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FRESH FRACTURE OF THE OS CALCIS

FRESH FRACTURE OF THE OS CALCIS Abstract A broken leg as a rule causes too great a disability to allow a mistaken diagnosis. Not so with many fresh fractures of the os calcis. If the damage is severe enough the physician's attention is focused and his diagnostic curiosity challenged to the point that early roentgenograms are generally taken. Thus, a "sprain" turns out to be a crushing fracture of the heel bone. Too often, even in the larger centers, the ancient empirical form of treatment, consisting of "rest in an encasement until consolidation has arrived," is applied. I wish to advocate, briefly, a manner of treating fresh fracture of the os calcis by closed reduction, modeling the fragments by force and encasing the restored foot until healing takes place. HISTORICAL TREATMENT In 1720 Garangeot, of France, first described accurately the "smash fracture." Petit and Desault, his countrymen, reported their cases in the same year and advised "rest References 1. Bilgner, 1720, cited by Nadal. 2. Desault, 1720, cited by Nadal. 3. Garangeot, 1720, cited by Nadal. 4. Petit, 1720, cited by Nadal. 5. Cooper, Samuel: Surgery , Philadelphia, Griggs & Elliot, 1835. 6. Bérenguier, A.: Fracture du calcanéum après une chute sur la plante des pieds , J. de chir. 1:376, 1843. 7. Deville: Fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 18:13, 1843. 8. Malgaigne, J. F.: Mémoir sur la fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , J. de chir. 1:2, 1843. 9. Nadal, J.: Du mecanisme de la fracture du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 64, 1843. 10. Voillemier: Fracture par écrasement de deux calcanéums, resultat constaté 13 ans après l'accident , J. de chir. 1:63, 1843. 11. Bérard, M.: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Gaz. d. hôp. 7:462, 1845. 12. Malgaigne: J. de chir. 3:154, 1845. 13. Malgaigne, J. B.: Traité des fractures et des luxations , Paris, J. B. Baillière, 1847, vol. 1, p. 827. 14. Cooper, B.: Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Surgery , Philadelphia, Blanchard & Lea, 1852, p. 248. 15. Bauchet: Fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 28:215, 1853. 16. Demarquay: Fracture du calcanéum avec pénétration , Bull. Soc. de chir. de Paris 4:483, 1854. 17. Clark, Le G.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Lancet 1:403, 1855. 18. Foucher: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 31:19, 1856. 19. Rémond, H. F.: Considérations sur la fracture par écrasement du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 236, 1857. 20. Cavasse: Fracture de deux calcanéums , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 33:12, 1858. 21. Cavasse: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 33:12, 1858. 22. Legouest, L.: Des fractures du calcanéum , Arch. gén. de méd. 2:148, 1860. 23. Sonrier: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Rec. de mém. de méd. mil. 20:466, 1868. 24. Polaillon: Calcanéum , Dict. encycl. d. sc. méd. 11:606, 1870. 25. Pradel, L.: Considérations sur les fractures par écrasement du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 309, 1875. 26. Krabbel: Complizierte Fraktur des Calcaneus , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 23:816, 1879. 27. Pinner, O.: Zur Casuistik der Calcaneusfrakturen , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 12:437, 1879.Crossref 28. Abraham, P. S.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Dublin J. M. Sc. 70:527, 1880. 29. Bailey, F. A.: Fracture of Os Calcis , Proc. Oregon M. Soc. 7:68, 1880. 30. Bennett, E. H.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Dublin J. M. Sc. 70:526, 1880. 31. Paszkowski, V.: De la fracture du calcanéum par écrasement et des déformations consécutives, Thesis, Paris, no. 249, 1880, p. 64. 32. Bell, C.: Compound Fracture of the Os Calcis , Edinburgh M. J. 27:1100, 1881-1882. 33. Fifield, W. C. B.: Fracture of the Os Calcis of Each Foot: Death from Embolism on the Twelfth Day; Autopsy , M. News, Philadelphia 42:126, 1883. 