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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori Abstract Helicobacter pylori is the cause of chronic active gastritis. It is integral to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and is epidemiologically linked to gastric cancer and lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori can be detected through a variety of invasive (urease testing, culture, or histologic diagnosis of endoscopic biopsies) and noninvasive (urease breath tests, serologic tests) diagnostic tests. It is now appropriate to detect and eradicate H pylori in patients with a peptic ulcer as the natural history of peptic ulcer disease is then markedly improved. At this time, there is no role for H pylori eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer; however, this concept is being actively investigated. There is no indication to treat patients who have H pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia or gastritis because eradication does not reliably affect their symptoms. Current regimens for eradication include bismuth, antibiotics, and antisecretory agents. Complex and poorly tolerated regimens (triple therapy) may no longer be necessary, as simpler regimens (omeprazole and amoxicillin or clarithromycin) appear to be as effective and better tolerated. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:721-727) References 1. Marshall BJ. Unidentified curved bacilla in gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis . Lancet . 1983;1:1273-1275. 2. Goodwin CS, Armstrong JA, Chilvers T, et al. Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov. and Helicobacter mustelae comb. nov., respectively . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1989;39:397-405.Crossref 3. Doenges JL. Spirochaetes in gastric glands of macacus rhesus and humans without definitive history of related disease . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1938;38:536-538.Crossref 4. Doenges JL. Spirochaetes in the gastric glands of macacus rhesus and of man without related disease . Arch Pathol Lab Med . 1939;27:469. 5. Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration . Lancet . 1984;1:1311-1315.Crossref 6. Laine L. Are gastritis and peptic ulcer infectious diseases? Contemp Intern Med . 1990:22-34. 7. Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal inflammation . J Infect Dis . 1990;161:626-633.Crossref 8. Goodwin CS, Armstrong JA, Marshall BJ. Campylobacter pyloridis gastritis and peptic ulceration . J Clin Pathol . 1986;39:353-365.Crossref 9. Taylor DN, Blaser MJ. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection . Epidemiol Rev . 1991; 13:42-59. 10. Malaty HM, Graham DY, Klein PD, Evans DG, Evans DJ. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection: studies in families of healthy individuals . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1991;26:927-932.Crossref 11. Krakowka S, Morgan DP, Kraft NG, Leunk RD. Establishment of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet . Infect Immun . 1987;55:2789-2796. 12. Chen XG, Correa P, Offerhaus J. Ultrastructure of the gastric mucosa harboring Campylobacterlike organisms . Am J Clin Pathol . 1986;86:575-582. 13. Hazel SL, Lee A, Brady L, Hennessey W. Campylobacterpyloridis and gastritis: association with intercellular spaces and adaptation to an environment of mucus as important factors in colonization of the gastric epithelium . J Infect Dis . 1986;153:658-663.Crossref 14. Sarosiek J, Slomiany A, Slomiany B. Evidence for weakening of gastric mucus integrity by Campylobacter pylori . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1988; 23:585-590.Crossref 15. Slomiany B, Bilsky J, Sarosiek J. Campylobacter pyloridis degrades mucin and undermines gastric mucosal integrity . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1987;144:307-312.Crossref 16. Figura N, Guglielmetti P, Rossolin A, et al. Cytotoxin production by Campylobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcers and from patients with chronic gastritis only . J Clin Microbiol . 