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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Isolation Studies and Antibody Testing: Household Contacts and Sexual Partners of Persons With Hemophilia

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Isolation Studies and Antibody Testing: Household Contacts and... Abstract • Virus isolation studies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing were performed on 87 household contacts of 68 HIV antibody-positive hemophilic patients to determine the extent that HIV could be transmitted through heterosexual or through nonsexual, but intimate contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity was established for the 68 hemophiliacs by immunofluorescence method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by Western blot testing (for 66 patients). Fifty-one nonsexual contacts and 36 sexual partners of these hemophiliacs were tested for HIV antibody by immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. All sexual partners and all nonsexual household contacts were HIV antibody-negative, Including six partners and nine parents of hemophiliacs from whom the virus had been isolated and seven parents and six partners of patients with AIDS. This study further demonstrates lack of transmission of HIV in intimate, but nonsexual settings, and suggests that heterosexual transmission, although well known to occur, may be relatively uncommon in hemophilic couples when the male and female partner have no other risk factors. It is hoped that intensive education and counseling programs will reduce exposure and maintain a low risk of heterosexual transmission. (Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1299-1301) References 1. Evatt BL, Stein SF, Francis DP, et al: Antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus-associated membrane antigens (HTLV-MA) in haemophiliacs: Evidence for infection before 1980. Lancet 1983;2:698-700.Crossref 2. Centers for Disease Control: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Weekly Surveillance Report . Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control, 1987. 3. Sullivan JL, Brewster FE, Brettler DB, et al: Hemophiliac immunodeficiency: Influence of exposure to factor VIII concentrate, LAV/HTLV-III and herpes viruses. J Pediatr 1986;108:504-510.Crossref 4. Eyster ME, Goedert JJ, Sarngadharan MG, et al: Development and early natural history of HTLV-III antibodies in persons with hemophilia. JAMA 1985;253:2219-2223.Crossref 5. Gomperts ED, Feorino P, Evatt BL: LAV/HTLV-III presence in peripheral lymphocytes of seropositive young hemophiliacs. Blood 1985;65:1549-1552. 6. Centers for Disease Control: Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)—United States. MMWR 1984;32:688. 7. Zagury D, Bernard J, Leibowitch J, et al: HTLV-III in cells cultured from semen of two patients with AIDS. Science 1984;226:449-451.Crossref 8. Ho DD, Schooley RT, Rota TR, et al: HTLV-III in the semen and blood of a healthy homosexual man. Science 1984;226:451-453.Crossref 9. Redfield RR, Markham PD, Salahuddin SZ, et al: Frequent transmission of HTLV-III among spouses of patients with AIDS-related complex and AIDS. JAMA 1985;253:1571-1573.Crossref 10. Harris C, Small CB, Klein RS, et al: Immunodeficiency in female sexual partners of men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983;308:1181-1184.Crossref 11. Kreiss JK, Kitchen LW, Prince HE, et al: Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in wives of hemophiliacs: Evidence for heterosexual transmission. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:623-626.Crossref 12. Steigbigel DW, Maude CJ, Feiner CA, et al: Heterosexual transmission of infection and disease by the human immunodeficiency virus. Read before the Third International Conference on AIDS, Washington, DC, June 3, 1987. 13. Jason JM, McDougal JS, Dixon G, et al: HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia. JAMA 1986;255:212-215.Crossref 14. Melbye M, Ingerslev J, Biggar RJ, et al: Anal intercourse as a possible factor in heterosexual transmission of HTLV-III to spouses of hemophiliacs. N Engl J Med 1985;312:857. 15. Goedert JJ, Eyster ME, Biggar RJ: Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with severe T4 cell depletion in male hemophiliacs. Read before the Third International Conference on AIDS, Washington, DC, June 3, 1987. 16. Pitchenik AE, Shafron RD, Glasser RM, et al: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the wife of a hemophiliac. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:62-65.Crossref 17. Ratnoff OD, Lederman MM, Jenkins J: Lymphadenopathy in a hemophiliac patient and his sexual partner. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:915.Crossref 18. Andes WA, Lawrence DN, Jason J: Conjugal transmission of HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy in Christmas disease. Thromb Haemost 1986;55:129-130. 19. Ragni MV, Urhach AH, Kiernan S, et al: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the child of a haemophiliac. Lancet 1985;1:133.Crossref 20. Goedert JJ, Eyster ME, Bodner AJ, et al: A search for HTLV-III and its antibodies in hemophilia families. Read before the First International Conference on AIDS, Atlanta, April 14-17, 1985. 21. Smith PS, Levine PH: The benefits of comprehensive care of hemophilia: A five-year study of outcomes. Am J Public Health 1984;74:616-617.Crossref 22. Kitchen LW, Barin F, Sullivan JL, et al: Aetiology of AIDS-antibodies to human, T-cell leukemia virus (type III) in hemophiliacs. Nature 1984;312:367-369.Crossref 23. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J: Recovery of AIDS associated retroviruses from patients with AIDS or AIDS-related conditions and from clinically healthy individuals. J Infect Dis 1985;152:734-738.Crossref 24. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, et al: Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1908;77:7415-7419.Crossref 25. Fujikawa LS, Salahuddin SZ, Palestine AG, et al: Isolation of human T-lymphotrophic virus type III from the tears of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1985;529-530. 26. Friedland CH, Saltzman BR, Rogers MF, et al: Lack of transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasies. N Engl J Med 1986;314:344-349.Crossref 27. Lawrence DN, Jason JM, Bouhasin JD, et al: HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients. Blood 1985;66:703-705. 28. Ranki A, Valle SL, Krohn M, et al: Long latency precedes overt seroconversion in sexually transmitted human-immunodeficiency-virus infection. Lancet 1987;2:589-592.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Isolation Studies and Antibody Testing: Household Contacts and Sexual Partners of Persons With Hemophilia

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1988 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1988.00380060063015
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See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Virus isolation studies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing were performed on 87 household contacts of 68 HIV antibody-positive hemophilic patients to determine the extent that HIV could be transmitted through heterosexual or through nonsexual, but intimate contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity was established for the 68 hemophiliacs by immunofluorescence method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by Western blot testing (for 66 patients). Fifty-one nonsexual contacts and 36 sexual partners of these hemophiliacs were tested for HIV antibody by immunofluorescence or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. All sexual partners and all nonsexual household contacts were HIV antibody-negative, Including six partners and nine parents of hemophiliacs from whom the virus had been isolated and seven parents and six partners of patients with AIDS. This study further demonstrates lack of transmission of HIV in intimate, but nonsexual settings, and suggests that heterosexual transmission, although well known to occur, may be relatively uncommon in hemophilic couples when the male and female partner have no other risk factors. It is hoped that intensive education and counseling programs will reduce exposure and maintain a low risk of heterosexual transmission. (Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1299-1301) References 1. Evatt BL, Stein SF, Francis DP, et al: Antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus-associated membrane antigens (HTLV-MA) in haemophiliacs: Evidence for infection before 1980. Lancet 1983;2:698-700.Crossref 2. Centers for Disease Control: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Weekly Surveillance Report . Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control, 1987. 