Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Eye Color Changes Past Early Childhood: The Louisville Twin Study

Eye Color Changes Past Early Childhood: The Louisville Twin Study Abstract Objective: To determine whether eye color changes after 6 years of age. Design: Longitudinal data on eye color were obtained from the Louisville Twin Study, Louisville, Ky. Twins (n=1513 [individuals]) were assessed at least once and most twins (n=1386) were examined on 2 or more occasions. Parents of twins were also examined at the study inception, 128 of whom were assessed again from February 1989 to October 1993. Main Outcome Measure: Eye color was assessed at each examination by matching the iridial coloration of the subject to 1 of 15 painted glass eye anterior segments, similar to those in artificial eyes, mounted on a circular disk. The spectrum ranged from light blue (1) to dark brown (15). Results: Among whites (n= 1359), the eye color of 3.8% to 8.6% of the sample twins became 2 U or more darker or 2 U or more lighter during 3- to 9-year intervals between 6 years of age and adulthood (>18 years, <24 years). Among identical (monozygotic) twin pairs, there was a high degree of concordance in eye color (r=0.98 [P<.001]), while in fraternal (dizygotic) twin pairs, the concordance was less pronounced (r=0.49) and decreased with age (r=0.07). Among the sample of the mothers of twins, 9% had irides that lightened by 2 U or more during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Most individuals achieve stable eye color by 6 years of age. However, a subpopulation of 10% to 15% of white subjects have changes in eye color through-out adolescence and adulthood in the eye color range that can be expected to reflect changes in iridial melanin content or distribution. These data also suggest that such changes in eye color, or the propensity to such changes, may be genetically determined. References 1. Matheny AP, Dolan AB. Changes in eye colour during early childhood: sex and genetic differences . Ann Hum Biol . 1975;2:191-196.Crossref 2. Burkhardt A. Zur Farbe und Strucktur der Menschlichen Iris, 1: morphologische Untersuchungen . Anthropol Anz . 1992;50:83-126. 3. Diesenhouse MC, Palay DA, Newman NJ, To K, Albert DM. Acquired heterochromia with Homer's syndrome in two adults . Ophthalmology . 1992;99:1815-1817.Crossref 4. Alm A. Comparative phase III clinical trial of latanoprost and timolol in patients with elevated intraocular pressure . Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res . 1995;23:527-532. 5. Reiss AJ Jr. Occupations and Social Status . New York, NY: Free Press; 1961. 6. Grieve J, Morant GM. Records of eye colours for British populations and a description of a new eye-colour scale . Eugenics . 1974;13:161-171.Crossref 7. Eagle RC Jr. Iris pigmentation and pigmented lesions: an ultrastructural study . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1988;86:581-687. 8. Imesch PD, Bindley CD, Khademian MD, et al. Melanocytes and iris color: electron microscopic findings . Arch Ophthalmol . 1996;114:443-447.Crossref 9. Wilkerson CL, Syed NA, Fisher MR, Robinson NL, Albert DA. Melanocytes and iris color: light microscopic findings . Arch Ophthalmol . 1996;114:437-442.Crossref 10. Wilson RS. Bloodtyping and twin zygosity: reassessment and extension . Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) . 1980;29:103-120. 11. Holz FG, Piguet B, Minassian DC, Bird AC, Weale RA. Decreasing stromal iris pigmentation as a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration . Am J Ophthalmol . 1994;117:19-23. 12. Hu DN, McCormick SA, Orlow SJ, Rosemblat S, Lin AY, Wo K. Melanogenesis by human uveal melanocytes in vitro . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:931-938. 13. Laties A. Ocular melanin and the adrenergic innervation to the eye . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1974;72:560-605. 14. Ringvold A. An electron microscopic study of the iris stroma in monkey and rabbit with particular reference to intercellular contacts and sympathetic innervation of anterior layer cell . Exp Eye Res . 1975;20:349-365.Crossref 15. Yamamoto R, McGlinn A, Stone RA. Brain natriuretic peptide-immunoreactive nerves in the porcine eye . Neurosci Lett . 1991;122:151-153.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Eye Color Changes Past Early Childhood: The Louisville Twin Study

