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Fatal Viral Encephalitis in Children With X-Linked Hypogammaglobulinemia

Fatal Viral Encephalitis in Children With X-Linked Hypogammaglobulinemia Abstract Fatal viral infections in children with antibody deficiency syndromes are extremely rare. Two children with infantile X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia who died from overwhelming viral encephalitis are described. A 9-year-old boy developed encephalitis and both echovirus type 2 and herpes simplex virus were recovered from the brain at autopsy. The second patient was a 16½-month-old boy who developed encephalitis after receiving live measles virus vaccine and herpes simplex virus was recovered from the brain. Two viruses were involved in each case, but the relation is unknown. It is possible that cellular immunity was depressed by one virus, thus enhancing the severity of the infection by the second virus. References 1. Good RA, Bridges RA, Condie RM: Host-parasite relationships in patients with dysproteinemias . Bacteriol Rev 24:115-132, 1960. 2. Good RA, Kelly WD, Rotstein J, et al: Immunological deficiency diseases . Prog Allergy 6:187-319, 1962. 3. Baron S: Host defenses during virus infection , in Heath RB, Waterson AP (eds): Modern Trends in Medical Virology . London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1967, pp 77-110. 4. Chang TW, Weinstein L, MacMahon HE: Paralytic poliomyelitis in a child with hypogammaglobulinemia: Probable implication of type 1 vaccine strain . Pediatrics 37:630-636, 1966. 5. Good RA, Page AR: Fatal complications of virus hepatitis in two patients with agammaglobulinemia . Am J Med 29:804-810, 1960.Crossref 6. Kramer RI, Cirone VC, Moore H: Interstitial pneumonia due to pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalic inclusion disease and hypogammaglobulinemia occurring simultaneously in an infant . Pediatrics 29:816-827, 1962. 7. Blandford G, Heath RB: Immunoglobulins in virus disease , in Heath RB, Waterson AP (eds): Modern Trends in Medical Virology . London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1970, pp 51-77. 8. Bruton OC: Agammaglobulinemia . Pediatrics 9:722-727, 1952. 9. Gitlin D, et al: Agammaglobulinemia , in Lawrence HS (ed): Cellular and Humoral Aspects of the Hypersensitive States . New York, Hoeber-Harper, 1959, pp 375-437. 10. Fulginiti VA, Kempe CH, Hathaway WE, et al: Progressive vaccinia in immunologically deficient individuals , in Bergsma D (ed): Immunologic Deficiency Diseases in Man , No. 1. Birth Defects Original Article Series, New York, The National Foundation, 1968, pp 129-145, vol 4. 11. Hanissian AS, Jabbour JT, deLamerens S, et al: Subacute encephalitis and hypogammaglobulinemia . Am J Dis Child 123:151-155, 1972. 12. Maller HM, Powars DF, Horowitz RE, et al: Fatal myocarditis associated with ECHO virus, type 22, infection in a child with apparent immunological deficiency . J Pediatr 71:204-210, 1967.Crossref 13. MacCallum FO: The role of humoral antibodies in protection against and recovery from bacterial and virus infections in hypogammaglobulinaemia . Med Res Counc Spec Rep Ser (London) 310:72-85, 1971. 14. Nathanson N, Cole GA: Immunosuppression: A means to assess the role of the immune response in acute viral infections . Fed Proc 30:1822-1830, 1971. 15. Dudgeon JA: Herpes encephalitis: II. Pathology of herpes encephalitis . Postgrad Med J 45:386-391, 1969.Crossref 16. St. Geme JW, Prince JT, Burke BA, et al: Impaired cellular resistance to Herpes-simplex virus in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome . N Engl J Med 273:229-234, 1965.Crossref 17. Kipps A, Becker W, Wainwright J, et al: Fatal disseminated primary herpesvirus infection in children: Epidemiology based on 93 nonneonatal cases . S Afr Med J 41:647-651, 1967. 18. Fireman P, Friday G, Kumate J: Effect of measles vaccine on immunologic responsiveness . Pediatrics 43:264-272, 1969. 19. Willems FTC, Melnick JL, Rawls WE: Viral inhibition of the phytohemagglutinin response of human lymphocytes and application to viral hepatitis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 130:652-661, 1969.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Fatal Viral Encephalitis in Children With X-Linked Hypogammaglobulinemia

