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Frontal-Subcortical Circuits and Human Behavior

Frontal-Subcortical Circuits and Human Behavior Abstract • Objective. —This synthetic review was performed to demonstrate the utility of frontal-subcortical circuits in the explanation of a wide range of human behavioral disorders. Data Sources. —Reports of patients with degenerative disorders or focal lesions involving frontal lobe or linked subcortical structures were chosen from the English literature. Individual case reports and group investigations from peer-reviewed journals were evaluated. Study Selection. —Studies were included if they described patient behavior in detail or reported pertinent neuropsychological findings and had compelling evidence of a disorder affecting frontal-subcortical circuits. Data Extraction. —Information was used if the report from which it was taken met study selection criteria. Data Synthesis. —Five parallel segregated circuits link the frontal lobe and subcortical structures. Clinical syndromes observed with frontal lobe injury are recapitulated with lesions of subcortical member structures of the circuits. Each prefrontal circuit has a signature behavioral syndrome: executive function deficits occur with lesions of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, disinhibition with lesions of the orbitofrontal circuit, and apathy with injury to the anterior cingulate circuit. Depression, mania, and obsessivecompulsive disorder may also be mediated by frontalsubcortical circuits. Movement disorders identify involvement of the basal ganglia component of frontal-subcortical circuits. Conclusions. —Frontal-subcortical circuits mediate many aspects of human behavior. References 1. Cummings JL. Clinical Neuropsychiatry . New York, NY: Grune & Stratton Inc; 1985. 2. Mendez MF, Adams NL, Lewandowski KS. Neurobehavioral changes associated with caudate lesions . Neurology . 1989;39:349-354.Crossref 3. Sandson TA, Daffner KR, Carvalho PA, et al. Frontal lobe dysfunction following infarction of the left-sided medial thalamus . Arch Neurol . 1991; 48:1300-1303.Crossref 4. Strub RL. Frontal lobe syndrome in a patient with bilateral globus pallidus lesions . Arch Neurol . 1989;46:1024-1027.Crossref 5. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD. Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13: 266-271.Crossref 6. Alexander GE, DeLong MR, Strick PL. Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex . Ann Rev Neurosci . 1986;9:357-381.Crossref 7. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD, DeLong MR. Basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, 'prefrontal' and 'limbic' functions . Prog Brain Res . 1990;85:119-146. 8. Groenewegen HJ, Berendse HW, Wolters JG, et al. The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: evidence for a parallel organization . Prog Brain Res . 1990;85:95-116. 9. Parent A. Extrinsic connections of the basal ganglia . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:254-258.Crossref 10. Gabriel AM. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the basal ganglia . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:244-254.Crossref 11. Moore RY. Catecholamine neuron systems in brain . Ann Neurol . 1982;12:321-327.Crossref 12. Milner B. Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting . Arch Neurol . 1963;9:90-100.Crossref 13. Benton AL. Differential behavioral effects in frontal lobe disease . Neuropsychologia . 1968;6:53-60.Crossref 14. Jones-Gotman M, Milner B. Design fluency: the invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions . Neuropsychologia . 1977;15:653-674.Crossref 15. Logue V, Durward M, Pratt RTC, et al. The quality of survival after an anterior cerebral aneurysm . Br J Psychiatry . 1968;114:137-160.Crossref 16. Hunter R, Blackwood W, Bull J. Three cases of frontal meningiomas presenting psychiatrically . BMJ . 1968;3:9-16.Crossref 17. Bogousslavsky J, Regli F. Anterior cerebral artery territory infarction in the Lausanne Stroke Registry . Arch Neurol . 