34. Saussol, A.: Un cas de fracture du calcanéum par arrachement , Gaz. hebd. d. sc. méd. de Montpellier 5:157, 1883. 35. Webb: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Australian M. J. 6:362, 1884. 36. Desfosses, 1898, cited by Lecocq. 37. Tuffier, 1898, cited by Lecocq. 38. Helbing, 1900, cited by Gérard. 39. Lecocq, S. T.: Une méthode de traitement des fractures du calcanéum, Thesis, Lille, no. 470, 1900, p. 84. 40. Lemmen, 1900, cited by Gérard. 41. Neuschafer, 1900, cited by Gérard. 42. Gérard, L.: Fractures du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 342, 1902, p. 41. 43. Eisendrath, D. N.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Ann. Surg. 41:363, 1905.Crossref 44. Cabot, H., and Binney, H.: Fractures of Os Calcis and Astragalus , Ann. Surg. 45:51, 1907.Crossref 45. Cotton, F. J., and Wilson, L. T.: Fractures of Os Calcis , Boston M. & S. J. 159:559, 1908. 46. Cotton, F. J.: Dislocations and Joint Fractures , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1910, pp. 589-621. 47. Van Stockum, A.: Operative Behandlung der Calcaneus- und Talusfractur , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 30:1438-1439, 1912. 48. Drewke, W.: Frakturen des Calcaneus und ihre Behandlung, Inaug. Dissert., Berlin, 1913. 49. Gelinsky: Die Extensionbehandlung der Calcaneumfraktur und den Verletzungen der Mittelfussknoche , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 11:809, 1913. 50. Leriche: Fracture compliquée du calcanéum; résection immédiate; guérison avec excellent résultat fonctionnel , Lyon méd. 120:1185, 1913. 51. Soubeyran, P., and Rives, A.: Fractures du calcanéum , Rev. de chir., Paris 47:429, 1913. 52. Cotton, F. J.: Os Calcis Fractures , Ann. Surg. 64:480, 1916. 53. Cotton and Henderson, F. F.: Results of Fractures of the Os Calcis , Am. J. Orthop. Surg. 14:290, 1916. 54. Forrester, C. R. G.: Prevention of Disability Following Fracture of Os Calcis , Illinois M. J. 30:386, 1916. 55. Lounsbury, B. F.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 22:638, 1916. 56. Bendixen, P. A.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. Iowa M. Soc. 7:140, 1917. 57. Cahill, G. F.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Ann. Surg. 66:711, 1917. 58. Koch, J. C.: Laws of Bone Architecture , Am. J. Anat. 21:211, 1917. 59. Magnuson, P. B.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. A. M. A. 68:530 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1917. 60. Whiteside, G. S.: A Case of Fracture of the Os Calcis , U. S. Nav. M. Bull. 12:267, 1918. 61. Davis, B. F.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , S. Clin., Chicago 3:1307, 1919. 62. Glasson, C. J.: Case of Unusual Fracture of the Os Calcis , Arch. Radiol. & Electroth. 24:228, 1919. 63. Foldes, D.: Fractures of the Patella, Os Calcis and Olecranon, Treated by Fischer's Apparatus , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 30:510, 1920. 64. Magnuson P. B., and Coulter, J. S.: Fracture of Both Os Calci , Internat. Clin. 2:224, 1920. 65. Mumford, E. B.: Fractures of Calcaneum , J. Indiana M. A. 13:200, 1920. 66. Steindler, A.: Stripping of Os Calcis , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 2:8, 1920. 67. Zur Verth, M.: Mechanik und System des Fersenbeinbrüches , München. med. Wchnschr. 39:1115, 1920. 68. Ueber den Bruch der Fersenhöckers , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 153:414, 1920. 69. Beedle, G. A.: Fractures of Os Calcis with Dislocation of the Astragalus , J. Missouri M. A. 18:54, 1921. 70. Cotton, F. J.: Os Calcis Fractures , S. Clin. North America 1:917, 1921. 71. Old Os Calcis Fractures , Ann. Surg. 74:294, 1921. 72. Moreau, L.: Fractures directes du calcanéum , Paris méd. 11:305, 1921. 73. Straus, D. C.: A New Method of Treating Recent Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. A. M. A. 77:176 ( (July 16) ) 1921. 74. Kaess, W.: Die Behandlung der Fraktur des Calcaneuskörpers mittels Nagelextension , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 49:1412, 1922. 