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Homeopathy Revisited

Homeopathy Revisited Abstract IN MOST countries, homeopathy has come and gone in major waves. Currently, we are witnessing its renaissance both in the United States and Europe.1 In 1994, Americans spent $165 million on homeopathic remedies and sales are rising more than 20% yearly (Time. September 25, 1995:47-48; Business Week. October 23, 1995:58-59). Of 150 new cold remedies launched in the United States in 1994, for instance, 34 were homeopathic compared with 17 of 92 in 1992 (Wall Street Journal. February 23, 1995:1). Physicians therefore increasingly feel the need for more information. This article is aimed at revisiting homeopathy from a historical perspective. Homeopathy was developed by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843). He noticed in 1789 that when he took the malaria remedy quinine, it produced most of the symptoms of malaria in himself. Hahnemann went on to conduct similar "provings" on himself, friends, and patients and postulated that "like cures References 1. Kaufman M. Homeopathy in American: the rise and fall and persistence of a medical heresy . In: Gevitz N, ed. Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1988. 2. Hahnemann S; Boericke W, trans. Organon of Medicine. 6th ed. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers; 1980. 3. Bellavite P, Signorini A. Homeopathy: A Frontier in Medical Science . Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books; 1995. 4. Kaufman M. Homeopathy in America . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1971. 5. Guthrie D. A History of Medicine . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1946. 6. Shryock RH. The Development of Modern Medicine. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; 1974. 7. Fye WB. Nitroglycerin: a homeopathic remedy . Circulation. 1986;73:21-29.Crossref 8. Haller JS. Aconite: a case study in doctrinal conflict and the meaning of scientific medicine . Bull N Y Acad Med. 1984;60:888-904. 9. Nicholls PA. Homeopathy and the Medical Profession . London, England: Croom Helm; 1988. 10. Cassedy JH. American Medicine and Statistical Thinking , 1800-1960. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1984. 11. Perez CB, Tomsko PL. Homeopathy and the treatment of mental illness in the 19th century . Hosp Comm Psychiatry. 1994;45:1030-1033. 12. Rothstein WG. American Physicians in the 19th Century . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1992. 13. Gevitz N. Alternative medicine and the orthodox canon . Mt Sinai J Med. 1995;62:127-131. 14. Starr P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine . New York, NY: Basic Books; 1982. 15. Flexner A. The Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada . New York, NY: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; 1910. 16. Moore M, Stephenson J. A motivational and sociological analysis of homeopathic physicians in the USA and UK . Br Homeopathic J. 1962;51:207-303.Crossref 17. Fisher P, Ward A. Complementary medicine in Europe. BMJ. 1994;309:107-111.Crossref 18. Lewith G, Aldridge D, eds. Complementary Medicine and the European Community . Saffron Waldern, England: CW Daniel; 1991. 19. British Medical Association. Complementary Medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1993. 20. Schüppel R, Schlich Th. Die Verbreitung der Homöopathie unter Ärzten in Deutschland. Fortschr Komplementarmed. 1994;1:177-183.Crossref 21. Ernst E. Towards quality in complementary health care: is the German 'Heilpraktiker' a model for complementary practitioners? Int J Q Health. 1996; 8:187-190. 22. Bouchager F. Alternative medicine: a general approach to the French situation . Compl Med Res. 1990;4:4-8. 23. Ernst E. Bitter pills of nature . Pain. 1995;60:237-238.Crossref 24. Demarque D. The development of proving methods since Hahnemann . Br Homeopath J. 1987; 76:271-275.Crossref 25. Bayr G. A model for homeopathic drug tests including statistical analysis . Br Homeopath J. 1986; 75:80-88.Crossref 26. Walach H. Does a highly diluted homeopathic drug act as a placebo in healthy volunteers? experimental study of Belladonna 30C in double-blind crossover design: a pilot study . J Psycho som Res. 1993;37:851-860.Crossref 27. Cambell A. Lycopodium from provings . Br Homeopath J. 1981;70:84-88. 28. Jarvis W. Homeopathy: a position statement by the National Council Against Health Fraud . Skeptic. 1994;3:50-57. 29. Vandenbroucke JP. Theory and practice: how do they relate to each other, and why is a practice like homeopathy theoretically unacceptable? In: Schmidt JG, Steele RG, eds. Kritik der Medizinischen Vernunft . Mainz, Germany: Kirchheim; 1994. 30. Stalker DF. Evidence and alternative medicine . Mt Sinai J Med. 1995;62:132-143. 31. Leary B. Homeopathic prescribing in the late 19th century . Br Homeopath J. 1994;83:240-244.Crossref 32. van Haselen R, Fisher P. Describing and improving homeopathy . Br Homeopath J. 1994;83:135-141.Crossref 33. Berkowitz CD. Homeopathy: keeping an open mind . Lancet. 1994;344:701-702.Crossref 34. Ernst E. Complementary medicine: scrutinizing the alternatives . Lancet. 