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History of Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: II. After Moniz, With Special Reference to Surgical Treatment

History of Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: II. After Moniz, With Special Reference to Surgical... Abstract • Angiography and related procedures are discussed. Ophthalmodynamometry, recording of bruits and temporal pulse, and thermography have been mentioned. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and some causes are described: embolic obstruction, followed by absorption of the clot or its removal in the blood, with symtomatic recovery; hemodynamic crisis resulting from lowering of systemic blood pressure by hemorrhage due to trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other causes with recovery following blood replacement. Special types of occlusive disease include fibromuscular hyperplasia of the carotid, dissecting aneurysm of the aortic arch and branches, causing carotid and vertebral occlusions, moyamoya disease, and low profusion syndrome, generalized or unilateral. Surgical management includes reconstructive surgery and endarterectomy of extracranial vessels supplying the brain and extracranial-intracranial vascular anastomosis. References 1. Moniz R: Injections intracaroditinnes et substances injectables opaques aux rayons x . Presse Med 35:969-971, 1927. 2. dos Santos R, Lamas A, Caldas J: L'artériographie des membres, de l'aorte et de ses branches abdominales . Bull Soc Nat Chir 55:587-601, 1929. 3. Sjöqvist O: Uber intrakranielle Aneurysmen der Arteria carotid und deren Beziehund zur opthalmoplegischen Migräne . Nervenarzt 9:233-241, 1936. 4. Moniz R, Lima A, de Lacerda R: Hémiplégies par thrombose de la carotide interne . Presse Med 45:977-980, 1937. 5. Zindses des Plantes BG: Plangraphic en subtractic Röntgenographische Differentiatic Methoden, thesis. Utrecht, Keminp en Zoon. M. V., 1934. 6. Hounsfield GN: Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part I. Description of system . Br J Radiol 46:1016-1022, 1973.Crossref 7. Sedlinger SI: Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriogram: A new technique . Acta Radiol 38:368-376, 1953. 8. Baker HL Jr: A new approach to percutaneous subclavian angiography . Proc Mayo Clin 35:169-174, 1960. 9. Hugh AE: Trickle arteriography: Demonstration of thrombi in the origin of the internal carotid artery . Br Med J 2:574-576, 1970.Crossref 10. Bailliart P: Circulation artérielle rétinienne: Essais de détermination de la tension artérielle dans les branches de l'artère centrale de la rétine . Ann Ocul Paris 154:257-271, 1917. 11. Croll M, Hardy WG, Lindner DW, et al: Evaluation of opthalmodynamometric and angiographic findings in patients with internal carotid artery thrombosis . J Neurosurg 17:394-401, 1960.Crossref 12. Heyman A, Karp HR, Bloor BM: Determination of retinal artery pressures in diagnosis of carotid artery occlusion . Neurology 7:97-104, 1957.Crossref 13. Toole JF: Bruit, opthalmodynamometry, carotid compression tests and other diagnostic procedures . Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 14:266-277, 1966. 14. Webster JE, Gurdjian ES, Martin FA: Mechanism of syncope due to unilateral compression of carotid bifurcation . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 74:556-558, 1955.Crossref 15. Hardesty WH, Roberts B, Toole JF, et al: Studies of carotid-artery blood flow in man . N Engl J Med 263:944-946, 1960.Crossref 16. Yuson CP, Toole JR: Bruits, opthalmodynamometry and rectilinear scanning on transient ischemic attacks . Stroke 7:541-545, 1976.Crossref 17. Capistrant TD, Gumnit RJ: Thermography and extracranial cerebrovascular disease . Arch Neurol 22:499-503, 1970.Crossref 18. Meyer JS, Leiderman H, Denny-Brown D: Electroencephalographic study of insufficiency of the basilar and carotid arteries in men . Neurology 6:455-462, 1956.Crossref 19. Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Anderson RE, et al: Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalogram during carotid endarterectomy . J Neurosurg 41:310-320, 1974.Crossref 20. Janaway R, Maynard CD: Rapid sequence scintiphotography in the differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular occlusive disorders (radioisotope angiography with camera), in Toole JF, Mossy J, Janaway R (eds): Cerebral Vascular Disease: Seventh Conference. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1971. 21. Turnipseed WD, Berkoff J, Barriga P: Doppler scanning and xerography: A scanning procedure . Stroke 8:2, 1977. 22. Kubik CS, Adams RD: Occlusion of the basilar artery: A clinical and pathological study . Brain 69:73-121, 1946.Crossref 23. Denny-Brown D: The treatment of recurrent cerebrovascular symptoms and the questions of "Vasospasm." Med Clin North Am 35:1457-1474, 1951. 24. Millikan CG, Siekert RG, Shick RM: Studies in cerebrovascular disease: V. The use of anticoagulent drugs in the treatment of intermittent insufficiency of the internal carotid arterial system . Mayo Clin Proc 30:578-586, 1955. 25. Marshall J: The natural history of transient ischemic cerebrovascular attacks . Am J Med 33:309-324, 1964. 26. Acheson J, Hutchinson EC: Observations on the natural history of transient cerebral ischaemia . Lancet 2:871-874, 1964.Crossref 27. Loeb C, Meyer JS: Strokes Due to Vertebrobasilar Disease . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 19:307, 1965. 28. Yates PL, Hutchinson EC: Cerebral Infarction: The Role of Stenosis of the Extracranial Cerebral Arteries . London, HM Stationery Office, Medical Research Council Special Report, Series No. 300, 1961. 29. Mitchell JRA, Schwartz CJ: Arterial Disease . Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1965, p 411. 30. Fisher M: Transient monocular blindness associated with hemiplegia . Trans Am Neurol Assoc pp 154-158, 1951. 31. Hollenhorst RW: Significance of bright plaques in the retinal arterioles . JAMA 178:23-29, 1961.Crossref 32. Adams RD: Mechanisms of apoplexy as determined by clinical and pathological correlation . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 13:1-13, 1954.Crossref 33. Connett MC, Lansche JM: Fibromuscular hyperplasia of the internal carotid artery . Ann Surg 162:59-62, 1965.Crossref 34. Wylie EJ, Ehrenfeld WK: Extracranial Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1970, p 231. 35. Brihaye J, Retif J, Jeanmart L, et al: Occlusion of the basilar artery in young patients . Acta Neurochir 25:225-229, 1971.Crossref 36. Suzuki J, Takaku A: Cerebrovascular moyamoya disease . Arch Neurol 20:277-299, 1969. 37. Takeuchi L: Occlusive disease of carotid artery: Recent advances of research of the nervous system . Skinkei Kenkyo No Shimpo 5:511-543, 1961. 38. Kety SS, Schmidt CF: The nitrous oxide method for the quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow in man: Theory, procedure and normal values . J Clin Invest 27:476-483, 1948.Crossref 39. Lassen NA, Munck CK: Cerebral blood flow in men determined by the use of radioactive krypton . Acta Physiol Scand 33:30-49, 1955.Crossref 40. Lassen NA: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man . Physiol Rev 39:183-238, 1959. 41. Ingvar D, Lassen NA: Regional blood flow of cerebral cortex determined by krypton85 . Acta Physiol Scand 54:325-338, 1962.Crossref 42. McHenry LC Jr: Quantitative cerebral blood flow determination: Application of krypton85 desaturation technique in man . Neurology 14:785-793, 1964.Crossref 43. Overgaard J, Tweed WA: Cerebral circulation after head injury . J Neurosurg 41:531-541, 1974.Crossref 44. Jaboulay M: Chirurgie des artéres; ses applications à quelques lésions de l'artère fémorale . Sem Med Paris 22:405-406, 1902. 45. Carrel, Morel: Anastomose bout à bout de la jugulaire et de la carotide primitive . Lyon Med 99:114-116, 1902. 