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FIXATION ANOMALIES IN AMBLYOPIA

FIXATION ANOMALIES IN AMBLYOPIA Abstract AMBLYOPIA is a frequent, yet little understood, visual defect. This fact was established by Downing,1 who in 1945 reported on ocular defects in 60,000 selectees for the United States Army. Among these he found 1,920 cases of uniocular amblyopia of unknown origin, a proportion of 1: 30. Does fixation in these instances remain centered on the fovea of the affected eye? This is the question under consideration. The true nature of amblyopia has by no means been established. Harms,2 in 1938, demonstrated a relative lowering of the pupillary responses to light in amblyopic eyes. He was of the opinion that, in some manner, there occurs a suppression of the activity of the retina. On the other hand, Wald and Burian,3 Dyer and Bierman,4 and many others have stated the belief that amblyopia is due mainly to cortical suppression and that no physiological changes occur. The macula References 1. Downing, A. H.: Arch. Ophth. 33:137, 1945.Crossref 2. Harms, H.: von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 138:149, 1938.Crossref 3. Wald, G., and Burian, H. M.: Am. J. Ophth. 26:950, 1944. 4. Dyer, D., and Bierman, E. O.: Am. J. Ophth. 35:66, 1952. 5. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 1, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1932, p. 333. 6. Gesell, A.; Ilg, F. L., and Bullis, G. E.: Vision: Its Development, in Infant and Child , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. (Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers), 1949, p. 306. 7. Javal, L. E.: Manuel thèorique et practique du strabisme , Paris, G. Masson, 1896. 8. Weymouth, F. W., and others: Am. J. Ophth. 11:947, 1928. 9. Fuchs, E.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , authorized translation by Alexander Duane, Ed. 6, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1924. 10. Marx, E., and Trendelenburg, W.: Ztschr. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 45:88, 1911. 11. Jones, L. A., and Higgins, G. B.: J. Optic. Soc. America 37:217, 1947.Crossref 12. Wertheim, T.: Ztschr. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7:172, 1894. 13. Luckiesh, M., and Moss, F. K.: The Science of Seeing , D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1937. 14. Polyak, S. L.: The Retina , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1941. 15. O'Brien, B.: Vision and Resolution in the Central Retina , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:882, 1951.Crossref 16. Worth, C. A.: Squint, Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 5, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Sons & Company, 1921, p. 84. 17. Lazich, B. M.: Arch. Ophth. 39:183, 1948.Crossref 18. Hering, E.: Die Lehre vom binokularen Sehen , Leipzig, W. Englemann, 1868. 19. Tschermak: von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 47:509, 1899.Crossref 20. Bielschowsky, A.: Am. J. Ophth. 21:33, 1935.Crossref 21. Parinaud, H.: Gaz. hôp. 55:259, 1882. 22. Ebbinghaus, H.: Arch. ges. Physiol. 46:498, 1889-1890.Crossref 23. Creed, R. S., and Harding, R. D.: J. Physiol. 69:423, 1930. 24. Brock, F. W.: Visual Training: Pt. II, Chicago, The Professional Press, Inc., to be published. 25. One hundred forty-eight case reports were lent to us by Capt. Norman Jaffe, stationed at the United States Army Hospital at Fort Campbell, Ky., where he is presently undertaking amblyopia research, using the Brock test. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1952 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1952.01700030794008
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract AMBLYOPIA is a frequent, yet little understood, visual defect. This fact was established by Downing,1 who in 1945 reported on ocular defects in 60,000 selectees for the United States Army. Among these he found 1,920 cases of uniocular amblyopia of unknown origin, a proportion of 1: 30. Does fixation in these instances remain centered on the fovea of the affected eye? This is the question under consideration. The true nature of amblyopia has by no means been established. Harms,2 in 1938, demonstrated a relative lowering of the pupillary responses to light in amblyopic eyes. He was of the opinion that, in some manner, there occurs a suppression of the activity of the retina. On the other hand, Wald and Burian,3 Dyer and Bierman,4 and many others have stated the belief that amblyopia is due mainly to cortical suppression and that no physiological changes occur. The macula References 1. Downing, A. H.: Arch. Ophth. 33:137, 1945.Crossref 2. Harms, H.: von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 138:149, 1938.Crossref 3. Wald, G., and Burian, H. M.: Am. J. Ophth. 26:950, 1944. 4. Dyer, D., and Bierman, E. O.: Am. J. Ophth. 35:66, 1952. 5. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 1, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1932, p. 333. 6. Gesell, A.; Ilg, F. L., and Bullis, G. E.: Vision: Its Development, in Infant and Child , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. (Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers), 1949, p. 306. 7. Javal, L. E.: Manuel thèorique et practique du strabisme , Paris, G. Masson, 1896. 8. Weymouth, F. W., and others: Am. J. Ophth. 11:947, 1928. 9. Fuchs, E.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , authorized translation by Alexander Duane, Ed. 6, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1924. 10. Marx, E., and Trendelenburg, W.: Ztschr. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 45:88, 1911. 11. Jones, L. A., and Higgins, G. B.: J. Optic. Soc. America 37:217, 1947.Crossref 12. Wertheim, T.: Ztschr. Psychol. u. Physiol. Sinnesorg. 7:172, 1894. 13. Luckiesh, M., and Moss, F. K.: The Science of Seeing , D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1937. 14. Polyak, S. L.: The Retina , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1941. 15. O'Brien, B.: Vision and Resolution in the Central Retina , J. Optic. Soc. America 41:882, 1951.Crossref 16. Worth, C. A.: Squint, Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment , Ed. 5, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Sons & Company, 1921, p. 84. 17. Lazich, B. M.: Arch. Ophth. 39:183, 1948.Crossref 18. Hering, E.: Die Lehre vom binokularen Sehen , Leipzig, W. Englemann, 1868. 19. Tschermak: von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 47:509, 1899.Crossref 20. Bielschowsky, A.: Am. J. Ophth. 21:33, 1935.Crossref 21. Parinaud, H.: Gaz. hôp. 55:259, 1882. 22. Ebbinghaus, H.: Arch. ges. Physiol. 46:498, 1889-1890.Crossref 23. Creed, R. S., and Harding, R. D.: J. Physiol. 69:423, 1930. 24. Brock, F. W.: Visual Training: Pt. II, Chicago, The Professional Press, Inc., to be published. 25. One hundred forty-eight case reports were lent to us by Capt. Norman Jaffe, stationed at the United States Army Hospital at Fort Campbell, Ky., where he is presently undertaking amblyopia research, using the Brock test.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1952

References