1990;47:144-150.Crossref 18. Lhermitte F, Pillon B, Serdaru M. Human autonomy and the frontal lobes, part I: imitation and utilization behavior: a neuropsychological study of 75 patients . Ann Neurol . 1986;19:326-334.Crossref 19. Laiacona M, De Santis A, Barbarotto R, et al. Neuropsychological follow-up of patients operated for aneurysms of anterior communicating artery . Cortex . 1989;25:261-273.Crossref 20. Barris RW, Schuman HR. Bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus lesions . Neurology . 1953;3:44-52.Crossref 21. Fesenmeier JT, Kuzniecky R, Garcia JH. Akinetic mutism caused by bilateral anterior cerebral tuberculous obliterative arteritis . Neurology . 1990;30:1005-1006.Crossref 22. Nielsen JM, Jacobs LL. Bilateral lesions of the anterior cingulate gyri . Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc . 1951;16:231-234. 23. Damasio H, Damasio AR. Lesion Analysis in Neuropsychology . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1989. 24. Drewe EA. Go-no go learning after frontal lobe lesions in humans . Cortex . 1975;11:8-16.Crossref 25. Leimkuhler ME, Mesulam M-M. Reversible go-no go deficits in a case of frontal lobe tumor . Ann Neurol . 1985;18:617-619.Crossref 26. Vonsattel J-P, Myers RH, Stevens TJ, et al. Neuropathological classification of Huntington's disease . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol . 1985;44:559-577.Crossref 27. Folstein SE. Huntington's Disease:A Disorder of Families . Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1989. 28. Cummings JL, Cunningham K. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in Huntington's disease . Biol Psychiatry . 1992;31:263-270.Crossref 29. Weinberger DR, Berman KF, Ladorola M, et al. Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1988;51:94-104.Crossref 30. Butters N, Sax D, Montgomery K, et al. Comparison of the neuropsychological deficits associated with early and advanced Huntington's disease . Arch Neurol . 1978;35:585-589.Crossref 31. Mazziotta JC. PET and Huntington's disease . In: Martin WRW, ed. Functional Imaging in Movement Disorders . New Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 1990:177-192. 32. Wyszynski B, Merriam A, Medalia A, et al. Choreoacanthocytosis: report of a case with psychiatric features . Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol . 1989;2:137-144. 33. Phillips S, Sangalang V, Stern G. Basal forebrain infarction: a clinicopathologic correlation . Arch Neurol . 1987;44:1134-1138.Crossref 34. Klee A. Akinetic mutism: review of the literature and report of a case . J Nerv Ment Dis . 1961;133:536-553.Crossref 35. Lavy S. Akinetic mutism in a case of craniopharyngioma . Psychiatr Neurol . 1959;138:369-374. 36. Messert B, Henke TK, Langheim W. Syndrome of akinetic mutism associated with obstructive hydrocephalus . Neurology . 1966;16:635-649.Crossref 37. Laplane D, Baulac M, Widlocher D, et al. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1984;47: 377-385.Crossref 38. Mena I, Marin O, Fuenzalida S, et al. Chronic manganese poisoning . Neurology . 1967;17:128-136.Crossref 39. Schuler P, Oyanguren H, Maturana V, et al. Manganese poisoning . Ind Med Surg . 1957;26:167-173. 40. Gentilini M, De Renzi E, Crisi G. Bilateral paramedian thalamic artery infarcts: report of eight cases . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1987;50:900-909.Crossref 41. Eslinger PJ, Warner GC, Grattan LM, et al. 'Frontal lobe' utilization behavior associated with paramedian thalamic infarction . Neurology . 1991; 41:450-452.Crossref 42. Stuss DT, Guberman A, Nelson R, et al. The neuropsychology of paramedian thalamic infarction . Brain Cogn . 1988;8:348-378.Crossref 43. Deymeer F, Smith TW, DeGirolami U, et al. Thalamic dementia and motor neuron disease . Neurology . 1989;39:58-61.Crossref 44. Moossy I, Martinez J, Hamin I, et al. Thalamic and subcortical gliosis with dementia . Arch Neurol . 1987;44:510-513.Crossref 45. Robinson RG, Kubos KL, Starr LB, et al. Mood disorders in stroke patients: importance of location of lesion . Brain . 1984;107:81-93.Crossref 46. Starkstein SE, Robinson RG, Price TR. Comparison of cortical and subcortical lesions in the production of post-stroke mood disorders . Brain . 