1989;27:225-226. 17. Leunk RD, Johnson PT, David BC, Kraft WG, Morgan DR. Cytotoxic activity in broth culture filtrates of Campylobacter pylori . J Med Microbiol . 1988;26:93-99.Crossref 18. Cover TL, Cao P, Murthy UK, Sipple US, Blaser MJ. Serum neutralizing antibody response to the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori . J Clin Invest . 1992;90:913-918.Crossref 19. Fox JG, Correa P, Taylor NS, et al. High prevalence and persistence of cytotoxin-positive Helicobacter pylori strains in a population with a high prevalence of atrophic gastritis . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:1554-1560. 20. Cover TL, Blaser MJ. Purification and characterization of the vacuolating toxin from Helicobacter pylori . J Biol Chem . 1992;267:10570-10575. 21. Doig P, Austin JW, Kostrzynska M, Trust TJ. Production of a conserved adhesion by the human gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori . J Bacteriol . 1992;174:2539-2547. 22. O'Rourke JL, Lee A, Fox JG. Helicobacter infection in animals: a clue to the role of adhesion in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disease . Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 1992;4( (suppl 1) ):S31-S37. 23. Segal ED, Shon J, Tompkins LS. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori urease mutants . Infect Immun . 1992;10:1883-1889. 24. Ferrero R, Lee A. The importance of urease in acid protection for the gastric-colonizing bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis new species . Microb Health Dis . 1991;4:121-134.Crossref 25. Vaira D, Holton J, Miglioli M, Barbara L. Pathogenic mechanisms of acid-related diseases: Helicobacter and other spiral organisms . Curr Opin Gastroenterol . 1991;7:881-887.Crossref 26. Nujami E, Rowe PA, Dahill S, Dorrian CA, Niethercut WD, McColl KEL. Role of ammonia in the pathogenesis of the gastritis, hypergastrinemia, and hyperpepsinogenemia caused by Helicobacter pylori infection . Gut . 1992;33:1612-1616.Crossref 27. Segal ED, Shon J, Tompkins LS. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori urease mutants . Infect Immun . 1992;60:1883-1889. 28. Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Fusamoto H, Kamada T, Sato N. Mechanism of gastric mucosal damage induced by ammonia . Gastroenterology . 1992:102:881-888. 29. Perez-Perez GI, Dworkin B, Chodos J, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter pylorispecific serum antibodies in humans . Ann Intern Med . 1988;109:11-17.Crossref 30. Dooley CA, Cohen H. The clinical significance of Campylobacter pylori . Ann Intern Med . 1988; 108:70.Crossref 31. Dooley CA, Cohen H, Fitzgibbons PL, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic persons . N Engl J Med . 1987;321:1562-1566.Crossref 32. Dehesa M, Cooley CP, Cohen H, et al. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic Hispanics . J Clin Microbiol . 1991;29:1128-1131. 33. Graham DY, Malaty HM, Evans DG, Evans DJ, Klein PD, Adam E. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population in the United States . Gastroenterology . 1991;100:1495-1501. 34. Fiedorek SC, Malaty HM, Evans DL, et al. Factors in influencing the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in children . Pediatrics . 1991;88:578-582. 35. Drumm B, Perez-Perez GE, Blaser MJ, Sherman PM. Intrafamilial clustering of Helicobacter pylori infection . N Engl J Med . 1990;322:359-363.Crossref 36. Megrand F, Brassens-Rabbe MP, Denis F, et al. Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations . J Clin Microbiol . 1989;27:1870-1873. 37. Glupczynski Y, Bordeaux L, Verhas M, DePrez C, DeVos D, Devreker T. Use of a urea breath test versus invasive methods to determine the prevalence of H pylori in Zaire . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 1992;11:322-327.Crossref 38. Holcombe C, Omotara BA, Eldridge J, Jones DM. H pylori, the most common bacterial infection in Africa: a random serologic study . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:28-30. 39. Jones PM, Eldridge J, Fox AJ, et al. Antibody to the gastric Campylobacter-like organism: clinical correlations and distribution in the normal population . J Med Microbiol . 1986;22:57-62.Crossref 40. Parsonnet J, Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Hargrett-Bean N, Tauxe RV. Symptoms and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of epidemiologists . Gastroenterology . 1992;102:41-46. 41. Ramsey EJ, Carey KV, Peterson WL, et al. Epidemic gastritis with hypochlorhydria . Gastroenterology . 1979;76:1449-1457. 42. Gledhill J, Leicester RJ, Addis B, et al. Epidemic hypochlorhydria . BMJ . 1985;290:1383-1386.Crossref 43. Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ. Attempt to fulfill Koch's postulates for pyloric Campylobacter . Med J Aust . 1985;142:436-439. 44. Morris A, Nicholson G. Ingestion of Campylobacter pyloridis causes gastritis and raised fasting gastric pH . Am J Gastroenterol . 1987;82:192-199. 45. Langenberg W, Rauws EA, Houthoff HJ, et al. Follow-up study of individuals with untreated Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis and of non-infected persons with non-ulcer dyspepsia . J Infect Dis . 1988;157:1245-1249.Crossref 46. Blaser MJ. Gastric Campylobacter-like organisms, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease . Gastroenterology . 1987;93:371-383. 47. Drumm B, Sherman P, Cutz E, et al. Association of Campylobacter pylori on the gastric mucosa with antral gastritis in children . N Engl J Med . 1987;316:1557-1561.Crossref 48. Ormand JE, Talley NJ, Shorter RG, Conley CR, Wilson WR, Phillips SF. Campylobacter pylori prevalence in specific forms of gastritis: further evidence supporting a pathogenic role for C. pylori in chronic antral gastritis . Gastroenterology . 1989;96:A378. 49. Lambert JR, Borrome M, Pinkard KJ, Turner H, Chapman CB, Smith ML. Colonization of gnotobiotic piglets with Campylobacter pyloridis: an animal model? J Infect Dis . 1987;155:1344.Crossref 50. NcNulty CAM, Gearty JC, Crump B, et al. Campylobacter pyloridis and associated gastritis: investigation of blind, placebo-controlled trial of bismuth salicylate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate . BMJ . 1986;293:645-649.Crossref 51. Rauws EAJ, Langenberg W, Houthoff HJ, Zanen HC, Tytgat GNJ. Campylobacter pyloridisassociated chronic active antral gastritis . Gastroenterology . 1988;94:33-40. 52. Morgan D, Kraft W, Bender M, Pearson A. Nitrofurans in the treatment of gastritis associated with Campylobacter pylori . Gastroenterology . 1988; 95:1178-1184. 53. Glupczynski Y, Burette A, Labbe M, Dereuck M, Deltenre M. Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial with amoxicillin . Am J Gastroenterol . 1988;83: 365-372. 54. Pieramico O, Ditschuneit H, Malfertheiner P. Orocecal transit-time in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia: role of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection . Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 1991;3:627-631. 55. Talley NJ, Phillips JF. Non-ulcer dyspepsia: potential causes and pathophysiology . Ann Intern Med . 1988;108:865-879.Crossref 56. Walsh JH. Helicobacter pylori: selection of patients for treatment . Ann Intern Med . 1992;116: 770-771.Crossref 57. Nyren O. Functional dyspepsia: is gastric acid and/or Helicobacter pylori infection involved in the aetiology? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 1992; 4:608-614. 58. Holcombe C, Thom C, Kaluba J, Lucas SB. Helicobacter pyloriclearance in the treatment of nonulcer dyspepsia . Aliment Pharmacol Ther . 1992; 6:119-123.Crossref 59. Vaira D, Holton J, Ainley C, et al. Double blind trial of colloidal bismuth subcitrate vs placebo in Helicobacter pylori patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia . Ital J Gastroenterol . 1992:24:1400-1404. 60. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Peh SC, Wong NW, Loy L, Puthucheary SD. Helicobacter pylori infection and non-ulcer dyspepsia: the effect of treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1991;26:1123-1131.Crossref 61. Marshall BJ, McGrechie DB, Rogers PA, Glancy RJ. Pyloric Campylobacter infection and gastroduodenal disease . Med J Aust . 1985;142:439-444. 62. Hosking SW, Ling TKW, Yung MY, et al. Randomized controlled trial of short-term treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer . BMJ . 1992;305:502-509.Crossref 63. Wyatt JI, Rathbone BJ, Dixon MF, Heatley RV. Campylobacter pyloridis and acid-induced gastric metaplasia in the pathogenesis of duodenitis . J Clin Pathol . 1987;40:841-848.Crossref 64. James AH. Gastric epithelium in the duodenum . Gut . 1964;5:285-294.Crossref 65. Marshall BJ, Goodwin CS, Warren JR, et al. Prospective double-blind trial of duodenal ulcer relapse after eradication of Campylobacter pylori . Lancet . 1988;1:1437-1441.Crossref 66. Bank S, Chow K, Greenberg R. Helicobacter pylori and recurrence of duodenal ulcers . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:1365-1367. 67. Graham DY, Lew GM, Klein PD, et al. Effect of treatment of Helicobacter pyloriinfection and the long-term recurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcer: a randomized, controlled study . Ann Intern Med . 1992;116:705-708.Crossref 68. Hixson LJ, Kelley CL, Jones WN, Tuohy CD. Current trends in the pharmacotherapy for peptic ulcer disease . Arch Intern Med . 1992;152: 726-732.Crossref 69. Hentschel E, Brandstätter G, Dragosies B, et al. Effect of ranitidine and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and the recurrence of duodenal ulcer . N Engl J Med . 1993;328:308-312.Crossref 70. Foicca R, Villani L, Turpini F, et al. High incidence of Campylobacter-like organisms in endoscopic biopsies from patients with gastritis, with or without peptic ulcer . Digestion . 1987; 38:234-237.Crossref 71. Correa P, Fox S, Fontham E, et al. Helicobacter and gastric carcinoma: serum antibody prevalence in populations with contrasting cancer risks . Cancer . 1990;66:2569-2574.Crossref 72. Malaty HM, Evans DJ, Graham DY. Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics: comparison with blacks and whites of similar age and socioeconomic class . Gastroenterology . 1992;103:813-816. 73. Asaka M, Kimura T, Kudo M, et al. Relationship of Helicobacter pylori to serum pepsins in an asymptomatic Japanese population . Gastroenterology . 1992;102:760-761. 74. Guarner J, Mohar A, Parsonnet J, Halperin D. The association of Helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer and preneoplastic gastric lesions in Chiapas, Mexico . Cancer . 1993;71:297-301.Crossref 75. Craanen ME, Dekker W, Blok P, Ferwerda J, Tytgat GNJ. Intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori: an endoscopic bioptic study of the gastric antrum . Gut . 1992;33:16-22.Crossref 76. Fennerty MB, Emerson JC, Sampliner RE, McGee DL, Hixson LJ, Garewal HS. Intestinal metaplasia in ethnic groups in the southwestern United States . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1992; 1:293-296. 77. Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, et al. Helicobacterpylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma . N Engl J Med . 1991;325:1127-1131.Crossref 78. Nomura A, Stemmerman GN, Chyou PH, Kato I, Perez-Perez GI, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii . N Engl J Med . 1991; 325:1132-1136.Crossref 79. Parsonnet J, Vandersteen D, Goates S, Sibley RK, Pritikin J, Chang Y. Helicobacter pylori infection in intestinal and diffuse type gastric adenocarcinomas . J Natl Cancer Inst . 1991;83:640-643.Crossref 80. Marshall BJ, Surveyor I. "Carbon urea breath test for diagnosing Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis . J Nucl Med . 1988;29:11-16. 81. Rauws EAJ, Royen EAV, Langenberg W, Woensel JV, Vrij AA, Tytgat GN. 14C-urea breath test in C. pylori gastritis . Gut . 1989;30:798-803.Crossref 82. Bell GD, Weil J, Harrison G, et al. 14C-urea breath analysis, a non-invasive test for campylobacterpylori in the stomach . Lancet . 