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1973 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1973.02110190088019
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Fatal viral infections in children with antibody deficiency syndromes are extremely rare. Two children with infantile X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia who died from overwhelming viral encephalitis are described. A 9-year-old boy developed encephalitis and both echovirus type 2 and herpes simplex virus were recovered from the brain at autopsy. The second patient was a 16½-month-old boy who developed encephalitis after receiving live measles virus vaccine and herpes simplex virus was recovered from the brain. Two viruses were involved in each case, but the relation is unknown. It is possible that cellular immunity was depressed by one virus, thus enhancing the severity of the infection by the second virus. References 1. Good RA, Bridges RA, Condie RM: Host-parasite relationships in patients with dysproteinemias . Bacteriol Rev 24:115-132, 1960. 2. Good RA, Kelly WD, Rotstein J, et al: Immunological deficiency diseases . Prog Allergy 6:187-319, 1962. 3. Baron S: Host defenses during virus infection , in Heath RB, Waterson AP (eds): Modern Trends in Medical Virology . London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1967, pp 77-110. 4. Chang TW, Weinstein L, MacMahon HE: Paralytic poliomyelitis in a child with hypogammaglobulinemia: Probable implication of type 1 vaccine strain . Pediatrics 37:630-636, 1966. 5. Good RA, Page AR: Fatal complications of virus hepatitis in two patients with agammaglobulinemia . Am J Med 29:804-810, 1960.Crossref 6. Kramer RI, Cirone VC, Moore H: Interstitial pneumonia due to pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalic inclusion disease and hypogammaglobulinemia occurring simultaneously in an infant . Pediatrics 29:816-827, 1962. 7. Blandford G, Heath RB: Immunoglobulins in virus disease , in Heath RB, Waterson AP (eds): Modern Trends in Medical Virology . London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1970, pp 51-77. 8. Bruton OC: Agammaglobulinemia . Pediatrics 9:722-727, 1952. 9. Gitlin D, et al: Agammaglobulinemia , in Lawrence HS (ed): Cellular and Humoral Aspects of the Hypersensitive States . New York, Hoeber-Harper, 1959, pp 375-437. 10. Fulginiti VA, Kempe CH, Hathaway WE, et al: Progressive vaccinia in immunologically deficient individuals , in Bergsma D (ed): Immunologic Deficiency Diseases in Man , No. 1. Birth Defects Original Article Series, New York, The National Foundation, 1968, pp 129-145, vol 4. 11. Hanissian AS, Jabbour JT, deLamerens S, et al: Subacute encephalitis and hypogammaglobulinemia . Am J Dis Child 123:151-155, 1972. 12. Maller HM, Powars DF, Horowitz RE, et al: Fatal myocarditis associated with ECHO virus, type 22, infection in a child with apparent immunological deficiency . J Pediatr 71:204-210, 1967.Crossref 13. MacCallum FO: The role of humoral antibodies in protection against and recovery from bacterial and virus infections in hypogammaglobulinaemia . Med Res Counc Spec Rep Ser (London) 310:72-85, 1971. 14. Nathanson N, Cole GA: Immunosuppression: A means to assess the role of the immune response in acute viral infections . Fed Proc 30:1822-1830, 1971. 15. Dudgeon JA: Herpes encephalitis: II. Pathology of herpes encephalitis . Postgrad Med J 45:386-391, 1969.Crossref 16. St. Geme JW, Prince JT, Burke BA, et al: Impaired cellular resistance to Herpes-simplex virus in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome . N Engl J Med 273:229-234, 1965.Crossref 17. Kipps A, Becker W, Wainwright J, et al: Fatal disseminated primary herpesvirus infection in children: Epidemiology based on 93 nonneonatal cases . S Afr Med J 41:647-651, 1967. 18. Fireman P, Friday G, Kumate J: Effect of measles vaccine on immunologic responsiveness . Pediatrics 43:264-272, 1969. 19. Willems FTC, Melnick JL, Rawls WE: Viral inhibition of the phytohemagglutinin response of human lymphocytes and application to viral hepatitis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 130:652-661, 1969.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1973

References