1987;110:1045-1059.Crossref 47. Starkstein SE, Robinson RG, Berthier ML, et al. Differential mood changes following basal ganglia vs thalamic lesions . Arch Neurol . 1988;45: 725-730.Crossref 48. Mayberg HS, Starkstein SE, Peyser CE, et al. Paralimbic frontal lobe hypometabolism in depression associated with Huntington's disease . Neurology . 1992;42:1791-1797.Crossref 49. Mayberg HS, Starkstein SE, Sadzot B, et al. Selective hypometabolism in the inferior frontal lobe in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease . Ann Neurol . 1990;28:57-64.Crossref 50. Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, et al. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1985;42:441-447.Crossref 51. Bogousslavsky J, Ferrazzini M, Regli F, et al. Manic delirium and frontal lobe syndrome with paramedian infarction of the right thalamus . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1988;51:116-119.Crossref 52. Cummings JL, Mendez MF. Secondary mania with focal cerebrovascular lesions . Am J Psychiatry . 1984;141:1084-1087. 53. Starkstein SE, Boston JD, Robinson RG. Mechanisms of mania after brain injury: 12 case reports and review of the literature . J Nerv Ment Dis . 1988;176:87-100.Crossref 54. Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Cheslow DL, et al. High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham's chorea . Am J Psychiatry . 1989;146:246-249. 55. Laplane D, Levasseur M, Pillon B, et al. Obsessive-compulsive and other behavioral changes with bilateral basal ganglia lesions . Brain . 1989; 112:699-725.Crossref 56. Schilder P. The organic background of obsessions and compulsions . Am J Psychiatry . 1938;94:1397-1416. 57. Frankel M, Cummings JL, Robertson MM, et al. Obsessions and compulsions in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome . Neurology . 1986;36:378-382.Crossref 58. Singer HS, Hahn I-H, Moran TH. Abnormal dopamine uptakes sites in postmortem striatum from patients with Tourette's syndrome . Ann Neurol . 1991;30:558-562.Crossref 59. Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, et al. Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1987; 44:211-218.Crossref 60. Machlin SR, Harris GJ, Pearlson GD, et al. Elevated medial-frontal cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients: a SPECT study . Am J Psychiatry . 1991;148:1240-1242. 61. Nieuwenhuys R. The Chemoarchitecture of the Brain . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1985. 62. Ross ED, Stewart RM. Akinetic mutism from hypothalamic damage: successful treatment with dopamine agonists . Neurology . 1981;31:1435-1439.Crossref 63. Albert ML, Feldman RG, Willis AL. The 'subcortical dementia' of progressive supranuclear palsy . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1974;37:121-130.Crossref 64. Cummings JL. Introduction . In: Cummings JL, ed. Subcortical Dementia . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990:3-16. 65. Butters N, Wolfe J, Granholm E, et al. An assessment of verbal recall, recognition and fluency abilities in patients with Huntington's disease . Cortex . 1986;22:11-32.Crossref 66. Cummings JL. Depression and Parkinson's disease: a review . Am J Psychiatry . 1992;149:443-454. 67. Trautner RJ, Cummings JL, Read SL, et al. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification and organic mood disorder . Am J Psychiatry . 1988;145:350-353. 68. Akil M, Schwartz JA, Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan V, et al. The psychiatric presentations of Wilson's disease . J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci . 1991;3: 377-382. 69. Starkstein SE, Mayberg HS, Preziosi TJ, et al. Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease . J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci . 1992;4:134-139. 70. Rinne JO, Rummukainen J, Paljarvi L, et al. Dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to neuronal loss in the medial substantia nigra . Ann Neurol . 1989;26:47-50.Crossref 71. DeLong MR. Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:281-285.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Frontal-Subcortical Circuits and Human Behavior

