Abstract Anomalies of eye movements occur in many disorders involving the central nervous system. Usually, description of such anomalies is based on gross clinical observations alone, using such tests as the following: Pursuit movements are tested by having the patient follow a flashlight that is moved slowly back and forth before his eyes. The ability to fixate and refixate laterally displaced targets (movement of regard, saccadic movement) is examined by asking the patient to look quickly between two objects held to the right and left before his eyes. The presence or absence of spontaneous nystagmus in different positions of gaze is noted, but amplitude and frequency are difficult to analyze in this manner. Observation of the eyes during such tests is undoubtedly an adequate method to detect gross anomalies of eye movements. However, it is obvious that more refined methods to analyze eye movements are not only more likely to provide References 1. Technical factors caused a constant delay of 150 milliseconds between the electro-oculographic registration of the stimulus and its actual presentation to the subject. In order to arrive at absolute reaction times, therefore, 150 milliseconds were subtracted from all data. 2. Westheimer, G.: Mechanism of Saccadic Eye Movements , Arch Ophthal 52:710-724, 1954.Crossref 3. Mackensen, G.: Reaktionszeitmessungen bei Amblyopie , Graefe Arch Ophthal 159:636-642, 1958.Crossref 4. Robinson, D.A.: The Mechanics of Human Saccadic Eye Movements , J Physiol 174:245-264, 1964. 5. Orzechowski, C.: De l'ataxie dysmétrique des yeux: Remarques sur l'ataxie des yeux dite myoclonique (opsoclonie, opsochorie) , J Psychol Neurol 35:1, 1927 6. abstracted, Zbl Ges Augenheilk 19:322, 1928. 7. Cogan, D.G.: Ocular Dysmetria, Flutter-Like Oscillations of the Eyes, and Opsoclonus , Arch Ophthal 51:318-335, 1954.Crossref 8. von Noorden, G.K., and Mackensen, G.: Pursuit Movements in Normal and Amblyopic Eyes. An Electro-ophthalmographical Study: I. Physiology of Pursuit Movements , Amer J Ophthal 53:325-336, 1962. 9. Robinson, D.A.: The Mechanics of Human Smooth Pursuit Movements , J Physiol 180:569-591, 1965. 10. von Noorden, G.K.; Thompson, H.S.; and Van Allen, M.W.: Eye Movements in Myotonic Dystrophy , Invest Ophthal 3:314-324, 1964. 11. Cords, R.: Zur Pathologie der Fuehrungsbewegungen , Graefe Arch Ophthal 123:173-218, 1920.Crossref 12. Kestenbaum, A.: Clinical Methods of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Examination , ed 2, New York: Grune and Statton, 1961, pp 309, 386. 13. von Noorden, G.K., and Mackensen, G.: Pursuit Movements in Normal and Amblyopic Eyes. An Electro-ophthalmographical Study: II. Pursuit Movements in Amblyopic Patients , Amer J Ophthal 53:477-487, 1962. 14. Jung, R., and Kornhuber, H.H.: " Results of Electronystagmography in Man: The Value of Optokinetic, Vestibular, and Spontaneous Nystagmus for Neurologic Diagnosis and Research ," in Bender, M.B.: The Oculomotor System ; New York: Harper & Row, 1964, pp 428-482. 15. Rodin, E.A.: Impaired Ocular Pursuit Movements , Arch Neurol 10:327-330, 1964.Crossref 16. Alajouanine, T., et al: Enregistrement oculographique des movements oculaire dans le syndrome cerebelleaux , Rev Neurol 98:714-722, 1958.
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Aug 1, 1966
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