46. Beck CA, McKhann CF, Belnap WD: Revascularization of the brain through establishment of a cervical arteriovenous fistula: Effects in children with mental retardation and convulsive disorders . J Pediatr 35:317-329, 1949.Crossref 47. McKhann CF, Belnap WD, Beck CS: Cervical arteriovenous anastomosis in treatment of mental retardation, convulsive disorders and cerebral spasticity . Ann Surg 132:162-175, 1950.Crossref 48. Gurdjian ES, Webster JE, Martin FA: Carotid-internal jugular anastomosis in the rhesus monkey . J Neurosurg 7:467-472, 1950.Crossref 49. dos Santos JC: Sur la désobstruction des thromboses aetérielles anciennes . Mem Acad Chir 73:409-411, 1947. 50. Cannon JA, Barker WF: Successful management of obstructive femoral arteriosclerosis by endarterectomy . Surgery 38:480-485, 1955. 51. Luke JC: The value of surgery in the treatment of arteriosclerotic leg . Postgrad Med 22:10-20, 1957. 52. Wylie EJ, Gardner R: Thrombo-endarterectomy . Surgery 37:415-426, 1955. 53. Crawford ES, DeBakey ME: Bypass operations in the treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 101:529-535, 1955. 54. Laufman H, Holf R, Berhard B, et al: End to side bypass homografts without resection in segmental arterial occlusion . Arch Surg 73:418-431, 1956.Crossref 55. Strully KJ, Hurwitt ES, Blankenberg HW: Thromboendarterectomy for thrombosis of the internal carotid artery in the neck . J Neurosurg 10:474-482, 1953.Crossref 56. Eascott HHG, Pickering GW, Rob CG: Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of hemiplegia . Lancet 2:994-996, 1954.Crossref 57. Carrea R, Molins M, Murphy G: Surgical treatment of spontaneous thrombosis of the internal carotid artery in the neck: Carotid-carotideal anastomosis: Report of a case . Acta Neurol Lat Am 1:71-78, 1955. 58. Cooley DA, Al-Naaman YD, Carton CA: Surgical treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusion of the common carotid artery . J Neurosurg 13:500-506, 1956.Crossref 59. Lyons C, Galbraith G: Surgical treatment of atherosclerotic occlusion of the internal carotid artery . Ann Surg 146:487-498, 1957.Crossref 60. Gurdjian ES, Webster JE: Thrombo-endarterectomy of the carotid bifurcation and the internal carotid artery . Surg Gynecol Obstet 106:421-426, 1958. 61. Gass HH, Smathers HM: Carotid artery insufficiency corrected by internal carotid thrombectomy . J Neurosurg 14:670-672, 1957. 62. Murphey F, Miller JH: Carotid insufficiency—Diagnosis and surgical treatment: A report of 21 cases . J Neurosurg 16:1-23, 1959.Crossref 63. DeBakey ME, Crawford ES, Cooley DA, et al: Cerebral arterial insufficiency: One to 11 year results following arterial reconstructive operation . Ann Surg 161:921-945, 1965.Crossref 64. Thompson JE: Surgery for Cerebrovascular Insufficiency (Stroke) . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1968, p 96. 65. Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Anderson RE, et al: Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalogram during carotid endarterectomy . J Neurosurg 41:310-320, 1974.Crossref 66. Hutchinson EC, Acheson EJ: Strokes; Natural History, Pathology and Surgical Treatment . London, WB Saunders Co, 1975, p 283. 67. Contorni L: Il Circolo collaterale vertebra-vertebrale nella obliterazione dell'arteria succlavia alla sua origine . Minerva Chir 15:268-271, 1960. 68. Reivich M, Holling HE, Roberts B, et al: Reversal of blood flow through the vertebral artery and its effect on cerebral circulation . N Engl J Med 265:878-891, 1969.Crossref 69. Heyman A, Young WG Jr, Dillon M, et al: Cerebral ischemia caused by occlusive lesions of the subclavian or innominate arteries . Arch Neurol 10:581-589, 1964.Crossref 70. Fisher CM: Observations of the fundus oculi in transient monocular blindness . Neurology 9:333-347, 1959.Crossref 71. Jacobson JH, Suaraz EL: Microsurgery in anastomosis of small vessels . Surg Forum 11:1243, 1960. 72. Donaghy RM: What is new in surgery? Surg Gynecol Obstet 134:269-271, 1972. 