Archives of Neurology , Volume 50 (8) – Aug 1, 1993

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1993.00540080076020
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Abstract

Abstract • Objective. —This synthetic review was performed to demonstrate the utility of frontal-subcortical circuits in the explanation of a wide range of human behavioral disorders. Data Sources. —Reports of patients with degenerative disorders or focal lesions involving frontal lobe or linked subcortical structures were chosen from the English literature. Individual case reports and group investigations from peer-reviewed journals were evaluated. Study Selection. —Studies were included if they described patient behavior in detail or reported pertinent neuropsychological findings and had compelling evidence of a disorder affecting frontal-subcortical circuits. Data Extraction. —Information was used if the report from which it was taken met study selection criteria. Data Synthesis. —Five parallel segregated circuits link the frontal lobe and subcortical structures. Clinical syndromes observed with frontal lobe injury are recapitulated with lesions of subcortical member structures of the circuits. Each prefrontal circuit has a signature behavioral syndrome: executive function deficits occur with lesions of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, disinhibition with lesions of the orbitofrontal circuit, and apathy with injury to the anterior cingulate circuit. Depression, mania, and obsessivecompulsive disorder may also be mediated by frontalsubcortical circuits. Movement disorders identify involvement of the basal ganglia component of frontal-subcortical circuits. Conclusions. —Frontal-subcortical circuits mediate many aspects of human behavior. References 1. Cummings JL. Clinical Neuropsychiatry . New York, NY: Grune & Stratton Inc; 1985. 2. Mendez MF, Adams NL, Lewandowski KS. Neurobehavioral changes associated with caudate lesions . Neurology . 1989;39:349-354.Crossref 3. Sandson TA, Daffner KR, Carvalho PA, et al. Frontal lobe dysfunction following infarction of the left-sided medial thalamus . Arch Neurol . 1991; 48:1300-1303.Crossref 4. Strub RL. Frontal lobe syndrome in a patient with bilateral globus pallidus lesions . Arch Neurol . 1989;46:1024-1027.Crossref 5. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD. Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13: 266-271.Crossref 6. Alexander GE, DeLong MR, Strick PL. Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex . Ann Rev Neurosci . 1986;9:357-381.Crossref 7. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD, DeLong MR. Basal gangliathalamocortical circuits: parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, 'prefrontal' and 'limbic' functions . Prog Brain Res . 1990;85:119-146. 8. Groenewegen HJ, Berendse HW, Wolters JG, et al. The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: evidence for a parallel organization . Prog Brain Res . 1990;85:95-116. 9. Parent A. Extrinsic connections of the basal ganglia . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:254-258.Crossref 10. Gabriel AM. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the basal ganglia . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:244-254.Crossref 11. Moore RY. Catecholamine neuron systems in brain . Ann Neurol . 1982;12:321-327.Crossref 12. Milner B. Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting . Arch Neurol . 1963;9:90-100.Crossref 13. Benton AL. Differential behavioral effects in frontal lobe disease . Neuropsychologia . 1968;6:53-60.Crossref 14. Jones-Gotman M, Milner B. Design fluency: the invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions . Neuropsychologia . 1977;15:653-674.Crossref 15. Logue V, Durward M, Pratt RTC, et al. The quality of survival after an anterior cerebral aneurysm . Br J Psychiatry . 1968;114:137-160.Crossref 16. Hunter R, Blackwood W, Bull J. Three cases of frontal meningiomas presenting psychiatrically . BMJ . 1968;3:9-16.Crossref 17. Bogousslavsky J, Regli F. Anterior cerebral artery territory infarction in the Lausanne Stroke Registry . Arch Neurol . 