1993;341:1626.Crossref 35. Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM. The tomato effect: rejection of highly efficacious therapies . JAMA. 1984;251:2387-2390.Crossref 36. Ernst E, Resch KL. The science and art of the placebo-effect . Update. 1994;49:619-622. 37. Cabot RC. How far do homeopathic and other physicians agree, and how far can they agree? N Engl Med Gazette. 1906;41:587-595. 38. Ernst E. Patient's perception of complementary therapies . Fortsch Komplementarmed. 1995;2:326-329.Crossref 39. Ernst E, Resch KL, White AR. Complementary medicine: what physicians think of it: a meta-analysis . Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2405-2408.Crossref 40. Ernst E. Evaluation of homoeopathy in Nazi Germany . Br J Homoeopath. 1995;84:229.Crossref 41. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, ter Riet G. Clinical trials of homeopathy . BMJ. 1991;302:316-323.Crossref 42. Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, et al. Is the evidence for homeopathy reproducible? Lancet. 1994;344:1601-1606.Crossref 43. Jacobs J, Jimeriez M, Gloyd SS. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea with homoeopathic medicine: a randomised clinical trial in Nicaragua . Paediatrics. 1994;93:719-725. 44. deLange de Klerk ESM, Blommers J, Kuik DJ, et al. Effect of homeopathic medicines on daily burden of symptoms in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections . BMJ. 1994; 309:1329-1332.Crossref 45. Lokken P, Straumsheim PA, Tvieten D, et al. Effect of homeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery . BMJ. 1995;310:1439-1442.Crossref 46. Buckman R, Lewith G. What does homeopathy do—and how? BMJ. 1994;309:103-105.Crossref 47. Mayaux MJ, Guilhard-Mostcato ML, Schwartz D, et al. Controlled clinical trial of homeopathy in postoperative ileus . Lancet. 1988;1:528-529.Crossref 48. Brigo B, Serpellowi G. Homeopathic treatment of migraine: a randomised double-blind controlled study of sixty cases (homeopathic remedy versus placebo) . Berl J Res Homoeopath. 1991;1:98-105. 49. European Commission for Homoeopathy: Internal Document. Journal of Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology . Brussels, Belgium: European Commission for Homoeopathy; 1994. 50. Walach H. Change to open label design . Ztschr Klin Psychol. 1994;23:213-218. 51. Ernst E, Resch KL. The 'optional cross-over design' for randomized controlled trials . J Fundam Clin Pharm. 1995;9:508-511.Crossref 52. Ernst E. The safety of homeopathy. Br J Homoeopath . 1995;34:193-194.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1996.00440180014001
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Abstract

Abstract IN MOST countries, homeopathy has come and gone in major waves. Currently, we are witnessing its renaissance both in the United States and Europe.1 In 1994, Americans spent $165 million on homeopathic remedies and sales are rising more than 20% yearly (Time. September 25, 1995:47-48; Business Week. October 23, 1995:58-59). Of 150 new cold remedies launched in the United States in 1994, for instance, 34 were homeopathic compared with 17 of 92 in 1992 (Wall Street Journal. February 23, 1995:1). Physicians therefore increasingly feel the need for more information. This article is aimed at revisiting homeopathy from a historical perspective. Homeopathy was developed by the German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843). He noticed in 1789 that when he took the malaria remedy quinine, it produced most of the symptoms of malaria in himself. Hahnemann went on to conduct similar "provings" on himself, friends, and patients and postulated that "like cures References 1. Kaufman M. Homeopathy in American: the rise and fall and persistence of a medical heresy . In: Gevitz N, ed. Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1988. 2. Hahnemann S; Boericke W, trans. Organon of Medicine. 6th ed. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers; 1980. 3. Bellavite P, Signorini A. Homeopathy: A Frontier in Medical Science . Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books; 1995. 4. Kaufman M. Homeopathy in America . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1971. 5. Guthrie D. A History of Medicine . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1946. 6. Shryock RH. The Development of Modern Medicine. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; 1974. 7. Fye WB. Nitroglycerin: a homeopathic remedy . Circulation. 1986;73:21-29.Crossref 8. Haller JS. Aconite: a case study in doctrinal conflict and the meaning of scientific medicine . Bull N Y Acad Med. 1984;60:888-904. 9. Nicholls PA. Homeopathy and the Medical Profession . London, England: Croom Helm; 1988. 10. Cassedy JH. American Medicine and Statistical Thinking , 1800-1960. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1984. 11. Perez CB, Tomsko PL. Homeopathy and the treatment of mental illness in the 19th century . Hosp Comm Psychiatry. 1994;45:1030-1033. 12. Rothstein WG. American Physicians in the 19th Century . Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1992. 13. Gevitz N. Alternative medicine and the orthodox canon . Mt Sinai J Med. 1995;62:127-131. 