Abstract IN RECENT investigations, Buschke, Friedenwald, and associates,1 and Smelser and Pfeiffer2 studied cell division and the influence of ionizing radiations on this function in the corneal epithelium of rats. Mitosis in the lens epithelium has not previously been subjected to comparable investigation, and a few reported figures have given the impression of an extremely low rate of division in this cell layer as a whole.3 The improved technique for preparing total flat mounts of the lens epithelium attached to the anterior portion of the lens capsule, which was worked out recently by Dr. Alma Howard,4 provides a means of obtaining reliable estimations of the mitotic index and suggests the possibility of approaching in this way the problem of the effect of radiation on cell division and of testing partial chemical protection against x-ray damage of the mammalian lens. To these ends the present tripartite study was References 1. Buschke, W.; Friedenwald, J. S., and Fleischmann, W.: Studies on the Mitotic Activity of Corneal Epithelium: Methods; Effects of Colchicine, Ether, Cocaine and Ephedrin , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 73:143, 1943. 2. Buschke, W.; Friedenwald, J. S., and Moses, G. G.: Effects of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Corneal Epithelium: Mitosis, Nuclear Fragmentation, Post-Traumatic Cell Movements, Loss of Tissue Cohesion , J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 26:147, 1945. 3. Smelser, G. K., and Pfeiffer, R. L.: Influence of Grenz Rays on Cell Division and Wound Healing in the Corneal Epithelium , Arch. Ophth. 39:1-8 ( (Jan.) ) 1948. 4. (a) Poppe, E.: Experimental Investigations of Effect of Roentgen Rays on the Epithelium of the Crystalline Lens , Acta radiol. 23:354, 1942. 5. (b) Cogan, D. G., and Donaldson, D. D.: Experimental Radiation Cataract: I. Cataracts in the Rabbit Following Single X-Ray Exposure , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 45:508 ( (May) ) 1951. 6. Howard, A.: Personal communication to the author. 7. (a) Knowlton, N. P.; Hemplemann, L. H., and Hoffmann, J. C.: Effect of X-Rays on Mitotic Activity of Mouse Epidermis , Science 107:625, 1948. 8. (6) Knowlton, N. P., Jr., and Widner, W. R.: Use of X-Rays to Determine the Mitotic and Intermitotic Time of Various Tissues , Cancer Res. 10:59, 1950. 9. (a) von Sallmann, L.; Dische, Z.; Ehrlich, G., and Munoz, C. M.: Study on Penetration of Cysteine and Cystine into the Aqueous Humor of Rabbits and Its Relation to Early X-Irradiation Effects on the Eye , Am. J. Ophth. 34:95 (May, (Pt. 2) ) 1951. 10. (b) von Sallmann, L:. Further Efforts to Influence X-Ray Cataract by Chemical Agents, A. M. A. Arch. Ophth., to be published. 11. In a personal communication, Dr. Howard stated that she found something like 400 dividing cells per epithelium in the normal lens from 12-week-old rabbits. The lower average in the series reported here could be explained by the omission of very early and late stages of cell division. 12. von Sallmann, L.: Experimental Studies on Early Lens Changes After Roentgen Irradiation: I. Cytological and Morphological Changes , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 45:149 ( (Feb.) ) 1951. 13. Verhoeff, F. H.; Bell, L., and Walker, C. B.: Pathological Effects of Radiant Energy on the Eye , Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sciences 51:627, 1916. 14. Footnote deleted. 15. Rabl, C.: Über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Linse: III . Ztschr. wissensch. Zool. 17:1, 1907. 16. Bullough, W. S.: Mitotic Activity of Carcinogenesis , Brit. J. Cancer 4:329, 1950. 17. Dustin, P., Jr.: Some New Aspects of Mitotic Poisoning , Nature, London 159:794, 1947. 18. Jacobson, L. O.; Marks, E. K.; Gaston, E. O.; Simmons, E. L., and Block, M. H.: Studies on Radiosensitivity of Cells , Science 107:248, 1948. 19. Strangeways, T, S. P., and Hopwood, F. L.: Effect of X-Rays upon Mitotic Cell Division in Tissue Cultures in Vitro , Proc. Roy. Soc., s.B 100:283, 1926. 20. Carlson, J. G.: Immediate Effects of 250 r of X-Rays on Different Stages in Mitoses in Neuroblasts of Grasshopper Chortophaga Viridifasciata , J. Morphol. 66:11, 1940 21. Immediate Effects of 31 r of X-Rays on the Different Stages in the Mitoses of Neuroblasts of Chortophaga , Carlson J. Morphol. 71:449, 1942 22. Effect of Radiation on Mitosis, in Symposium on Radiation Genetics, sponsored by the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., March, 1948 23. Atomic Energy Commission Declassified Document No. ORNL-570, 1950. 24. Sax, L.: An Analysis of X-Ray Induced Chromosome Aberration in Tradescantia , Genetics 25:41, 1940. 25. Sax, L., and Swanson, C. P.: Differential Sensitivity of Cells to X-Rays , Am. J. Bot. 28:52, 1941. 26. Creighton, M.: Effect of X-Rays on Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes and Cell Division in Chorthippus Longicornis (Orthoptera) , J. Exper. Zool. 87:347, 1941. 27. Marshak, A.: Effect of X-Rays on Chromosomes in Mitosis , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 23:360, 1947 28. Effect of X-Rays and Neutrons on Mouse Lymphoma Chromosomes in Different Stages of the Nuclear Cycle , Radiology 39:621, 1942.Crossref
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1952
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