1990;47:144-150.Crossref 18. Lhermitte F, Pillon B, Serdaru M. Human autonomy and the frontal lobes, part I: imitation and utilization behavior: a neuropsychological study of 75 patients . Ann Neurol . 1986;19:326-334.Crossref 19. Laiacona M, De Santis A, Barbarotto R, et al. Neuropsychological follow-up of patients operated for aneurysms of anterior communicating artery . Cortex . 1989;25:261-273.Crossref 20. Barris RW, Schuman HR. Bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus lesions . Neurology . 1953;3:44-52.Crossref 21. Fesenmeier JT, Kuzniecky R, Garcia JH. Akinetic mutism caused by bilateral anterior cerebral tuberculous obliterative arteritis . Neurology . 1990;30:1005-1006.Crossref 22. Nielsen JM, Jacobs LL. Bilateral lesions of the anterior cingulate gyri . Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc . 1951;16:231-234. 23. Damasio H, Damasio AR. Lesion Analysis in Neuropsychology . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1989. 24. Drewe EA. Go-no go learning after frontal lobe lesions in humans . Cortex . 1975;11:8-16.Crossref 25. Leimkuhler ME, Mesulam M-M. Reversible go-no go deficits in a case of frontal lobe tumor . Ann Neurol . 1985;18:617-619.Crossref 26. Vonsattel J-P, Myers RH, Stevens TJ, et al. Neuropathological classification of Huntington's disease . J Neuropathol Exp Neurol . 1985;44:559-577.Crossref 27. Folstein SE. Huntington's Disease:A Disorder of Families . Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1989. 28. Cummings JL, Cunningham K. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in Huntington's disease . Biol Psychiatry . 1992;31:263-270.Crossref 29. Weinberger DR, Berman KF, Ladorola M, et al. Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1988;51:94-104.Crossref 30. Butters N, Sax D, Montgomery K, et al. Comparison of the neuropsychological deficits associated with early and advanced Huntington's disease . Arch Neurol . 1978;35:585-589.Crossref 31. Mazziotta JC. PET and Huntington's disease . In: Martin WRW, ed. Functional Imaging in Movement Disorders . New Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 1990:177-192. 32. Wyszynski B, Merriam A, Medalia A, et al. Choreoacanthocytosis: report of a case with psychiatric features . Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol . 1989;2:137-144. 33. Phillips S, Sangalang V, Stern G. Basal forebrain infarction: a clinicopathologic correlation . Arch Neurol . 1987;44:1134-1138.Crossref 34. Klee A. Akinetic mutism: review of the literature and report of a case . J Nerv Ment Dis . 1961;133:536-553.Crossref 35. Lavy S. Akinetic mutism in a case of craniopharyngioma . Psychiatr Neurol . 1959;138:369-374. 36. Messert B, Henke TK, Langheim W. Syndrome of akinetic mutism associated with obstructive hydrocephalus . Neurology . 1966;16:635-649.Crossref 37. Laplane D, Baulac M, Widlocher D, et al. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1984;47: 377-385.Crossref 38. Mena I, Marin O, Fuenzalida S, et al. Chronic manganese poisoning . Neurology . 1967;17:128-136.Crossref 39. Schuler P, Oyanguren H, Maturana V, et al. Manganese poisoning . Ind Med Surg . 1957;26:167-173. 40. Gentilini M, De Renzi E, Crisi G. Bilateral paramedian thalamic artery infarcts: report of eight cases . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1987;50:900-909.Crossref 41. Eslinger PJ, Warner GC, Grattan LM, et al. 'Frontal lobe' utilization behavior associated with paramedian thalamic infarction . Neurology . 1991; 41:450-452.Crossref 42. Stuss DT, Guberman A, Nelson R, et al. The neuropsychology of paramedian thalamic infarction . Brain Cogn . 1988;8:348-378.Crossref 43. Deymeer F, Smith TW, DeGirolami U, et al. Thalamic dementia and motor neuron disease . Neurology . 1989;39:58-61.Crossref 44. Moossy I, Martinez J, Hamin I, et al. Thalamic and subcortical gliosis with dementia . Arch Neurol . 1987;44:510-513.Crossref 45. Robinson RG, Kubos KL, Starr LB, et al. Mood disorders in stroke patients: importance of location of lesion . Brain . 1984;107:81-93.Crossref 46. Starkstein SE, Robinson RG, Price TR. Comparison of cortical and subcortical lesions in the production of post-stroke mood disorders . Brain . 