes GB: Nutritional adequacy of human breast milk for premature infants , in Lebenthal E (ed): Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Infancy . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 321-329. 4. Fomon SJ, Ziegler EE, Vasquez HD: Human milk and the small premature infant . AJDC 1977;131:463-467. 5. Mendelson RA, Bryan MH, Anderson GH: Trace mineral balances in preterm infants fed their own mother's milk . J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1983;2:256-261.Crossref 6. Moyer-Mileur LJ, Chan GM, Shino J: Decreased delivery of calcium and phosphorus nutrients from human milk fortification , abstracted. Clin Res 1985;33:134A. 7. Brooke OG, Barley J: Loss of energy during continuous infusions of breast milk . Arch Dis Child 1978;53:344-345.Crossref 8. Brown BW Jr, Hollander M: Statistics: A Biomedical Introduction . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1977. 9. Ziegler EE, O'Donnel A, Nelson S, et al: Body composition of the reference fetus . Growth 1976;40:329-341. 10. Greer FR, Tsang RC: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D: Requirements for the preterm infant , in Tsang RC (ed): Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Preterm Infants . New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1985, pp 99-136. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Human Milk Supplementation: Delivery of Energy, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1988 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1988.02150040099028
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Human milk when fed to preterm infants is frequently supplemented with human milk fortifiers that provide an additional source of protein, energy, and minerals. Human milk that was provided by the mother of a preterm infant, and that was supplemented with commercially available human milk fortifiers, was assessed under simulated syringepump and bolus feeding circumstances for the delivery of energy, calcium, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, and zinc to an infant. In general, the nutrients were not completely delivered with syringe-pump feedings, with the greatest losses occurring in the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. The losses were more pronounced with the use of a powdered fortifier than with the use of a liquid fortifier. Little or no change in the concentrations of the various nutrients were observed with simulated bolus feeding. We suggest that human milk fortified with supplements be fed with care to assure complete delivery of the nutrients and that infants receiving such feedings be monitored to assure adequate nutritional status. (AJDC 1988;142:445-447) References 1. Anderson GH: Human milk feeding . Pediatr Clin North Am 1985;32:335-353. 2. Gross SJ: Growth and biochemical responses of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula . N Engl J Med 1983;308:237-241.Crossref 3. Forbes GB: Nutritional adequacy of human breast milk for premature infants , in Lebenthal E (ed): Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Infancy . New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 321-329. 4. Fomon SJ, Ziegler EE, Vasquez HD: Human milk and the small premature infant . AJDC 1977;131:463-467. 5. Mendelson RA, Bryan MH, Anderson GH: Trace mineral balances in preterm infants fed their own mother's milk . J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1983;2:256-261.Crossref 6. Moyer-Mileur LJ, Chan GM, Shino J: Decreased delivery of calcium and phosphorus nutrients from human milk fortification , abstracted. Clin Res 1985;33:134A. 7. Brooke OG, Barley J: Loss of energy during continuous infusions of breast milk . Arch Dis Child 1978;53:344-345.Crossref 8. Brown BW Jr, Hollander M: Statistics: A Biomedical Introduction . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1977. 9. Ziegler EE, O'Donnel A, Nelson S, et al: Body composition of the reference fetus . Growth 1976;40:329-341. 10. Greer FR, Tsang RC: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D: Requirements for the preterm infant , in Tsang RC (ed): Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Preterm Infants . New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1985, pp 99-136.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1988

References