73. Yasargil MG: Experimental small vessel surgery in dog including patching and grafting of cerebral vessels and the formation of functional extra-intracranial shunts , in Donaghy RMP, Yasargil MG (eds): Microvascular Surgery . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1967, pp 87-126. 74. Reichman OH: Extracranial-intracranial arterial anastomosis , in Whisnant JP, Sandok BA (eds): Cerebrovascular Diseases . New York, Grune & Stratton, 1975, pp 175-186. 75. Sundt TM, Houser OW, Sharbrough FW, et al: Carotid endarterectomy: Results, complications, and monitoring techniques . Adv Neurol 16:97-119, 1977. 76. Baker RN, Ramseyer JC, Schwartz WS: Prognosis in patients with transient cerebral ischemia . Neurology 18:1157-1165, 1965.Crossref 77. Goldner JC, Whisnant JP, Taylor WF: Long term prognosis of transient cerebral ischemic attacks . Stroke 2:160-167, 1971.Crossref 78. Karp HR, Heyman A, Heydon S, et al: Transient cerebral ischemia: Prevalence and prognosis in a biracial rural community . JAMA 225:125-128, 1973.Crossref 79. Baker RN, Schwartz WS, Ramseyer JC: Prognosis among survivors of ischemic stroke . Neurology 18:933-941, 1968.Crossref 80. Dodge PR, Richardson EP, Victor M: Recurrent convulsive seizures as a sequel to cerebral infarction . Brain 77:610-638, 1954.Crossref 81. Lawson LJ: The surgical treatment of extracranial cerebrovascular disease , in Hutchinson EC, Acheson EJ (eds): Strokes . London, Saunders, 1975, pp 237-278. 82. Bauer RB, Meyer JS, Fields WS, et al: Joint study of extracranial arterial occlusion: Progress report of controlled study of long-term survival with or without operation . JAMA 208:509-518, 1969.Crossref 83. DeWeese JA, Rob CG, Satran R, et al: Results of carotid endarterectomies for transient ischemic attacks: Five years later . Ann Surg 178:258-264, 1973.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

History of Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: II. After Moniz, With Special Reference to Surgical Treatment

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9942
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1979.00500430057008
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Abstract

Abstract • Angiography and related procedures are discussed. Ophthalmodynamometry, recording of bruits and temporal pulse, and thermography have been mentioned. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and some causes are described: embolic obstruction, followed by absorption of the clot or its removal in the blood, with symtomatic recovery; hemodynamic crisis resulting from lowering of systemic blood pressure by hemorrhage due to trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and other causes with recovery following blood replacement. Special types of occlusive disease include fibromuscular hyperplasia of the carotid, dissecting aneurysm of the aortic arch and branches, causing carotid and vertebral occlusions, moyamoya disease, and low profusion syndrome, generalized or unilateral. Surgical management includes reconstructive surgery and endarterectomy of extracranial vessels supplying the brain and extracranial-intracranial vascular anastomosis. References 1. Moniz R: Injections intracaroditinnes et substances injectables opaques aux rayons x . Presse Med 35:969-971, 1927. 2. dos Santos R, Lamas A, Caldas J: L'artériographie des membres, de l'aorte et de ses branches abdominales . Bull Soc Nat Chir 55:587-601, 1929. 3. Sjöqvist O: Uber intrakranielle Aneurysmen der Arteria carotid und deren Beziehund zur opthalmoplegischen Migräne . Nervenarzt 9:233-241, 1936. 4. Moniz R, Lima A, de Lacerda R: Hémiplégies par thrombose de la carotide interne . Presse Med 45:977-980, 1937. 5. Zindses des Plantes BG: Plangraphic en subtractic Röntgenographische Differentiatic Methoden, thesis. Utrecht, Keminp en Zoon. M. V., 1934. 