3. Sullivan JL, Brewster FE, Brettler DB, et al: Hemophiliac immunodeficiency: Influence of exposure to factor VIII concentrate, LAV/HTLV-III and herpes viruses. J Pediatr 1986;108:504-510.Crossref 4. Eyster ME, Goedert JJ, Sarngadharan MG, et al: Development and early natural history of HTLV-III antibodies in persons with hemophilia. JAMA 1985;253:2219-2223.Crossref 5. Gomperts ED, Feorino P, Evatt BL: LAV/HTLV-III presence in peripheral lymphocytes of seropositive young hemophiliacs. Blood 1985;65:1549-1552. 6. Centers for Disease Control: Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)—United States. MMWR 1984;32:688. 7. Zagury D, Bernard J, Leibowitch J, et al: HTLV-III in cells cultured from semen of two patients with AIDS. Science 1984;226:449-451.Crossref 8. Ho DD, Schooley RT, Rota TR, et al: HTLV-III in the semen and blood of a healthy homosexual man. Science 1984;226:451-453.Crossref 9. Redfield RR, Markham PD, Salahuddin SZ, et al: Frequent transmission of HTLV-III among spouses of patients with AIDS-related complex and AIDS. JAMA 1985;253:1571-1573.Crossref 10. Harris C, Small CB, Klein RS, et al: Immunodeficiency in female sexual partners of men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983;308:1181-1184.Crossref 11. Kreiss JK, Kitchen LW, Prince HE, et al: Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in wives of hemophiliacs: Evidence for heterosexual transmission. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:623-626.Crossref 12. Steigbigel DW, Maude CJ, Feiner CA, et al: Heterosexual transmission of infection and disease by the human immunodeficiency virus. Read before the Third International Conference on AIDS, Washington, DC, June 3, 1987. 13. Jason JM, McDougal JS, Dixon G, et al: HTLV-III/LAV antibody and immune status of household contacts and sexual partners of persons with hemophilia. JAMA 1986;255:212-215.Crossref 14. Melbye M, Ingerslev J, Biggar RJ, et al: Anal intercourse as a possible factor in heterosexual transmission of HTLV-III to spouses of hemophiliacs. N Engl J Med 1985;312:857. 15. Goedert JJ, Eyster ME, Biggar RJ: Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated with severe T4 cell depletion in male hemophiliacs. Read before the Third International Conference on AIDS, Washington, DC, June 3, 1987. 16. Pitchenik AE, Shafron RD, Glasser RM, et al: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the wife of a hemophiliac. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:62-65.Crossref 17. Ratnoff OD, Lederman MM, Jenkins J: Lymphadenopathy in a hemophiliac patient and his sexual partner. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:915.Crossref 18. Andes WA, Lawrence DN, Jason J: Conjugal transmission of HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy in Christmas disease. Thromb Haemost 1986;55:129-130. 19. Ragni MV, Urhach AH, Kiernan S, et al: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the child of a haemophiliac. Lancet 1985;1:133.Crossref 20. Goedert JJ, Eyster ME, Bodner AJ, et al: A search for HTLV-III and its antibodies in hemophilia families. Read before the First International Conference on AIDS, Atlanta, April 14-17, 1985. 21. Smith PS, Levine PH: The benefits of comprehensive care of hemophilia: A five-year study of outcomes. Am J Public Health 1984;74:616-617.Crossref 22. Kitchen LW, Barin F, Sullivan JL, et al: Aetiology of AIDS-antibodies to human, T-cell leukemia virus (type III) in hemophiliacs. Nature 1984;312:367-369.Crossref 23. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J: Recovery of AIDS associated retroviruses from patients with AIDS or AIDS-related conditions and from clinically healthy individuals. J Infect Dis 1985;152:734-738.Crossref 24. Poiesz BJ, Ruscetti FW, Gazdar AF, et al: Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1908;77:7415-7419.Crossref 25. Fujikawa LS, Salahuddin SZ, Palestine AG, et al: Isolation of human T-lymphotrophic virus type III from the tears of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1985;529-530. 26. Friedland CH, Saltzman BR, Rogers MF, et al: Lack of transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasies. N Engl J Med 1986;314:344-349.Crossref 27. Lawrence DN, Jason JM, Bouhasin JD, et al: HTLV-III/LAV antibody status of spouses and household contacts assisting in home infusion of hemophilia patients. Blood 1985;66:703-705. 28. Ranki A, Valle SL, Krohn M, et al: Long latency precedes overt seroconversion in sexually transmitted human-immunodeficiency-virus infection. Lancet 1987;2:589-592.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1988

References