Abstract IN A RECENT paper, Nicholls1 reviewed the literature dealing with the relation of heterophorias to depth perception. This author concludes that, within fairly wide limits, heterophoria seems to have little influence on the acuity of stereopsis. This is certainly true, inasmuch as cyclotorsional movements of the eyes are not involved. In this paper an attempt is made to show that, under certain circumstances, misinterpretations of space frequently occur owing to cyclotorsion, i. e., wheel-like rotations of the eyes about their lines of fixation (Ogle2). Cyclotorsion is normally performed in the interest of proper alignment of the eyes to provide binocular single vision and reliable distance discrimination of vertically located objects. Cyclomotions of the eyes for this purpose are called "cyclofusional movements." According to Ogle,2 the most evident characteristics of the cyclofusional mechanisms can be described as follows: 1. Both eyes perform essentially equal, but opposite, cyclotorsional movements References 1. Nicholls, J. V. V.: Relationship of Heterophoria to Depth Perception in Aviation , Am. J. Ophth. 33:1497 ( (Oct.) ) 1950 2. 33:1891 (Dec.) 1950. 3. Ogle, K. N.: Researches in Binocular Vision , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1950. 4. Hofmann, F. B., and Bielschowsky, A.: Der Willkür entzogene Fusionsbewegungen der Augen , Arch. ges. Physiol. 80:1-40, 1900.Crossref 5. Verhoeff, F. H.: Cycloduction , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 32:208-228, 1934. 6. Herzau, W.: Über das Verhältnis von erzwungener Vertikaldivergenz und Rollung bei der Fusion , Arch. Ophth. 122:59-74, 1929. 7. Tschermak, A. V.: Beiträge zur physiologischen Optik: IV. Augenbewegungen , in Bethe, A.; von Bergmann, G.; Embden, G., and Ellinger, A.: Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie , Berlin, Julius Springer, Vol. 12, Pt. 2, 1930, pp. 1001-1094. 8. Sachs, M., and Meller, J.: Über einige eigentümliche Lokalisationsphänomene in einem Falle von hochgradiger Netzhautincongruenz , Arch. Ophth. 57:1-23, 1904. 9. Ames, A., Jr.; Cyclophoria , Am. J. Physiol. Optics 7:3-38, 1926. 10. Cibis, P. A.; Wilson, M. R., and Fleck, H. G.: Studies on Effects of Windshields and/or Air of Different Densities on Stereoscopic Vision: II. Description of a Stereo-Meter and Method for Measuring Cyclo-Incongruities , Report No. 2, School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, 1950. 11. Rollet, A.: Physiologische Versuche über binoculares Sehen, angestellt mit Hilfe planparalleler Glasplatten , Sitzungb. K. Acad. Wissensch. Math.-naturw. Klasse 42:488-502, 1860. 12. Dr. Max Halperin, former Chief of the Department of Biometrics, USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, made the statistical computations.
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Jan 1, 1952
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