1987;1:1367-1368.Crossref 83. Marshall BJ, Warren JR, Fraucis GJ, et al. Rapid urease test in the management of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis . Am J Gastroenterol . 1987;82:200-204. 84. Morris A, McIntyre D, Rose T, Nicholson G. Rapid diagnosis of Campylobacter pyloridis infection . Lancet . 1986;1:149.Crossref 85. McNulty CAM, Wise R. Rapid diagnosis of Campylobacter pyloridis gastritis . Lancet . 1986;1:387.Crossref 86. Ayrnard B, Labouyrie E, deKorwin JD, Ferry R, Duprez A. Histologic staining methods for detection of gastric Campylobacter-like organisms (GCLOs): a comparative study . Gastroenterology . 1988;95:1192-1196. 87. Goodwin CS, Bineow ED, Warren JR, Waters TE, Saunderson CR, Easton L. Evaluation of cultural techniques for isolating Campylobacter pyloridis from endoscopic biopsies of gastric mucosa . J Clin Pathol . 1985;38:1127-1131.Crossref 88. Dent JC, McNulty CAM. Evaluation of a new selective medium for Campylobacter pylori . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 1988;7:555-558.Crossref 89. Perez-Perez GI, Dworkin BM, Chodos JE, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter pylori antibodies in humans . Ann Intern Med . 1988;109:11-17.Crossref 90. Evans DJ, Evans DG, Graham DY, Klein PD. A sensitive and specific serologic test for detection of Campylobacter pylori infection . Gastroenterology . 1989;96:1004-1008. 91. Vaira D, Holton J, Cairns SR, et al. Antibody titers to Campylobacter pylori after treatment for gastritis . BMJ . 1988;297:397.Crossref 92. Van Bohemen CG, Langenberg ML, Rauws EAJ, Oudbier J, Weterings E, Zanen HC. Rapidly decreasing serum IgG to Campylobacterpylorifollowing elimination of Campylobacter in histologic chronic biopsy positive gastritis . Immunol Lett . 1989;20:59-62.Crossref 93. Graham DY, Lew GM, Malaty HM. Factors influencing the eradication of Helicobacter pyloriwith triple therapy . Gastroenterology . 1992;102:493-496. 94. Hepps KS, Ramirez FC, Lew GM, Saeed ZA, Graham DY. Treatment of H pylori reduces the rate of rebleeding in complicated peptic ulcer disease . Gastrointest Endosc . 1992;28:234. 95. Labenz J, Gyenes E, Rühl GH, Börsch G. Role of H pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding . Gastroenterology . 1993;104:A126. 96. Chiba N, Rao BV, Rademaker JW, Hunt RH. Metaanalysis of the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:1716-1727. 97. Bayerdorffer E, Mannes GA, Sommer A, et al. High dose omeprazole treatment combined with amoxicillin eradicates Helicobacter pylori . Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 1992;4:667-670. 98. Labenz J, Gyenes E, Rühl GH, Börsch G. Omeprazole plus amoxicillin: efficacy of various treatment regimens to eradicate Helicobacter pylori . Am J Gastroenterol . 1993;88:491-495. 99. Logan RPH, Gummett PA, Hegarty BJ, Walker MM, Baron JH, Misiewicz JJ. Clarithromycin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori . Lancet . 1992; 340:239.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1994.00420070021003
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Abstract

Abstract Helicobacter pylori is the cause of chronic active gastritis. It is integral to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and is epidemiologically linked to gastric cancer and lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori can be detected through a variety of invasive (urease testing, culture, or histologic diagnosis of endoscopic biopsies) and noninvasive (urease breath tests, serologic tests) diagnostic tests. It is now appropriate to detect and eradicate H pylori in patients with a peptic ulcer as the natural history of peptic ulcer disease is then markedly improved. At this time, there is no role for H pylori eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer; however, this concept is being actively investigated. There is no indication to treat patients who have H pylori and nonulcer dyspepsia or gastritis because eradication does not reliably affect their symptoms. Current regimens for eradication include bismuth, antibiotics, and antisecretory agents. Complex and poorly tolerated regimens (triple therapy) may no longer be necessary, as simpler regimens (omeprazole and amoxicillin or clarithromycin) appear to be as effective and better tolerated. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:721-727) References 1. Marshall BJ. Unidentified curved bacilla in gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis . Lancet . 1983;1:1273-1275. 2. Goodwin CS, Armstrong JA, Chilvers T, et al. Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov. and Helicobacter mustelae comb. nov., respectively . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1989;39:397-405.Crossref 3. Doenges JL. Spirochaetes in gastric glands of macacus rhesus and humans without definitive history of related disease . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1938;38:536-538.Crossref 4. Doenges JL. Spirochaetes in the gastric glands of macacus rhesus and of man without related disease . Arch Pathol Lab Med . 1939;27:469. 5. Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration . Lancet . 1984;1:1311-1315.Crossref 6. Laine L. Are gastritis and peptic ulcer infectious diseases? Contemp Intern Med . 1990:22-34. 7. Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal inflammation . J Infect Dis . 1990;161:626-633.Crossref 8. Goodwin CS, Armstrong JA, Marshall BJ. Campylobacter pyloridis gastritis and peptic ulceration . J Clin Pathol . 1986;39:353-365.Crossref 9. Taylor DN, Blaser MJ. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection . Epidemiol Rev . 1991; 13:42-59. 10. Malaty HM, Graham DY, Klein PD, Evans DG, Evans DJ. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection: studies in families of healthy individuals . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1991;26:927-932.Crossref 11. Krakowka S, Morgan DP, Kraft NG, Leunk RD. Establishment of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet . Infect Immun . 1987;55:2789-2796. 12. Chen XG, Correa P, Offerhaus J. Ultrastructure of the gastric mucosa harboring Campylobacterlike organisms . Am J Clin Pathol . 1986;86:575-582. 13. Hazel SL, Lee A, Brady L, Hennessey W. Campylobacterpyloridis and gastritis: association with intercellular spaces and adaptation to an environment of mucus as important factors in colonization of the gastric epithelium . J Infect Dis . 1986;153:658-663.Crossref 14. Sarosiek J, Slomiany A, Slomiany B. Evidence for weakening of gastric mucus integrity by Campylobacter pylori . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1988; 23:585-590.Crossref 15. Slomiany B, Bilsky J, Sarosiek J. Campylobacter pyloridis degrades mucin and undermines gastric mucosal integrity . Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1987;144:307-312.Crossref 16. Figura N, Guglielmetti P, Rossolin A, et al. Cytotoxin production by Campylobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcers and from patients with chronic gastritis only . J Clin Microbiol . 1989;27:225-226. 17. Leunk RD, Johnson PT, David BC, Kraft WG, Morgan DR. Cytotoxic activity in broth culture filtrates of Campylobacter pylori . J Med Microbiol . 1988;26:93-99.Crossref 18. Cover TL, Cao P, Murthy UK, Sipple US, Blaser MJ. Serum neutralizing antibody response to the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori . J Clin Invest . 1992;90:913-918.Crossref 19. Fox JG, Correa P, Taylor NS, et al. High prevalence and persistence of cytotoxin-positive Helicobacter pylori strains in a population with a high prevalence of atrophic gastritis . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:1554-1560. 20. Cover TL, Blaser MJ. Purification and characterization of the vacuolating toxin from Helicobacter pylori . J Biol Chem . 1992;267:10570-10575. 21. Doig P, Austin JW, Kostrzynska M, Trust TJ. Production of a conserved adhesion by the human gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori . J Bacteriol . 1992;174:2539-2547. 