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Eye Movements During Sleep: I. The Pattern in the Normal Human

Eye Movements During Sleep: I. The Pattern in the Normal Human Abstract Eye movements were recorded by DC oculogram in eight normal subjects during 31 nights of sleep. A consistent series of ocular positional changes and movements occurred in every subject. Initially, eyelid closure induced upward movement of the globes. The eyes then remained elevated during 55% to 85% of the time spent in stages 2, 3, and 4. With the onset of stage of rapid eye movement, the eyes moved down abruptly to or below the central position. Movements during this stage were quite unlike waking eye movements but showed a similar pattern in every subject. These movements were 5% to 15% horizontal, 25% to 35% vertical, and 55% to 65% oblique. The movement sequences and the time intervals between movements were not random. The results suggest that during sleep there is a pattern of activity of the oculomotor system which is similar in every subject. References 1. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (eds): A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects , publication 204. Bethesda, Md, National Institutes of Health, 1969. 2. Roffwarg HP, Dement WC, Muzio JN, et al: Dream imagery: Relationship to rapid eye movements of sleep . Arch Gen Psychiat 7:235-258, 1962.Crossref 3. Bender MB: Eyelid closure reaction . Arch Ophthal 29:435-440, 1943.Crossref 4. Adler FH: Physiology of the Eye , ed 2. St. Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1953, p 404. 5. Oswald I: Falling asleep open-eyed during intensive rhythmic stimulation . Brit Med J 1:1450-1455, 1960.Crossref 6. Gardner R, Weitzman ED: Examination foroptokinetic nystagmus in sleep and waking . Arch Neurol 16:415-420, 1967.Crossref 7. Fuchs AF, Ron S: An analysis of the rapid eye movements in sleep in the monkey . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 25:244-251, 1968.Crossref 8. Weinstein EA, Bender MB: Integrated facial patterns elicited by stimulation of the brainstem . Arch Neurol Psychiat 50:34-42, 1943.Crossref 9. Bender MB, Teng P, Weinstein EA: Centering of eyes . Arch Neurol Psychiat 72:282-295, 1954.Crossref 10. Bender MB, Shanzer S: Oculomotor pathways defined by electric stimulation and lesions in the brainstem of monkey , in Bender MB (ed): The Oculomotor System . New York, Paul B Hoeber Inc, 1964, pp 81-140. 11. Snyder F, Hobson JA, Morrison DF, et al: Changes in respiration, heart rate and systolic blood pressure in human sleep . J Appl Physiol 19:417-422, 1964. 12. Kanzoe E, Krause D, Kuhnel H: Die vasomotork der hirnide in den desynchronisierter EEG: Aktivitat im naturlicken schlaf der katze . Pflueger Arch 274:593-607, 1962.Crossref 13. Kawamura H, Sawyer CH: Elevation in brain temperature during paradoxical sleep . Science 150:912-913, 1965.Crossref 14. Evarts EV: Temporal patterns of discharge of pyramidal tract neurons during sleep and waking in the monkey . J Neurophysiol 27:152-171, 1964. 15. Evarts EV: Unit activity in sleep and wakefulness , in Quarton GC, Melnechuk T, Schmitt FO (eds): The Neurosciences: A Study Program . New York, Rockefeller University Press, 1967, pp 545-556. 16. Jouvet M, Michel F, Courjon J: Sur un stade d'activite-electrique cerebrale rapide au cours du sommeil Physiologique . C R Soc Biol 153:1024-1028, 1959. 17. Jouvet M: Neurophysiology of the states of sleep . Physiol Rev 47:117-177, 1967. 18. Cohen B, Feldman M: Relationship of electrical activity in pontine reticular formation and lateral geniculate body to rapid eye movements . J Neurophysiol 31:806-817, 1968. 19. Spreng LF, Johnson LC, Lubin A: Autonomic correlates of eye movement bursts during stage REM sleep . Psychophysiology 4:311-322, 1968.Crossref 20. Rechtschaffen A, Foulkes D: Effects of visual stimuli on dream content . Percept Motor Skills 20:1149-1160, 1965.Crossref 21. Aserinsky E, Cody WW: Quantitative aspects of rapid eye movements (REM) in sleep of normal men . Fed Proc 26:327, 1967. 22. Shapiro A: Dreaming and the physiology o. sleep . Exp Neurol 19:560-581, 1967. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Eye Movements During Sleep: I. The Pattern in the Normal Human

