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Giant Conjunctival Nevus

Giant Conjunctival Nevus ImportanceConjunctival nevus is the most common tumor of the ocular surface and we selected the largest nevi to evaluate for clinical features and outcomes. ObjectiveTo describe the clinical features and outcomes of giant (≥10 mm diameter) conjunctival nevus. Design, Setting, and PatientsRetrospective case series of 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 of which had giant conjunctival nevus, treated at an ocular oncology service between July 1, 1974, and June 30, 2012. ExposuresObservation, excisional biopsy, and cryotherapy. Main Outcomes and MeasuresManagement, nevus recurrence, and nevus transformation into melanoma. ResultsOf 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 (5%) were classified as having giant conjunctival nevus. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 34 years. Of those with giant conjunctival nevus, a history of an increase in nevus base or thickness was noted in 15 cases (47%) and an increase in color intensity in 2 cases (6%). The giant nevus involved cornea in 11 cases (34%), limbus in 23 (72%), bulbar conjunctiva in 31 (97%), fornix in 9 (28%), tarsus in 3 (9%), semilunar fold in 10 (31%), and caruncle in 7 (22%). The nevi had mean diameter of 16 mm and mean thickness of 2 mm. On slitlamp examination, intrinsic cysts were identified in 25 cases (78%), intrinsic blood vessels in 26 (81%), and feeder vessels in 22 (69%). Management included excisional biopsy with cryotherapy in 23 cases (72%) and observation in 9 cases (28%). Amniotic membrane graft reconstruction was used following excision in 3 cases (13%). Malignant melanoma developed within the giant nevus in 1 case after 23 years of observation. Postexcisional biopsy, nevus recurrence was detected in 4 cases (17%), pseudopterygium in 1 (4%), dry eye in 1 (4%), and eyelid blepharoptosis in 1 (4%). Conclusions and RelevanceIn an ocular oncology practice, giant conjunctival nevus represents 5% of conjunctival nevi. This benign tumor rarely transforms into conjunctival melanoma. Management alternatives include observation or wide excisional biopsy, cryotherapy, and reconstruction, possibly with amniotic membrane graft. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JAMA Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright 2013 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.
ISSN
2168-6165
eISSN
2168-6173
DOI
10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.160
pmid
23702735
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

ImportanceConjunctival nevus is the most common tumor of the ocular surface and we selected the largest nevi to evaluate for clinical features and outcomes. ObjectiveTo describe the clinical features and outcomes of giant (≥10 mm diameter) conjunctival nevus. Design, Setting, and PatientsRetrospective case series of 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 of which had giant conjunctival nevus, treated at an ocular oncology service between July 1, 1974, and June 30, 2012. ExposuresObservation, excisional biopsy, and cryotherapy. Main Outcomes and MeasuresManagement, nevus recurrence, and nevus transformation into melanoma. ResultsOf 618 patients with conjunctival nevus, 32 (5%) were classified as having giant conjunctival nevus. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 34 years. Of those with giant conjunctival nevus, a history of an increase in nevus base or thickness was noted in 15 cases (47%) and an increase in color intensity in 2 cases (6%). The giant nevus involved cornea in 11 cases (34%), limbus in 23 (72%), bulbar conjunctiva in 31 (97%), fornix in 9 (28%), tarsus in 3 (9%), semilunar fold in 10 (31%), and caruncle in 7 (22%). The nevi had mean diameter of 16 mm and mean thickness of 2 mm. On slitlamp examination, intrinsic cysts were identified in 25 cases (78%), intrinsic blood vessels in 26 (81%), and feeder vessels in 22 (69%). Management included excisional biopsy with cryotherapy in 23 cases (72%) and observation in 9 cases (28%). Amniotic membrane graft reconstruction was used following excision in 3 cases (13%). Malignant melanoma developed within the giant nevus in 1 case after 23 years of observation. Postexcisional biopsy, nevus recurrence was detected in 4 cases (17%), pseudopterygium in 1 (4%), dry eye in 1 (4%), and eyelid blepharoptosis in 1 (4%). Conclusions and RelevanceIn an ocular oncology practice, giant conjunctival nevus represents 5% of conjunctival nevi. This benign tumor rarely transforms into conjunctival melanoma. Management alternatives include observation or wide excisional biopsy, cryotherapy, and reconstruction, possibly with amniotic membrane graft.

Journal

JAMA OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 2013

References

  • Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea.
    Shields, CL; Shields, JA
  • Congenital melanocytic nevi: when to worry and how to treat: facts and controversies.
    Price, HN; Schaffer, JV

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