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/eye-color-changes-past-early-childhood-the-louisville-twin-study-wyohQ0M7dX
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1997.01100150661017
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To determine whether eye color changes after 6 years of age. Design: Longitudinal data on eye color were obtained from the Louisville Twin Study, Louisville, Ky. Twins (n=1513 [individuals]) were assessed at least once and most twins (n=1386) were examined on 2 or more occasions. Parents of twins were also examined at the study inception, 128 of whom were assessed again from February 1989 to October 1993. Main Outcome Measure: Eye color was assessed at each examination by matching the iridial coloration of the subject to 1 of 15 painted glass eye anterior segments, similar to those in artificial eyes, mounted on a circular disk. The spectrum ranged from light blue (1) to dark brown (15). Results: Among whites (n= 1359), the eye color of 3.8% to 8.6% of the sample twins became 2 U or more darker or 2 U or more lighter during 3- to 9-year intervals between 6 years of age and adulthood (>18 years, <24 years). Among identical (monozygotic) twin pairs, there was a high degree of concordance in eye color (r=0.98 [P<.001]), while in fraternal (dizygotic) twin pairs, the concordance was less pronounced (r=0.49) and decreased with age (r=0.07). Among the sample of the mothers of twins, 9% had irides that lightened by 2 U or more during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Most individuals achieve stable eye color by 6 years of age. However, a subpopulation of 10% to 15% of white subjects have changes in eye color through-out adolescence and adulthood in the eye color range that can be expected to reflect changes in iridial melanin content or distribution. These data also suggest that such changes in eye color, or the propensity to such changes, may be genetically determined. References 1. Matheny AP, Dolan AB. Changes in eye colour during early childhood: sex and genetic differences . Ann Hum Biol . 1975;2:191-196.Crossref 2. Burkhardt A. Zur Farbe und Strucktur der Menschlichen Iris, 1: morphologische Untersuchungen . Anthropol Anz . 1992;50:83-126. 3. Diesenhouse MC, Palay DA, Newman NJ, To K, Albert DM. Acquired heterochromia with Homer's syndrome in two adults . Ophthalmology . 1992;99:1815-1817.Crossref 4. Alm A. Comparative phase III clinical trial of latanoprost and timolol in patients with elevated intraocular pressure . Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res . 1995;23:527-532. 5. Reiss AJ Jr. Occupations and Social Status . New York, NY: Free Press; 1961. 6. Grieve J, Morant GM. Records of eye colours for British populations and a description of a new eye-colour scale . Eugenics . 1974;13:161-171.Crossref 7. Eagle RC Jr. Iris pigmentation and pigmented lesions: an ultrastructural study . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1988;86:581-687. 8. Imesch PD, Bindley CD, Khademian MD, et al. Melanocytes and iris color: electron microscopic findings . Arch Ophthalmol . 1996;114:443-447.Crossref 9. Wilkerson CL, Syed NA, Fisher MR, Robinson NL, Albert DA. Melanocytes and iris color: light microscopic findings . Arch Ophthalmol . 1996;114:437-442.Crossref 10. Wilson RS. Bloodtyping and twin zygosity: reassessment and extension . Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) . 1980;29:103-120. 11. Holz FG, Piguet B, Minassian DC, Bird AC, Weale RA. Decreasing stromal iris pigmentation as a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration . Am J Ophthalmol . 1994;117:19-23. 12. Hu DN, McCormick SA, Orlow SJ, Rosemblat S, Lin AY, Wo K. Melanogenesis by human uveal melanocytes in vitro . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:931-938. 13. Laties A. Ocular melanin and the adrenergic innervation to the eye . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1974;72:560-605. 14. Ringvold A. An electron microscopic study of the iris stroma in monkey and rabbit with particular reference to intercellular contacts and sympathetic innervation of anterior layer cell . Exp Eye Res . 1975;20:349-365.Crossref 15. Yamamoto R, McGlinn A, Stone RA. Brain natriuretic peptide-immunoreactive nerves in the porcine eye . Neurosci Lett . 1991;122:151-153.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1997

References