14. Starr P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine . New York, NY: Basic Books; 1982. 15. Flexner A. The Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada . New York, NY: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; 1910. 16. Moore M, Stephenson J. A motivational and sociological analysis of homeopathic physicians in the USA and UK . Br Homeopathic J. 1962;51:207-303.Crossref 17. Fisher P, Ward A. Complementary medicine in Europe. BMJ. 1994;309:107-111.Crossref 18. Lewith G, Aldridge D, eds. Complementary Medicine and the European Community . Saffron Waldern, England: CW Daniel; 1991. 19. British Medical Association. Complementary Medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1993. 20. Schüppel R, Schlich Th. Die Verbreitung der Homöopathie unter Ärzten in Deutschland. Fortschr Komplementarmed. 1994;1:177-183.Crossref 21. Ernst E. Towards quality in complementary health care: is the German 'Heilpraktiker' a model for complementary practitioners? Int J Q Health. 1996; 8:187-190. 22. Bouchager F. Alternative medicine: a general approach to the French situation . Compl Med Res. 1990;4:4-8. 23. Ernst E. Bitter pills of nature . Pain. 1995;60:237-238.Crossref 24. Demarque D. The development of proving methods since Hahnemann . Br Homeopath J. 1987; 76:271-275.Crossref 25. Bayr G. A model for homeopathic drug tests including statistical analysis . Br Homeopath J. 1986; 75:80-88.Crossref 26. Walach H. Does a highly diluted homeopathic drug act as a placebo in healthy volunteers? experimental study of Belladonna 30C in double-blind crossover design: a pilot study . J Psycho som Res. 1993;37:851-860.Crossref 27. Cambell A. Lycopodium from provings . Br Homeopath J. 1981;70:84-88. 28. Jarvis W. Homeopathy: a position statement by the National Council Against Health Fraud . Skeptic. 1994;3:50-57. 29. Vandenbroucke JP. Theory and practice: how do they relate to each other, and why is a practice like homeopathy theoretically unacceptable? In: Schmidt JG, Steele RG, eds. Kritik der Medizinischen Vernunft . Mainz, Germany: Kirchheim; 1994. 30. Stalker DF. Evidence and alternative medicine . Mt Sinai J Med. 1995;62:132-143. 31. Leary B. Homeopathic prescribing in the late 19th century . Br Homeopath J. 1994;83:240-244.Crossref 32. van Haselen R, Fisher P. Describing and improving homeopathy . Br Homeopath J. 1994;83:135-141.Crossref 33. Berkowitz CD. Homeopathy: keeping an open mind . Lancet. 1994;344:701-702.Crossref 34. Ernst E. Complementary medicine: scrutinizing the alternatives . Lancet. 1993;341:1626.Crossref 35. Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM. The tomato effect: rejection of highly efficacious therapies . JAMA. 1984;251:2387-2390.Crossref 36. Ernst E, Resch KL. The science and art of the placebo-effect . Update. 1994;49:619-622. 37. Cabot RC. How far do homeopathic and other physicians agree, and how far can they agree? N Engl Med Gazette. 1906;41:587-595. 38. Ernst E. Patient's perception of complementary therapies . Fortsch Komplementarmed. 1995;2:326-329.Crossref 39. Ernst E, Resch KL, White AR. Complementary medicine: what physicians think of it: a meta-analysis . Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2405-2408.Crossref 40. Ernst E. Evaluation of homoeopathy in Nazi Germany . Br J Homoeopath. 1995;84:229.Crossref 41. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, ter Riet G. Clinical trials of homeopathy . BMJ. 1991;302:316-323.Crossref 42. Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, et al. Is the evidence for homeopathy reproducible? Lancet. 1994;344:1601-1606.Crossref 43. Jacobs J, Jimeriez M, Gloyd SS. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea with homoeopathic medicine: a randomised clinical trial in Nicaragua . Paediatrics. 1994;93:719-725. 44. deLange de Klerk ESM, Blommers J, Kuik DJ, et al. Effect of homeopathic medicines on daily burden of symptoms in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections . BMJ. 1994; 309:1329-1332.Crossref 45. Lokken P, Straumsheim PA, Tvieten D, et al. Effect of homeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery . BMJ. 1995;310:1439-1442.Crossref 46. Buckman R, Lewith G. What does homeopathy do—and how? BMJ. 1994;309:103-105.Crossref 47. Mayaux MJ, Guilhard-Mostcato ML, Schwartz D, et al. Controlled clinical trial of homeopathy in postoperative ileus . Lancet. 1988;1:528-529.Crossref 48. Brigo B, Serpellowi G. Homeopathic treatment of migraine: a randomised double-blind controlled study of sixty cases (homeopathic remedy versus placebo) . Berl J Res Homoeopath. 1991;1:98-105. 49. European Commission for Homoeopathy: Internal Document. Journal of Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology . Brussels, Belgium: European Commission for Homoeopathy; 1994. 50. Walach H. Change to open label design . Ztschr Klin Psychol. 1994;23:213-218. 51. Ernst E, Resch KL. The 'optional cross-over design' for randomized controlled trials . J Fundam Clin Pharm. 1995;9:508-511.Crossref 52. Ernst E. The safety of homeopathy. Br J Homoeopath . 1995;34:193-194.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 28, 1996

References