75. Vulliet, H.: Une fracture inédite du calcanéum , Rev. méd. de la Suisse Rom. 42:815, 1922. 76. Becker, E.: Zur blutigen Behandlung der Fersenbeinbrüche , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 50:262, 1923. 77. Outline of Treatment of Fractures , Arch. Surg. 6:172 ( (Jan.) ) 1923. 78. Magnuson, P. B.: Operation for Relief of Disability in Old Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. A. M. A. 80:1511 ( (May 26) ) 1923. 79. Elsner, J.: Die Osteotomie und zietweilige Nagelung des Calcaneus, bei blutigen Klumpfussoperationen , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 51:429, 1924. 80. Morton, D. J.: Evolution of the Longitudinal Arch of the Human Foot , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 6:56, 1924. 81. Mechanism of the Normal Foot and of Flat Foot , Morton J. Bone & Joint Surg. 6:368, 1924. 82. Sneed, W. L.: A Report of Eight Cases of Severe Crushing Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 6:157, 1924. 83. Hall, A. C.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Am. J. Roentgenol. 14:27, 1925. 84. Brickner, W. M., and Milch, H.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Internat. Clin. 11:253, 1926. 85. Condit, L. I.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 42:133, 1926. 86. Conn, H. R.: Fractures of the Os Calcis: Diagnosis and Treatment , Radiology 6:228, 1926. 87. Harding, M. C.: Os Calcis Fractures: A New Method of Reduction , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 8:720, 1926. 88. Reich, R. S.: Subastragaloid Arthrodesis in the Treatment of Old Fractures of the Calcaneus , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 42:420, 1926. 89. Funsten, R. V.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. Michigan M. Soc. 26:102, 1927. 90. Malpas, P.: Prognosis of Fracture of the Os Calcis , Brit. M. J. 1:510, 1927. 91. Speed, K.: New Type of Fracture of Calcaneus with Discussion of Common Injuries , S. Clin. North America 7:583, 1927. 92. Wilson, P. D.: Treatment of Fractures of the Os Calcis by Arthrodesis of the Subastragalar Joint , J. A. M. A. 89:1676 ( (Nov. 12) ) 1927. 93. Bendixen, P. A.: Fractures of Os Calcis , Surg. J. 34:115, 1928. 94. Lenormant, C.; Wilmoth, P., and Lecœur, P.: À propos du traitement sanglant des fractures du calcanéum , Bull. et mém. Soc. nat. de chir. 54:1353, 1928. 95. Masland, H. C.: A Reducing and Fixation Splint for Fractures of the Os Calcis , Internat. J. Med. & Surg. 41:191, 1928. 96. Robinson, L. F.: A Review of Fractures of the Os Calcis: Report of Case , South. M. J. 21:583, 1928. 97. Scudder, C. L.: Treatment of Fractures , ed. 10, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1928, pp. 715-724. 98. Steidler, A.: Stripping of Os Calcis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 47:523, 1928. 99. Bérard, L., and Mallet-Guy, P.: À propos du traitement sanglant des fractures récentes du calcanéum , Lyon chir. 26:453, 1929. 100. Böhler, L.: Behandlung der Fersenbeinbrüche , Chirurg 1:733, 1929. 101. Behandlung der Fersenbeinbrüche , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 157:723, 1929. 102. Chatterton, C. C.: Fracture of Os Calcis , Minnesota Med. 12:521, 1929. 103. Conn, H. R.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Ohio State M. J. 25:629, 1929. 104. Fontoynont and Estrade: Un cas de fracture du calcanéum , Bull. Soc. path. exot. 22:388, 1929. 105. Oudard and Le Bourgo: Les fractures du calcanéum méconnues , Arch. de méd. nav. 119:95, 1929. 106. Schnek, F.: Zur Behandlung der Fersenbeinbrüche , Chirurg 1:1123, 1929. 107. Schwartz, A.: À propos des fractures du calcanéum , Bull. et mém. Soc. nat. de chir. 55:148, 1929. 108. Simon, R., and Stulz, E.: Le traitement sanglant des fractures par écrasement du calcanéum , Rev. de chir., Paris 67:354, 1929. 109. Werner, A.: Ueber Fersenbeinbrüche durch Abscherung , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 221:405, 1929.Crossref 110. Wilmoth, P., and Lecœur, P.: Le traitement opératoire des fractures sous-thalamiques du calcanéum , J. de chir. 33:781, 1929. 