Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Genetic, Acquired, and Related Factors in the Etiology of Diabetes Mellitus

Genetic, Acquired, and Related Factors in the Etiology of Diabetes Mellitus Abstract Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity, but a heterogenous group of disorders with a striking diversity of etiopathogenetic mechanisms as well as clinical manifestations. Lack of a known genetic marker for the disease(s) and variable influences of environmental factors on the expression of a putative diabetic genome have resulted in considerable debate over its etiology. Over the past few years, systematic epidemiologic studies, along with knowledge gained from a close association of certain human-leukocyte-antigens with the diabetic diathesis and possible role of host-immune factors, and gene-virus interaction have led to considerable advancement in the understanding of the disease-complex. Pending the availability of definite genetic marker(s), we propose a new, tentative classification based on the etiologic mechanisms. We also suggest that the term "prediabetes" be abandoned as a prospective entity, since as presently employed, this connotation carries a risk probability no different than the terms like prehypertension or precoronary thrombosis. (Arch Intern Med 137:461-469, 1977) References 1. Report of the National Commission on Diabetes to the Congress of the United States. Vol. 1: The long-range plan to combat diabetes. DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-1018. 2. Neel JV: The genetics of diabetes mellitus . Adv Metab Disord 1( (suppl 1) ):3-10, 1970. 3. Rimoin DL: Inheritance of diabetes mellitus . Med Clin North Am 55:807-819, 1971. 4. Renold AE, Stauffacher W, Cahill GF Jr: Diabetes mellitus , in Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease , ed 3. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 118. 1972, pp 83-118. 5. Rosenbloom AL: The natural history of diabetes mellitus . Public Health Rev 2:115-154, 1973. 6. Creutzfeldt W, Kobberling J, Neel JV (eds): The Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus . New York, Springer Verlag, 1976. 7. Renold AE, Cahill GF, Gerritsen GC (eds): Second Brook Lodge workshop on spontaneous diabetes in laboratory animals . Diabetologia 3:154-370, 1970. 8. Gerritsen GC, Needham LB, Schmidt FL, et al: Studies on the prediction and development of diabetes in offspring of diabetic Chinese hamsters . Diabetologia 6:158-162, 1970.Crossref 9. Simpson NE: Heritability of liability to diabetes when sex and age at onset are considered . Ann Hum Genet 32:283-303, 1969.Crossref 10. Then Berg H: Zur Frage der psychischen und neurologischen Erscheinungen bal Diabetes Kranken und deren Ver Wandten . Z ges Neurol Psychiat 165:278-283, 1939.Crossref 11. Harvald B, Hauge M: Hereditary Factors Elucidated by Twin Studies. Genetics and Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases , publication 1163. Public Health Service, 1965. 12. Gottlieb MS, Root HF: Diabetes mellitus in twins . Diabetes 17:693-704, 1968. 13. Tattersall RB, Pyke DA: Diabetes in identical twins . Lancet 2:1120-1125, 1972.Crossref 14. Johansen K, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Serum insulin and growth hormone response patterns in monozygotic twin siblings of juvenile diabetics . N Engl J Med 293:57-61, 1975.Crossref 15. Cooke DM, Fitzgerald MG, Malins J, et al: Diabetes in children of diabetic couples . Br Med J 2:674-676, 1966.Crossref 16. Kahn CB, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Clinical and chemical diabetes in offspring of diabetic couples . N Engl J Med 281:343-347, 1969.Crossref 17. Radder JK, Terpstra J: The incidence of diabetes mellitus in the offspring of diabetic couples: Investigations based on the oral glucose tolerance test . Diabetologia 11:135-138, 1975.Crossref 18. Tattersall RB, Fajans SS: Prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance in 199 offspring of 37 conjugal diabetic parents . Diabetes 24:452-462, 1975.Crossref 19. Bally C, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE: Frequency of diabetes in offspring of diabetic couples, abstracted . Diabetes 25 ( (suppl 1) ) 335, 1976. 