6. Hounsfield GN: Computerized transverse axial scanning (tomography): Part I. Description of system . Br J Radiol 46:1016-1022, 1973.Crossref 7. Sedlinger SI: Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriogram: A new technique . Acta Radiol 38:368-376, 1953. 8. Baker HL Jr: A new approach to percutaneous subclavian angiography . Proc Mayo Clin 35:169-174, 1960. 9. Hugh AE: Trickle arteriography: Demonstration of thrombi in the origin of the internal carotid artery . Br Med J 2:574-576, 1970.Crossref 10. Bailliart P: Circulation artérielle rétinienne: Essais de détermination de la tension artérielle dans les branches de l'artère centrale de la rétine . Ann Ocul Paris 154:257-271, 1917. 11. Croll M, Hardy WG, Lindner DW, et al: Evaluation of opthalmodynamometric and angiographic findings in patients with internal carotid artery thrombosis . J Neurosurg 17:394-401, 1960.Crossref 12. Heyman A, Karp HR, Bloor BM: Determination of retinal artery pressures in diagnosis of carotid artery occlusion . Neurology 7:97-104, 1957.Crossref 13. Toole JF: Bruit, opthalmodynamometry, carotid compression tests and other diagnostic procedures . Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 14:266-277, 1966. 14. Webster JE, Gurdjian ES, Martin FA: Mechanism of syncope due to unilateral compression of carotid bifurcation . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 74:556-558, 1955.Crossref 15. Hardesty WH, Roberts B, Toole JF, et al: Studies of carotid-artery blood flow in man . N Engl J Med 263:944-946, 1960.Crossref 16. Yuson CP, Toole JR: Bruits, opthalmodynamometry and rectilinear scanning on transient ischemic attacks . Stroke 7:541-545, 1976.Crossref 17. Capistrant TD, Gumnit RJ: Thermography and extracranial cerebrovascular disease . Arch Neurol 22:499-503, 1970.Crossref 18. Meyer JS, Leiderman H, Denny-Brown D: Electroencephalographic study of insufficiency of the basilar and carotid arteries in men . Neurology 6:455-462, 1956.Crossref 19. Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Anderson RE, et al: Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalogram during carotid endarterectomy . J Neurosurg 41:310-320, 1974.Crossref 20. Janaway R, Maynard CD: Rapid sequence scintiphotography in the differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular occlusive disorders (radioisotope angiography with camera), in Toole JF, Mossy J, Janaway R (eds): Cerebral Vascular Disease: Seventh Conference. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1971. 21. Turnipseed WD, Berkoff J, Barriga P: Doppler scanning and xerography: A scanning procedure . Stroke 8:2, 1977. 22. Kubik CS, Adams RD: Occlusion of the basilar artery: A clinical and pathological study . Brain 69:73-121, 1946.Crossref 23. Denny-Brown D: The treatment of recurrent cerebrovascular symptoms and the questions of "Vasospasm." Med Clin North Am 35:1457-1474, 1951. 24. Millikan CG, Siekert RG, Shick RM: Studies in cerebrovascular disease: V. The use of anticoagulent drugs in the treatment of intermittent insufficiency of the internal carotid arterial system . Mayo Clin Proc 30:578-586, 1955. 25. Marshall J: The natural history of transient ischemic cerebrovascular attacks . Am J Med 33:309-324, 1964. 26. Acheson J, Hutchinson EC: Observations on the natural history of transient cerebral ischaemia . Lancet 2:871-874, 1964.Crossref 27. Loeb C, Meyer JS: Strokes Due to Vertebrobasilar Disease . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 19:307, 1965. 28. Yates PL, Hutchinson EC: Cerebral Infarction: The Role of Stenosis of the Extracranial Cerebral Arteries . London, HM Stationery Office, Medical Research Council Special Report, Series No. 300, 1961. 29. Mitchell JRA, Schwartz CJ: Arterial Disease . Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1965, p 411. 30. Fisher M: Transient monocular blindness associated with hemiplegia . Trans Am Neurol Assoc pp 154-158, 1951. 