111. Bendixen, P. A.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Internat. J. Med. & Surg. 43:258, 1930. 112. Crossan, E. T.: Fracture of the Tarsal Scaphoid and of the Os Calcis , S. Clin. North America 10:1477, 1930. 113. Dieulafe, L., and Dieulafe, R.: Fracture de l'angle postéro-supérieur du calcanéum , Arch. franco-belges de chir. 32:448, 1930. 114. Gillette, E. P.: An Apparatus for Treatment of Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 12:670, 1930. 115. Hermann, O. J.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , New England J. Med. 202:705 ( (April 10) ) 1930. 116. Pichon, R.: Fractures du calcanéum , Gaz. d. hôp. 103:277, 1930. 117. Simon, R., and Stulz, E.: Operative Treatment of Compression Fractures of the Calcaneum , Ann. Surg. 91:731, 1930. 118. Bartley, S. P.: Treatment of Fractures of the Os Calcis , S. Clin. North America 11:637, 1931. 119. Böhler, L.: Diagnosis, Pathology and Treatment of Fractures of Os Calcis , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 13:75, 1931. 120. Dachtler, H. W.: Fractures of the Anterior-Superior Portion of the Os Calcis Due to Violence , Am. J. Roentgenol. 25:629, 1931. 121. Didiée, J.: Fracture parcellaire isolée du calcanéum , Rev. d'orthop. 18:250, 1931. 122. Monod, R. C.: Traitement des fractures du calcanéum , Bull. méd., Paris 45:756, 1931. 123. Mouchet, A., and Allard: Fracture incomplète du bec de la grande apophyse du calcanéum , Ann. d'anat. path. 8:1268, 1931. 124. Patel, M.: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement; arthrodèse sous-astragalienne , Lyon chir. 28:113, 1931. 125. White, J. W.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , South. Med. & Surg. 93:184, 1931. 126. Wilmoth, P.: Traitement de fracture du calcanéum , J. de méd. et chir. prat. 102:328, 1931. 127. Davenport, C. B.: Growth of the Human Foot , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 17:167, 1932. 128. Harding, M. C.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , California & West. Med. 36:319, 1932. 129. Kessler, H. H.: Accidental Injuries , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1932. 130. Mercer, W.: Orthopedic Surgery , London, Edward Arnold & Co., 1932. 131. Mouchet, A.; Allard, and Mégnin, J.: Une fracture rare du calcanéum. (La fracture du bec de la grande apophyse) , Rev. d'orthop. 19:633, 1932. 132. Reich, R. S.: End Results in Fractures of the Calcaneus , J. A. M. A. 99:1909 ( (Dec. 3) ) 1932. 133. Schwan: Einiges ueber Calcaneusbrüche , Med. Welt 6:562, 1932. 134. Cotton, F. J.: Fractures , in Lewis D.: Practice of Surgery , Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1933, vol. 2, chap. 4, pp. 175-180. 135. Funsten, R. V.: A New Treatment for Fractures of the Os Calcis , Virginia M. Monthly 60:265, 1933. 136. Keith, A.: Human Embryology and Morphology , ed. 5, Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1933. 137. Moore, G. E.: Fractures of the Tuber Calcanei Involving the Medial and Lateral Processes , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 57:400, 1933. 138. Myers, G. P.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Internat. J. Med. & Surg. 46:69, 1933. 139. Pierce, F. E.: Disabilities Resulting from Fractures of the Os Calcis and Remedial Measures for Their Prevention , Internat. J. Med. & Surg. 46:522, 1933. 140. Clarkson, W., and Barker, A.: Fractures of the Os Calcis and Astragalus , South. M. J. 27:397, 1934. 141. Forrester, C. R. G.: Acute Fractures of the Os Calcis , Am. J. Surg. 25:404, 1934. 142. Küntscher, G.: Die Darstellung des Kraftfusses im Knochen , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 61:2130, 1934. 143. Laffitte, H.: Résultats de trois fractures du calcanéum traitées par la greffe osseuse , Bull. et mém. Soc. nat. de chir. 60:1348, 1934. 144. Oserow, A. D., and Ssolondsj, A. N.: Operative Treatment of Impacted Fractures of the Os Calcis , Sovet. khir. 6:284, 1934. 