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1971 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1971.00490020069008
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Eye movements were recorded by DC oculogram in eight normal subjects during 31 nights of sleep. A consistent series of ocular positional changes and movements occurred in every subject. Initially, eyelid closure induced upward movement of the globes. The eyes then remained elevated during 55% to 85% of the time spent in stages 2, 3, and 4. With the onset of stage of rapid eye movement, the eyes moved down abruptly to or below the central position. Movements during this stage were quite unlike waking eye movements but showed a similar pattern in every subject. These movements were 5% to 15% horizontal, 25% to 35% vertical, and 55% to 65% oblique. The movement sequences and the time intervals between movements were not random. The results suggest that during sleep there is a pattern of activity of the oculomotor system which is similar in every subject. References 1. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (eds): A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects , publication 204. Bethesda, Md, National Institutes of Health, 1969. 2. Roffwarg HP, Dement WC, Muzio JN, et al: Dream imagery: Relationship to rapid eye movements of sleep . Arch Gen Psychiat 7:235-258, 1962.Crossref 3. Bender MB: Eyelid closure reaction . Arch Ophthal 29:435-440, 1943.Crossref 4. Adler FH: Physiology of the Eye , ed 2. St. Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1953, p 404. 5. Oswald I: Falling asleep open-eyed during intensive rhythmic stimulation . Brit Med J 1:1450-1455, 1960.Crossref 6. Gardner R, Weitzman ED: Examination foroptokinetic nystagmus in sleep and waking . Arch Neurol 16:415-420, 1967.Crossref 7. Fuchs AF, Ron S: An analysis of the rapid eye movements in sleep in the monkey . Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 25:244-251, 1968.Crossref 8. Weinstein EA, Bender MB: Integrated facial patterns elicited by stimulation of the brainstem . Arch Neurol Psychiat 50:34-42, 1943.Crossref 9. Bender MB, Teng P, Weinstein EA: Centering of eyes . Arch Neurol Psychiat 72:282-295, 1954.Crossref 10. Bender MB, Shanzer S: Oculomotor pathways defined by electric stimulation and lesions in the brainstem of monkey , in Bender MB (ed): The Oculomotor System . New York, Paul B Hoeber Inc, 1964, pp 81-140. 11. Snyder F, Hobson JA, Morrison DF, et al: Changes in respiration, heart rate and systolic blood pressure in human sleep . J Appl Physiol 19:417-422, 1964. 12. Kanzoe E, Krause D, Kuhnel H: Die vasomotork der hirnide in den desynchronisierter EEG: Aktivitat im naturlicken schlaf der katze . Pflueger Arch 274:593-607, 1962.Crossref 13. Kawamura H, Sawyer CH: Elevation in brain temperature during paradoxical sleep . Science 150:912-913, 1965.Crossref 14. Evarts EV: Temporal patterns of discharge of pyramidal tract neurons during sleep and waking in the monkey . J Neurophysiol 27:152-171, 1964. 15. Evarts EV: Unit activity in sleep and wakefulness , in Quarton GC, Melnechuk T, Schmitt FO (eds): The Neurosciences: A Study Program . New York, Rockefeller University Press, 1967, pp 545-556. 16. Jouvet M, Michel F, Courjon J: Sur un stade d'activite-electrique cerebrale rapide au cours du sommeil Physiologique . C R Soc Biol 153:1024-1028, 1959. 17. Jouvet M: Neurophysiology of the states of sleep . Physiol Rev 47:117-177, 1967. 18. Cohen B, Feldman M: Relationship of electrical activity in pontine reticular formation and lateral geniculate body to rapid eye movements . J Neurophysiol 31:806-817, 1968. 19. Spreng LF, Johnson LC, Lubin A: Autonomic correlates of eye movement bursts during stage REM sleep . Psychophysiology 4:311-322, 1968.Crossref 20. Rechtschaffen A, Foulkes D: Effects of visual stimuli on dream content . Percept Motor Skills 20:1149-1160, 1965.Crossref 21. Aserinsky E, Cody WW: Quantitative aspects of rapid eye movements (REM) in sleep of normal men . Fed Proc 26:327, 1967. 22. Shapiro A: Dreaming and the physiology o. sleep . Exp Neurol 19:560-581, 1967.

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1971

References