22. O'Rourke JL, Lee A, Fox JG. Helicobacter infection in animals: a clue to the role of adhesion in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal disease . Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol . 1992;4( (suppl 1) ):S31-S37. 23. Segal ED, Shon J, Tompkins LS. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori urease mutants . Infect Immun . 1992;10:1883-1889. 24. Ferrero R, Lee A. The importance of urease in acid protection for the gastric-colonizing bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis new species . Microb Health Dis . 1991;4:121-134.Crossref 25. Vaira D, Holton J, Miglioli M, Barbara L. Pathogenic mechanisms of acid-related diseases: Helicobacter and other spiral organisms . Curr Opin Gastroenterol . 1991;7:881-887.Crossref 26. Nujami E, Rowe PA, Dahill S, Dorrian CA, Niethercut WD, McColl KEL. Role of ammonia in the pathogenesis of the gastritis, hypergastrinemia, and hyperpepsinogenemia caused by Helicobacter pylori infection . Gut . 1992;33:1612-1616.Crossref 27. Segal ED, Shon J, Tompkins LS. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori urease mutants . Infect Immun . 1992;60:1883-1889. 28. Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Fusamoto H, Kamada T, Sato N. Mechanism of gastric mucosal damage induced by ammonia . Gastroenterology . 1992:102:881-888. 29. Perez-Perez GI, Dworkin B, Chodos J, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter pylorispecific serum antibodies in humans . Ann Intern Med . 1988;109:11-17.Crossref 30. Dooley CA, Cohen H. The clinical significance of Campylobacter pylori . Ann Intern Med . 1988; 108:70.Crossref 31. Dooley CA, Cohen H, Fitzgibbons PL, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic persons . N Engl J Med . 1987;321:1562-1566.Crossref 32. Dehesa M, Cooley CP, Cohen H, et al. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic Hispanics . J Clin Microbiol . 1991;29:1128-1131. 33. Graham DY, Malaty HM, Evans DG, Evans DJ, Klein PD, Adam E. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population in the United States . Gastroenterology . 1991;100:1495-1501. 34. Fiedorek SC, Malaty HM, Evans DL, et al. Factors in influencing the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in children . Pediatrics . 1991;88:578-582. 35. Drumm B, Perez-Perez GE, Blaser MJ, Sherman PM. Intrafamilial clustering of Helicobacter pylori infection . N Engl J Med . 1990;322:359-363.Crossref 36. Megrand F, Brassens-Rabbe MP, Denis F, et al. Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations . J Clin Microbiol . 1989;27:1870-1873. 37. Glupczynski Y, Bordeaux L, Verhas M, DePrez C, DeVos D, Devreker T. Use of a urea breath test versus invasive methods to determine the prevalence of H pylori in Zaire . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis . 1992;11:322-327.Crossref 38. Holcombe C, Omotara BA, Eldridge J, Jones DM. H pylori, the most common bacterial infection in Africa: a random serologic study . Am J Gastroenterol . 1992;87:28-30. 39. Jones PM, Eldridge J, Fox AJ, et al. Antibody to the gastric Campylobacter-like organism: clinical correlations and distribution in the normal population . J Med Microbiol . 1986;22:57-62.Crossref 40. Parsonnet J, Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Hargrett-Bean N, Tauxe RV. Symptoms and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of epidemiologists . Gastroenterology . 1992;102:41-46. 41. Ramsey EJ, Carey KV, Peterson WL, et al. Epidemic gastritis with hypochlorhydria . Gastroenterology . 1979;76:1449-1457. 42. Gledhill J, Leicester RJ, Addis B, et al. Epidemic hypochlorhydria . BMJ . 1985;290:1383-1386.Crossref 43. Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ. Attempt to fulfill Koch's postulates for pyloric Campylobacter . Med J Aust . 1985;142:436-439. 44. Morris A, Nicholson G. Ingestion of Campylobacter pyloridis causes gastritis and raised fasting gastric pH . Am J Gastroenterol . 1987;82:192-199. 45. 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 11, 1994

References