145. Schindler, E.: Fractures of the Calcaneus in the Leipzig University Surgical Clinic (1926-1932), Dissert., Leipzig, 1934. 146. Sicard, A., and Mutricy, H.: À propos du traitement chirurgical des fractures sous-thalamiques du calcanéum , J. de chir. 43:374, 1934. 147. Stewart, J. E.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , South. M. J. 27:711, 1934.Crossref 148. Westhues: Zur Behandlung der Calcaneusfraktur , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 61:2231, 1934. 149. Elftman, H., and Manter, J.: Chimpanzee and Human Feet in Bipedal Walking , Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 20:69, 1935.Crossref 150. Groves, E. W. H.: Organization of Treatment of Fractures , Brit. M. J. 1:813, 1935.Crossref 151. Mutricy, H.: Fractures du calcanéum; le probleme therapeutique qu'elles posent , Paris, Louis Arnette, 1935. 152. Willis, T. A.: Function of the Long Plantar Muscles , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 60:150, 1935. 153. Yergason, R. M.: A Simple Clamp for Reducing Fractures of the Calcaneum and Tibial Tuberosities , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 17:225, 1935. 154. Carabba, V.: Apparatus for Treatment of Fractured Os Calcis , Am. J. Surg. 33:53, 1936. 155. Henderson, M. S.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 63:782, 1936. 156. MacAusland, W. R.: Treatment of Fractures of the Os Calcis by Pin Traction , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 63:506, 1936. 157. Schofield, R. O.: Fractures of the Os Calcis , J. Bone & Joint Surg. 18:566, 1936. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

FRESH FRACTURE OF THE OS CALCIS

Archives of Surgery , Volume 36 (5) – May 1, 1938

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Copyright © 1938 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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10.1001/archsurg.1938.01190230023003
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Abstract

Abstract A broken leg as a rule causes too great a disability to allow a mistaken diagnosis. Not so with many fresh fractures of the os calcis. If the damage is severe enough the physician's attention is focused and his diagnostic curiosity challenged to the point that early roentgenograms are generally taken. Thus, a "sprain" turns out to be a crushing fracture of the heel bone. Too often, even in the larger centers, the ancient empirical form of treatment, consisting of "rest in an encasement until consolidation has arrived," is applied. I wish to advocate, briefly, a manner of treating fresh fracture of the os calcis by closed reduction, modeling the fragments by force and encasing the restored foot until healing takes place. HISTORICAL TREATMENT In 1720 Garangeot, of France, first described accurately the "smash fracture." Petit and Desault, his countrymen, reported their cases in the same year and advised "rest References 1. Bilgner, 1720, cited by Nadal. 2. Desault, 1720, cited by Nadal. 3. Garangeot, 1720, cited by Nadal. 4. Petit, 1720, cited by Nadal. 5. Cooper, Samuel: Surgery , Philadelphia, Griggs & Elliot, 1835. 6. Bérenguier, A.: Fracture du calcanéum après une chute sur la plante des pieds , J. de chir. 1:376, 1843. 7. Deville: Fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 18:13, 1843. 8. Malgaigne, J. F.: Mémoir sur la fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , J. de chir. 1:2, 1843. 9. Nadal, J.: Du mecanisme de la fracture du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 64, 1843. 10. Voillemier: Fracture par écrasement de deux calcanéums, resultat constaté 13 ans après l'accident , J. de chir. 1:63, 1843. 11. Bérard, M.: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Gaz. d. hôp. 7:462, 1845. 12. Malgaigne: J. de chir. 3:154, 1845. 13. Malgaigne, J. B.: Traité des fractures et des luxations , Paris, J. B. Baillière, 1847, vol. 1, p. 827. 14. Cooper, B.: Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Surgery , Philadelphia, Blanchard & Lea, 1852, p. 248. 15. Bauchet: Fracture par écrasement du calcanéum , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 28:215, 1853. 