20. Tattersall RB, Fajans SS: A difference between the inheritance of classical juvenileonset and maturity-onset type diabetes of young people . Diabetes 24:44-53, 1975.Crossref 21. Fajans SS, Floyd JC, Tattersall RB, et al: The various faces of diabetes in the young: Changing concepts . Arch Intern Med 136:194-202, 1976.Crossref 22. Lestradet H, Battiselli J, Ledoux M: L'heredite dans le diabete infantile . Diabete 20:17-21, 1972. 23. MacDonald MJ: Equal incidence of adultonset diabetes among ancestors of juvenile diabetics and non-diabetics . Diabetologia 10:767-773, 1974.Crossref 24. Jackson WPU: Diabetes mellitus in different countries and different races: Prevalence and major features . Acta Diabetol Lat 7:361-401, 1970.Crossref 25. West KM: Diabetes in American Indians and other native populations of the new world . Diabetes 23:841-855, 1974. 26. Neel JV: Diabetes mellitus: A "thrifty" genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? Am J Hum Genet 14:353-362, 1962. 27. Ahuja MMS: Profile of young Indian diabetics: Biochemical studies . Acta Diabetol Lat 10:439-453, 1973.Crossref 28. Rimoin DL, Schimke RN: Genetic disorders of the endocrine glands . St. Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1971. 29. McDevitt HO, Bodmer WF: HL-A, immune-response genes and disease . Lancet 1:1269-1275, 1974.Crossref 30. Svejgaard A, Hauge M, Jersild C, et al: The HLA system-An introductory survey . Monograph on human genetics #7. S. Karger, Basel, 1975. 31. Nerup J, Platz P, Anderson OO, et al: HL-A antigens and diabetes mellitus . Lancet 2:864-866, 1974.Crossref 32. Cudworth AG, Woodrow JC: HL-A system and diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 24:345-349, 1975.Crossref 33. Schernthaner G, Mayr WR, Pacher M, et al: HL-A8, W15 and T3 in juvenile onset diabetes mellitus . Horm Metab Res 7:521-522, 1975.Crossref 34. Garovoy MR, Carpenter CB, Myrberg SM, et al: Increased HLA B8 in juvenile onset diabetes mellitus , in: Histocompatibility Testing in The Americas. Transplantation Proceedings , to be published. 35. Carpenter CB: The new HLA nomenclature . N Engl J Med 294:1005-1006, 1976.Crossref 36. Thomsen M, Platz P, Anderson OO, et al: MLC typing in juvenile diabetes mellitus and idiopathic Addison's disease . Transplant Rev 22:125-147, 1975. 37. Ludwig H, Schernthaner G, Mayr WR: Is HLA-B7 a marker associated with a protective gene in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus? N Engl J Med 294:1006, 1976.Crossref 38. Nelson PG, Pyke DA, Cudworth AG, et al: Histocompatibility antigens in diabetic identical twins . Lancet 2:193-194, 1975.Crossref 39. Craighead JE: The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of pancreatic disease and diabetes mellitus . Prog Med Virol 19:161-214, 1975. 40. Maugh TH: Diabetes: Epidemiology suggests a viral connection . Science 188:347-351, 1975.Crossref 41. Harris HF: A case of diabetes mellitus quickly following mumps . Boston Med Surg J 140:465-469, 1899.Crossref 42. Gamble DR, Taylor KW, Cumming H: Coxsackie viruses and diabetes mellitus . Br Med J 4:260-262, 1973.Crossref 43. Forrest JM, Menser MA, Burgess JA: High frequency of diabetes mellitus in young adults with congenital rubella . Lancet 2:332-334, 1971.Crossref 44. Ross ME, Onodera T, Brown KS, et al: Virus-induced diabetes mellitus: IV. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of diabetes after infection with the M variant of encephalomyocarditis virus . Diabetes 25:190-197, 1976.Crossref 45. Levy NL, Notkins AL: Viral infections and diseases of the endocrine system . J Infect Dis 124:94-103, 1971.Crossref 46. Steinke J, Taylor KW: Viruses and the etiology of diabetes . Diabetes 23:631-633, 1974. 47. Burgess JA, Kirkpatrick KL, Menser MA: Fulminant onset of diabetes mellitus during an attack of infectious mononucleosis . Med J Aust 2:706-707, 1974. 48. Ganda OP, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Monozygotic triplets with discordance of diabetes mellitus . Diabetes , to be published. 49. Adi FC: Diabetes mellitus associated with epidemic of infectious hepatitis in Nigeria . Br Med J 1:183-185, 1974.Crossref 50. Sultz HA, Hart BA, Zielezny M: Is mumps virus an etiologic factor in the juvenile diabetes mellitus? Preliminary report . J Pediatr 86:654-656, 1975.Crossref 51. Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, scrapie, editorial . Lancet 2:1551-1552, 1974. 52. Hayashi K, Boucher W, Notkins AL: Virusinduced diabetes mellitus: II. Relationship between beta cell damage and hyperglycemia in mice infected with encephalomyocarditis virus . Am J Pathol 75:91-102, 1973. 53. Nelson PG, Pyke DA, Gamble DR: Viruses and the aetiology of diabetes: A study of identical twins . Br Med J 4:249-251, 1975.Crossref 54. Gepts W: Pathologic anatomy of the pancreas in juvenile diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 14:619-633, 1965. 55. Renold AE, Soeldner JS, Steinke J: Immunological studies with homologous and heterologous pancreatic insulin in the cow , in Cameron MP, O'Connor M (eds): Ciba Foundation Colloquium . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1964, vol 15, pp 122-134. 56. Nerup J, Anderson OO, Bendixen G, et al: Anti-pancreatic, cellular hypersensitivity in diabetes mellitus: Experimental induction of antipancreatic, cellular hypersensitivity and associated morphological B-cell changes in the rat . Acta Allergol 28:231-249, 1973.Crossref 57. Perlman LV: Familial incidence of diabetes in hyperthyroidism . Ann Intern Med 55:796-799, 1961.Crossref 58. Crome L, Erdohazi M, Rivers RPA: Fulminating diabetes with lymphocytic thyroiditis . Arch Dis Child 42:677-681, 1967.Crossref 59. Ganz K, Kozak GP: Diabetes mellitus and primary hypothyroidism . Arch Intern Med 134:430-432, 1974.Crossref 60. Blizzard RM: Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism: A probable autoimmune disease , in Miescher PA, Mueller-Eberhard HJ (eds): Textbook of Immunopathology , New York, Grune & Stratton, 1969, vol 2, pp 547-550. 61. Irvine WJ, Barnes EW: Adrenal insufficiency . Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1:549-594, 1972.Crossref 62. Carpenter CCJ, Solomon N, Silverberg SG, et al: Schmidt's syndrome (thyroid and adrenal insufficiency): A review of the literature and a report of 15 new cases including ten instances of coexistent diabetes mellitus . Medicine 43:153-180, 1964. 63. Irvine WJ, Clarke BF, Scarth L, et al: Thyroid and gastric autoimmunity in patients with diabetes mellitus . Lancet 2:163-168, 1970.Crossref 64. Osserman KE: Muscles (myasthenia gravis) , in Miescher PA, Mueller-Eberhard M (eds): Textbook of Immunopathology , New York, Grune & Stratton, 1969, vol 2, pp 607-623. 65. Whittingham S, Mathews JD, Mackay IR, et al: Diabetes mellitus, autoimmunity and aging . Lancet 1:763-767, 1971.Crossref 66. Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D: Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies . Lancet 2:1279-1283, 1974.Crossref 67. Fialkow PJ, Zavala C, Nielsen R: Thyroid auto-immunity: Increased frequency in relatives of insulin-dependent diabetic patients . Ann Intern Med 83:170-176, 1975.Crossref 68. Grumet FC, Konishi J, Payne RO, et al: Association of Graves' disease with HL-A8 . Clin Res 21:493, 1973. 69. MacCuish AC, Barnes EW, Irvine WJ, et al: Antibodies to pancreatic islet cells in insulindependent diabetics with coexistent autoimmune disease . Lancet 2:1529-1531, 1974.Crossref 70. Maclaren NK, Huang S-W, Fogh J: Antibody to cultured human insulinoma cells in insulin-dependent diabetes . Lancet 1:997-1000, 1975.Crossref 71. Lendrum R, Walker G, Gamble DR: Isletcell antibodies in juvenile diabetes mellitus of recent onset . Lancet 1:880-883, 1975.Crossref 72. Nerup J, Anderson OO, Bendixen G, et al: Antipancreatic cellular hypersensitivity in diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 20:424-427, 1971. 73. MacCuish AC, Jordan J, Campbell CJ, et al: Cell-mediated immunity to human pancreas in diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 23:693-697, 1974. 74. Huang S-W, Maclaren NK: Insulin-dependent diabetes: A disease of auto-aggression . Science 192:64-66, 1976.Crossref 75. Block SR, Christian CL: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Med 59:453-456, 1975.Crossref 76. Vracko R, Benditt EP: Manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Their possible relationship to an underlying cell defect . Am J Pathol 75:204-221, 1974. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Genetic, Acquired, and Related Factors in the Etiology of Diabetes Mellitus