31. Hollenhorst RW: Significance of bright plaques in the retinal arterioles . JAMA 178:23-29, 1961.Crossref 32. Adams RD: Mechanisms of apoplexy as determined by clinical and pathological correlation . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 13:1-13, 1954.Crossref 33. Connett MC, Lansche JM: Fibromuscular hyperplasia of the internal carotid artery . Ann Surg 162:59-62, 1965.Crossref 34. Wylie EJ, Ehrenfeld WK: Extracranial Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1970, p 231. 35. Brihaye J, Retif J, Jeanmart L, et al: Occlusion of the basilar artery in young patients . Acta Neurochir 25:225-229, 1971.Crossref 36. Suzuki J, Takaku A: Cerebrovascular moyamoya disease . Arch Neurol 20:277-299, 1969. 37. Takeuchi L: Occlusive disease of carotid artery: Recent advances of research of the nervous system . Skinkei Kenkyo No Shimpo 5:511-543, 1961. 38. Kety SS, Schmidt CF: The nitrous oxide method for the quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow in man: Theory, procedure and normal values . J Clin Invest 27:476-483, 1948.Crossref 39. Lassen NA, Munck CK: Cerebral blood flow in men determined by the use of radioactive krypton . Acta Physiol Scand 33:30-49, 1955.Crossref 40. Lassen NA: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man . Physiol Rev 39:183-238, 1959. 41. Ingvar D, Lassen NA: Regional blood flow of cerebral cortex determined by krypton85 . Acta Physiol Scand 54:325-338, 1962.Crossref 42. McHenry LC Jr: Quantitative cerebral blood flow determination: Application of krypton85 desaturation technique in man . Neurology 14:785-793, 1964.Crossref 43. Overgaard J, Tweed WA: Cerebral circulation after head injury . J Neurosurg 41:531-541, 1974.Crossref 44. Jaboulay M: Chirurgie des artéres; ses applications à quelques lésions de l'artère fémorale . Sem Med Paris 22:405-406, 1902. 45. Carrel, Morel: Anastomose bout à bout de la jugulaire et de la carotide primitive . Lyon Med 99:114-116, 1902. 46. Beck CA, McKhann CF, Belnap WD: Revascularization of the brain through establishment of a cervical arteriovenous fistula: Effects in children with mental retardation and convulsive disorders . J Pediatr 35:317-329, 1949.Crossref 47. McKhann CF, Belnap WD, Beck CS: Cervical arteriovenous anastomosis in treatment of mental retardation, convulsive disorders and cerebral spasticity . Ann Surg 132:162-175, 1950.Crossref 48. Gurdjian ES, Webster JE, Martin FA: Carotid-internal jugular anastomosis in the rhesus monkey . J Neurosurg 7:467-472, 1950.Crossref 49. dos Santos JC: Sur la désobstruction des thromboses aetérielles anciennes . Mem Acad Chir 73:409-411, 1947. 50. Cannon JA, Barker WF: Successful management of obstructive femoral arteriosclerosis by endarterectomy . Surgery 38:480-485, 1955. 51. Luke JC: The value of surgery in the treatment of arteriosclerotic leg . Postgrad Med 22:10-20, 1957. 52. Wylie EJ, Gardner R: Thrombo-endarterectomy . Surgery 37:415-426, 1955. 53. Crawford ES, DeBakey ME: Bypass operations in the treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities . Surg Gynecol Obstet 101:529-535, 1955. 54. Laufman H, Holf R, Berhard B, et al: End to side bypass homografts without resection in segmental arterial occlusion . Arch Surg 73:418-431, 1956.Crossref 55. Strully KJ, Hurwitt ES, Blankenberg HW: Thromboendarterectomy for thrombosis of the internal carotid artery in the neck . J Neurosurg 10:474-482, 1953.Crossref 56. Eascott HHG, Pickering GW, Rob CG: Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of hemiplegia . Lancet 2:994-996, 1954.Crossref 57. Carrea R, Molins M, Murphy G: Surgical treatment of spontaneous thrombosis of the internal carotid artery in the neck: Carotid-carotideal anastomosis: Report of a case . Acta Neurol Lat Am 1:71-78, 1955. 