16. Demarquay: Fracture du calcanéum avec pénétration , Bull. Soc. de chir. de Paris 4:483, 1854. 17. Clark, Le G.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Lancet 1:403, 1855. 18. Foucher: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 31:19, 1856. 19. Rémond, H. F.: Considérations sur la fracture par écrasement du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 236, 1857. 20. Cavasse: Fracture de deux calcanéums , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 33:12, 1858. 21. Cavasse: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 33:12, 1858. 22. Legouest, L.: Des fractures du calcanéum , Arch. gén. de méd. 2:148, 1860. 23. Sonrier: Fracture du calcanéum par écrasement , Rec. de mém. de méd. mil. 20:466, 1868. 24. Polaillon: Calcanéum , Dict. encycl. d. sc. méd. 11:606, 1870. 25. Pradel, L.: Considérations sur les fractures par écrasement du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 309, 1875. 26. Krabbel: Complizierte Fraktur des Calcaneus , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 23:816, 1879. 27. Pinner, O.: Zur Casuistik der Calcaneusfrakturen , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir. 12:437, 1879.Crossref 28. Abraham, P. S.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Dublin J. M. Sc. 70:527, 1880. 29. Bailey, F. A.: Fracture of Os Calcis , Proc. Oregon M. Soc. 7:68, 1880. 30. Bennett, E. H.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Dublin J. M. Sc. 70:526, 1880. 31. Paszkowski, V.: De la fracture du calcanéum par écrasement et des déformations consécutives, Thesis, Paris, no. 249, 1880, p. 64. 32. Bell, C.: Compound Fracture of the Os Calcis , Edinburgh M. J. 27:1100, 1881-1882. 33. Fifield, W. C. B.: Fracture of the Os Calcis of Each Foot: Death from Embolism on the Twelfth Day; Autopsy , M. News, Philadelphia 42:126, 1883. 34. Saussol, A.: Un cas de fracture du calcanéum par arrachement , Gaz. hebd. d. sc. méd. de Montpellier 5:157, 1883. 35. Webb: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Australian M. J. 6:362, 1884. 36. Desfosses, 1898, cited by Lecocq. 37. Tuffier, 1898, cited by Lecocq. 38. Helbing, 1900, cited by Gérard. 39. Lecocq, S. T.: Une méthode de traitement des fractures du calcanéum, Thesis, Lille, no. 470, 1900, p. 84. 40. Lemmen, 1900, cited by Gérard. 41. Neuschafer, 1900, cited by Gérard. 42. Gérard, L.: Fractures du calcanéum, Thesis, Paris, no. 342, 1902, p. 41. 43. Eisendrath, D. N.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Ann. Surg. 41:363, 1905.Crossref 44. Cabot, H., and Binney, H.: Fractures of Os Calcis and Astragalus , Ann. Surg. 45:51, 1907.Crossref 45. Cotton, F. J., and Wilson, L. T.: Fractures of Os Calcis , Boston M. & S. J. 159:559, 1908. 46. Cotton, F. J.: Dislocations and Joint Fractures , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1910, pp. 589-621. 47. Van Stockum, A.: Operative Behandlung der Calcaneus- und Talusfractur , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 30:1438-1439, 1912. 48. Drewke, W.: Frakturen des Calcaneus und ihre Behandlung, Inaug. Dissert., Berlin, 1913. 49. Gelinsky: Die Extensionbehandlung der Calcaneumfraktur und den Verletzungen der Mittelfussknoche , Zentralbl. f. Chir. 11:809, 1913. 50. Leriche: Fracture compliquée du calcanéum; résection immédiate; guérison avec excellent résultat fonctionnel , Lyon méd. 120:1185, 1913. 51. Soubeyran, P., and Rives, A.: Fractures du calcanéum , Rev. de chir., Paris 47:429, 1913. 52. Cotton, F. J.: Os Calcis Fractures , Ann. Surg. 64:480, 1916. 53. Cotton and Henderson, F. F.: Results of Fractures of the Os Calcis , Am. J. Orthop. Surg. 14:290, 1916. 54. Forrester, C. R. G.: Prevention of Disability Following Fracture of Os Calcis , Illinois M. J. 30:386, 1916. 55. Lounsbury, B. F.: Fracture of the Os Calcis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 22:638, 1916. 56. Bendixen, P. 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Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1938

References