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/genetic-acquired-and-related-factors-in-the-etiology-of-diabetes-0ceEW9Z4L6
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1977 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1977.03630160031010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity, but a heterogenous group of disorders with a striking diversity of etiopathogenetic mechanisms as well as clinical manifestations. Lack of a known genetic marker for the disease(s) and variable influences of environmental factors on the expression of a putative diabetic genome have resulted in considerable debate over its etiology. Over the past few years, systematic epidemiologic studies, along with knowledge gained from a close association of certain human-leukocyte-antigens with the diabetic diathesis and possible role of host-immune factors, and gene-virus interaction have led to considerable advancement in the understanding of the disease-complex. Pending the availability of definite genetic marker(s), we propose a new, tentative classification based on the etiologic mechanisms. We also suggest that the term "prediabetes" be abandoned as a prospective entity, since as presently employed, this connotation carries a risk probability no different than the terms like prehypertension or precoronary thrombosis. (Arch Intern Med 137:461-469, 1977) References 1. Report of the National Commission on Diabetes to the Congress of the United States. Vol. 1: The long-range plan to combat diabetes. DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-1018. 2. Neel JV: The genetics of diabetes mellitus . Adv Metab Disord 1( (suppl 1) ):3-10, 1970. 3. Rimoin DL: Inheritance of diabetes mellitus . Med Clin North Am 55:807-819, 1971. 4. Renold AE, Stauffacher W, Cahill GF Jr: Diabetes mellitus , in Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredrickson DS (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease , ed 3. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 118. 1972, pp 83-118. 5. Rosenbloom AL: The natural history of diabetes mellitus . Public Health Rev 2:115-154, 1973. 6. Creutzfeldt W, Kobberling J, Neel JV (eds): The Genetics of Diabetes Mellitus . New York, Springer Verlag, 1976. 7. Renold AE, Cahill GF, Gerritsen GC (eds): Second Brook Lodge workshop on spontaneous diabetes in laboratory animals . Diabetologia 3:154-370, 1970. 8. Gerritsen GC, Needham LB, Schmidt FL, et al: Studies on the prediction and development of diabetes in offspring of diabetic Chinese hamsters . Diabetologia 6:158-162, 1970.Crossref 9. Simpson NE: Heritability of liability to diabetes when sex and age at onset are considered . Ann Hum Genet 32:283-303, 1969.Crossref 10. Then Berg H: Zur Frage der psychischen und neurologischen Erscheinungen bal Diabetes Kranken und deren Ver Wandten . Z ges Neurol Psychiat 165:278-283, 1939.Crossref 11. Harvald B, Hauge M: Hereditary Factors Elucidated by Twin Studies. Genetics and Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases , publication 1163. Public Health Service, 1965. 12. Gottlieb MS, Root HF: Diabetes mellitus in twins . Diabetes 17:693-704, 1968. 13. Tattersall RB, Pyke DA: Diabetes in identical twins . Lancet 2:1120-1125, 1972.Crossref 14. Johansen K, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Serum insulin and growth hormone response patterns in monozygotic twin siblings of juvenile diabetics . N Engl J Med 293:57-61, 1975.Crossref 15. Cooke DM, Fitzgerald MG, Malins J, et al: Diabetes in children of diabetic couples . Br Med J 2:674-676, 1966.Crossref 16. Kahn CB, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Clinical and chemical diabetes in offspring of diabetic couples . N Engl J Med 281:343-347, 1969.Crossref 17. Radder JK, Terpstra J: The incidence of diabetes mellitus in the offspring of diabetic couples: Investigations based on the oral glucose tolerance test . Diabetologia 11:135-138, 1975.Crossref 18. Tattersall RB, Fajans SS: Prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance in 199 offspring of 37 conjugal diabetic parents . Diabetes 24:452-462, 1975.Crossref 19. Bally C, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE: Frequency of diabetes in offspring of diabetic couples, abstracted . Diabetes 25 ( (suppl 1) ) 335, 1976. 