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Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research.

Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research. This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Abstract Has everyone heard of "Clever Hans," the mathematical horse owned by an apparently ingenuous German schoolmaster in the early 1900's? (For those who like to know such things there was "Rosa," the mare of Berlin, the dog of Utrecht, and the reading pig of Virginia, but these were cleverly cued vaudevillians.) Anyway, this horse could add, subtract, multiply, divide, read, spell, and solve problems of musical harmony, communicating his answers by tapping his foot. How? The schoolmaster was not a showman, and he made no profit from his marvelous horse. He permitted scores of investigators to look into the talents of his animal. None could explain the phenomenon until O. Pfungst observed that others had been misled by "looking for in the horse, what should have been sought in the man." He found in the man, by some careful experiments, that he unconsciously and very subtly, cued the horse. The http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research.

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 120 (6) – Dec 1, 1967

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1967.00300050109027
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Abstract Has everyone heard of "Clever Hans," the mathematical horse owned by an apparently ingenuous German schoolmaster in the early 1900's? (For those who like to know such things there was "Rosa," the mare of Berlin, the dog of Utrecht, and the reading pig of Virginia, but these were cleverly cued vaudevillians.) Anyway, this horse could add, subtract, multiply, divide, read, spell, and solve problems of musical harmony, communicating his answers by tapping his foot. How? The schoolmaster was not a showman, and he made no profit from his marvelous horse. He permitted scores of investigators to look into the talents of his animal. None could explain the phenomenon until O. Pfungst observed that others had been misled by "looking for in the horse, what should have been sought in the man." He found in the man, by some careful experiments, that he unconsciously and very subtly, cued the horse. The

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1967

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