58. Cooley DA, Al-Naaman YD, Carton CA: Surgical treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusion of the common carotid artery . J Neurosurg 13:500-506, 1956.Crossref 59. Lyons C, Galbraith G: Surgical treatment of atherosclerotic occlusion of the internal carotid artery . Ann Surg 146:487-498, 1957.Crossref 60. Gurdjian ES, Webster JE: Thrombo-endarterectomy of the carotid bifurcation and the internal carotid artery . Surg Gynecol Obstet 106:421-426, 1958. 61. Gass HH, Smathers HM: Carotid artery insufficiency corrected by internal carotid thrombectomy . J Neurosurg 14:670-672, 1957. 62. Murphey F, Miller JH: Carotid insufficiency—Diagnosis and surgical treatment: A report of 21 cases . J Neurosurg 16:1-23, 1959.Crossref 63. DeBakey ME, Crawford ES, Cooley DA, et al: Cerebral arterial insufficiency: One to 11 year results following arterial reconstructive operation . Ann Surg 161:921-945, 1965.Crossref 64. Thompson JE: Surgery for Cerebrovascular Insufficiency (Stroke) . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1968, p 96. 65. Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Anderson RE, et al: Cerebral blood flow measurements and electroencephalogram during carotid endarterectomy . J Neurosurg 41:310-320, 1974.Crossref 66. Hutchinson EC, Acheson EJ: Strokes; Natural History, Pathology and Surgical Treatment . London, WB Saunders Co, 1975, p 283. 67. Contorni L: Il Circolo collaterale vertebra-vertebrale nella obliterazione dell'arteria succlavia alla sua origine . Minerva Chir 15:268-271, 1960. 68. Reivich M, Holling HE, Roberts B, et al: Reversal of blood flow through the vertebral artery and its effect on cerebral circulation . N Engl J Med 265:878-891, 1969.Crossref 69. Heyman A, Young WG Jr, Dillon M, et al: Cerebral ischemia caused by occlusive lesions of the subclavian or innominate arteries . Arch Neurol 10:581-589, 1964.Crossref 70. Fisher CM: Observations of the fundus oculi in transient monocular blindness . Neurology 9:333-347, 1959.Crossref 71. Jacobson JH, Suaraz EL: Microsurgery in anastomosis of small vessels . Surg Forum 11:1243, 1960. 72. Donaghy RM: What is new in surgery? Surg Gynecol Obstet 134:269-271, 1972. 73. Yasargil MG: Experimental small vessel surgery in dog including patching and grafting of cerebral vessels and the formation of functional extra-intracranial shunts , in Donaghy RMP, Yasargil MG (eds): Microvascular Surgery . St Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1967, pp 87-126. 74. Reichman OH: Extracranial-intracranial arterial anastomosis , in Whisnant JP, Sandok BA (eds): Cerebrovascular Diseases . New York, Grune & Stratton, 1975, pp 175-186. 75. Sundt TM, Houser OW, Sharbrough FW, et al: Carotid endarterectomy: Results, complications, and monitoring techniques . Adv Neurol 16:97-119, 1977. 76. Baker RN, Ramseyer JC, Schwartz WS: Prognosis in patients with transient cerebral ischemia . Neurology 18:1157-1165, 1965.Crossref 77. Goldner JC, Whisnant JP, Taylor WF: Long term prognosis of transient cerebral ischemic attacks . Stroke 2:160-167, 1971.Crossref 78. Karp HR, Heyman A, Heydon S, et al: Transient cerebral ischemia: Prevalence and prognosis in a biracial rural community . JAMA 225:125-128, 1973.Crossref 79. Baker RN, Schwartz WS, Ramseyer JC: Prognosis among survivors of ischemic stroke . Neurology 18:933-941, 1968.Crossref 80. Dodge PR, Richardson EP, Victor M: Recurrent convulsive seizures as a sequel to cerebral infarction . Brain 77:610-638, 1954.Crossref 81. Lawson LJ: The surgical treatment of extracranial cerebrovascular disease , in Hutchinson EC, Acheson EJ (eds): Strokes . London, Saunders, 1975, pp 237-278. 82. Bauer RB, Meyer JS, Fields WS, et al: Joint study of extracranial arterial occlusion: Progress report of controlled study of long-term survival with or without operation . JAMA 208:509-518, 1969.Crossref 83. DeWeese JA, Rob CG, Satran R, et al: Results of carotid endarterectomies for transient ischemic attacks: Five years later . Ann Surg 178:258-264, 1973.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1979

References

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