20. Tattersall RB, Fajans SS: A difference between the inheritance of classical juvenileonset and maturity-onset type diabetes of young people . Diabetes 24:44-53, 1975.Crossref 21. Fajans SS, Floyd JC, Tattersall RB, et al: The various faces of diabetes in the young: Changing concepts . Arch Intern Med 136:194-202, 1976.Crossref 22. Lestradet H, Battiselli J, Ledoux M: L'heredite dans le diabete infantile . Diabete 20:17-21, 1972. 23. MacDonald MJ: Equal incidence of adultonset diabetes among ancestors of juvenile diabetics and non-diabetics . Diabetologia 10:767-773, 1974.Crossref 24. Jackson WPU: Diabetes mellitus in different countries and different races: Prevalence and major features . Acta Diabetol Lat 7:361-401, 1970.Crossref 25. West KM: Diabetes in American Indians and other native populations of the new world . Diabetes 23:841-855, 1974. 26. Neel JV: Diabetes mellitus: A "thrifty" genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? Am J Hum Genet 14:353-362, 1962. 27. Ahuja MMS: Profile of young Indian diabetics: Biochemical studies . Acta Diabetol Lat 10:439-453, 1973.Crossref 28. Rimoin DL, Schimke RN: Genetic disorders of the endocrine glands . St. Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1971. 29. McDevitt HO, Bodmer WF: HL-A, immune-response genes and disease . Lancet 1:1269-1275, 1974.Crossref 30. Svejgaard A, Hauge M, Jersild C, et al: The HLA system-An introductory survey . Monograph on human genetics #7. S. Karger, Basel, 1975. 31. Nerup J, Platz P, Anderson OO, et al: HL-A antigens and diabetes mellitus . Lancet 2:864-866, 1974.Crossref 32. Cudworth AG, Woodrow JC: HL-A system and diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 24:345-349, 1975.Crossref 33. Schernthaner G, Mayr WR, Pacher M, et al: HL-A8, W15 and T3 in juvenile onset diabetes mellitus . Horm Metab Res 7:521-522, 1975.Crossref 34. Garovoy MR, Carpenter CB, Myrberg SM, et al: Increased HLA B8 in juvenile onset diabetes mellitus , in: Histocompatibility Testing in The Americas. Transplantation Proceedings , to be published. 35. Carpenter CB: The new HLA nomenclature . N Engl J Med 294:1005-1006, 1976.Crossref 36. Thomsen M, Platz P, Anderson OO, et al: MLC typing in juvenile diabetes mellitus and idiopathic Addison's disease . Transplant Rev 22:125-147, 1975. 37. Ludwig H, Schernthaner G, Mayr WR: Is HLA-B7 a marker associated with a protective gene in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus? N Engl J Med 294:1006, 1976.Crossref 38. Nelson PG, Pyke DA, Cudworth AG, et al: Histocompatibility antigens in diabetic identical twins . Lancet 2:193-194, 1975.Crossref 39. Craighead JE: The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of pancreatic disease and diabetes mellitus . Prog Med Virol 19:161-214, 1975. 40. Maugh TH: Diabetes: Epidemiology suggests a viral connection . Science 188:347-351, 1975.Crossref 41. Harris HF: A case of diabetes mellitus quickly following mumps . Boston Med Surg J 140:465-469, 1899.Crossref 42. Gamble DR, Taylor KW, Cumming H: Coxsackie viruses and diabetes mellitus . Br Med J 4:260-262, 1973.Crossref 43. Forrest JM, Menser MA, Burgess JA: High frequency of diabetes mellitus in young adults with congenital rubella . Lancet 2:332-334, 1971.Crossref 44. Ross ME, Onodera T, Brown KS, et al: Virus-induced diabetes mellitus: IV. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of diabetes after infection with the M variant of encephalomyocarditis virus . Diabetes 25:190-197, 1976.Crossref 45. Levy NL, Notkins AL: Viral infections and diseases of the endocrine system . J Infect Dis 124:94-103, 1971.Crossref 46. Steinke J, Taylor KW: Viruses and the etiology of diabetes . Diabetes 23:631-633, 1974. 47. Burgess JA, Kirkpatrick KL, Menser MA: Fulminant onset of diabetes mellitus during an attack of infectious mononucleosis . Med J Aust 2:706-707, 1974. 48. Ganda OP, Soeldner JS, Gleason RE, et al: Monozygotic triplets with discordance of diabetes mellitus . Diabetes , to be published. 49. Adi FC: Diabetes mellitus associated with epidemic of infectious hepatitis in Nigeria . Br Med J 1:183-185, 1974.Crossref 50. Sultz HA, Hart BA, Zielezny M: Is mumps virus an etiologic factor in the juvenile diabetes mellitus? Preliminary report . J Pediatr 86:654-656, 1975.Crossref 51. Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, scrapie, editorial . Lancet 2:1551-1552, 1974. 52. Hayashi K, Boucher W, Notkins AL: Virusinduced diabetes mellitus: II. Relationship between beta cell damage and hyperglycemia in mice infected with encephalomyocarditis virus . Am J Pathol 75:91-102, 1973. 53. Nelson PG, Pyke DA, Gamble DR: Viruses and the aetiology of diabetes: A study of identical twins . Br Med J 4:249-251, 1975.Crossref 54. Gepts W: Pathologic anatomy of the pancreas in juvenile diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 14:619-633, 1965. 55. Renold AE, Soeldner JS, Steinke J: Immunological studies with homologous and heterologous pancreatic insulin in the cow , in Cameron MP, O'Connor M (eds): Ciba Foundation Colloquium . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1964, vol 15, pp 122-134. 56. Nerup J, Anderson OO, Bendixen G, et al: Anti-pancreatic, cellular hypersensitivity in diabetes mellitus: Experimental induction of antipancreatic, cellular hypersensitivity and associated morphological B-cell changes in the rat . Acta Allergol 28:231-249, 1973.Crossref 57. Perlman LV: Familial incidence of diabetes in hyperthyroidism . Ann Intern Med 55:796-799, 1961.Crossref 58. Crome L, Erdohazi M, Rivers RPA: Fulminating diabetes with lymphocytic thyroiditis . Arch Dis Child 42:677-681, 1967.Crossref 59. Ganz K, Kozak GP: Diabetes mellitus and primary hypothyroidism . Arch Intern Med 134:430-432, 1974.Crossref 60. Blizzard RM: Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism: A probable autoimmune disease , in Miescher PA, Mueller-Eberhard HJ (eds): Textbook of Immunopathology , New York, Grune & Stratton, 1969, vol 2, pp 547-550. 61. Irvine WJ, Barnes EW: Adrenal insufficiency . Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1:549-594, 1972.Crossref 62. Carpenter CCJ, Solomon N, Silverberg SG, et al: Schmidt's syndrome (thyroid and adrenal insufficiency): A review of the literature and a report of 15 new cases including ten instances of coexistent diabetes mellitus . Medicine 43:153-180, 1964. 63. Irvine WJ, Clarke BF, Scarth L, et al: Thyroid and gastric autoimmunity in patients with diabetes mellitus . Lancet 2:163-168, 1970.Crossref 64. Osserman KE: Muscles (myasthenia gravis) , in Miescher PA, Mueller-Eberhard M (eds): Textbook of Immunopathology , New York, Grune & Stratton, 1969, vol 2, pp 607-623. 65. Whittingham S, Mathews JD, Mackay IR, et al: Diabetes mellitus, autoimmunity and aging . Lancet 1:763-767, 1971.Crossref 66. Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D: Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies . Lancet 2:1279-1283, 1974.Crossref 67. Fialkow PJ, Zavala C, Nielsen R: Thyroid auto-immunity: Increased frequency in relatives of insulin-dependent diabetic patients . Ann Intern Med 83:170-176, 1975.Crossref 68. Grumet FC, Konishi J, Payne RO, et al: Association of Graves' disease with HL-A8 . Clin Res 21:493, 1973. 69. MacCuish AC, Barnes EW, Irvine WJ, et al: Antibodies to pancreatic islet cells in insulindependent diabetics with coexistent autoimmune disease . Lancet 2:1529-1531, 1974.Crossref 70. Maclaren NK, Huang S-W, Fogh J: Antibody to cultured human insulinoma cells in insulin-dependent diabetes . Lancet 1:997-1000, 1975.Crossref 71. Lendrum R, Walker G, Gamble DR: Isletcell antibodies in juvenile diabetes mellitus of recent onset . Lancet 1:880-883, 1975.Crossref 72. Nerup J, Anderson OO, Bendixen G, et al: Antipancreatic cellular hypersensitivity in diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 20:424-427, 1971. 73. MacCuish AC, Jordan J, Campbell CJ, et al: Cell-mediated immunity to human pancreas in diabetes mellitus . Diabetes 23:693-697, 1974. 74. Huang S-W, Maclaren NK: Insulin-dependent diabetes: A disease of auto-aggression . Science 192:64-66, 1976.Crossref 75. Block SR, Christian CL: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus . Am J Med 59:453-456, 1975.Crossref 76. Vracko R, Benditt EP: Manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Their possible relationship to an underlying cell defect . Am J Pathol 75:204-221, 1974.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1977

References