1987;110:1045-1059.Crossref 47. Starkstein SE, Robinson RG, Berthier ML, et al. Differential mood changes following basal ganglia vs thalamic lesions . Arch Neurol . 1988;45: 725-730.Crossref 48. Mayberg HS, Starkstein SE, Peyser CE, et al. Paralimbic frontal lobe hypometabolism in depression associated with Huntington's disease . Neurology . 1992;42:1791-1797.Crossref 49. Mayberg HS, Starkstein SE, Sadzot B, et al. Selective hypometabolism in the inferior frontal lobe in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease . Ann Neurol . 1990;28:57-64.Crossref 50. Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, et al. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1985;42:441-447.Crossref 51. Bogousslavsky J, Ferrazzini M, Regli F, et al. Manic delirium and frontal lobe syndrome with paramedian infarction of the right thalamus . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1988;51:116-119.Crossref 52. Cummings JL, Mendez MF. Secondary mania with focal cerebrovascular lesions . Am J Psychiatry . 1984;141:1084-1087. 53. Starkstein SE, Boston JD, Robinson RG. Mechanisms of mania after brain injury: 12 case reports and review of the literature . J Nerv Ment Dis . 1988;176:87-100.Crossref 54. Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Cheslow DL, et al. High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham's chorea . Am J Psychiatry . 1989;146:246-249. 55. Laplane D, Levasseur M, Pillon B, et al. Obsessive-compulsive and other behavioral changes with bilateral basal ganglia lesions . Brain . 1989; 112:699-725.Crossref 56. Schilder P. The organic background of obsessions and compulsions . Am J Psychiatry . 1938;94:1397-1416. 57. Frankel M, Cummings JL, Robertson MM, et al. Obsessions and compulsions in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome . Neurology . 1986;36:378-382.Crossref 58. Singer HS, Hahn I-H, Moran TH. Abnormal dopamine uptakes sites in postmortem striatum from patients with Tourette's syndrome . Ann Neurol . 1991;30:558-562.Crossref 59. Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, et al. Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1987; 44:211-218.Crossref 60. Machlin SR, Harris GJ, Pearlson GD, et al. Elevated medial-frontal cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients: a SPECT study . Am J Psychiatry . 1991;148:1240-1242. 61. Nieuwenhuys R. The Chemoarchitecture of the Brain . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1985. 62. Ross ED, Stewart RM. Akinetic mutism from hypothalamic damage: successful treatment with dopamine agonists . Neurology . 1981;31:1435-1439.Crossref 63. Albert ML, Feldman RG, Willis AL. The 'subcortical dementia' of progressive supranuclear palsy . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry . 1974;37:121-130.Crossref 64. Cummings JL. Introduction . In: Cummings JL, ed. Subcortical Dementia . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990:3-16. 65. Butters N, Wolfe J, Granholm E, et al. An assessment of verbal recall, recognition and fluency abilities in patients with Huntington's disease . Cortex . 1986;22:11-32.Crossref 66. Cummings JL. Depression and Parkinson's disease: a review . Am J Psychiatry . 1992;149:443-454. 67. Trautner RJ, Cummings JL, Read SL, et al. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification and organic mood disorder . Am J Psychiatry . 1988;145:350-353. 68. Akil M, Schwartz JA, Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan V, et al. The psychiatric presentations of Wilson's disease . J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci . 1991;3: 377-382. 69. Starkstein SE, Mayberg HS, Preziosi TJ, et al. Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson's disease . J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci . 1992;4:134-139. 70. Rinne JO, Rummukainen J, Paljarvi L, et al. Dementia in Parkinson's disease is related to neuronal loss in the medial substantia nigra . Ann Neurol . 1989;26:47-50.Crossref 71. DeLong MR. Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin . Trends Neurosci . 1990;13:281-285.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1993

References