Abstract RADIATION cataracts which have occurred in cyclotron workers and in persons exposed to the atomic bombs are said to have been caused, in part at least, by the fast-neutron component of the radiation.1 It is therefore of considerable practical moment to know the cataractogenic dose of neutrons as exactly as possible under a variety of conditions and to compare the neutron effects on the lens with those on other tissues and with the effects of other forms of radiation. The biologic action of neutrons has been studied in a variety of tissues, ranging from such relatively simple systems as hatching Drosophila eggs and germinating wheat seedlings2 to carcinoma in human beings.3 It is generally conceded that neutrons have much the same qualitative effect on tissue as do x-rays and other ionizing radiations,4 but the effects produced by different amounts of neutron radiation do not necessarily vary References 1. Abelson, P. H., and Kruger, P. G.: Cyclotron-Induced Radiation Cataracts , Science 110:655, 1949.Crossref 2. Krause, A. C., and Bond, J. O.: Neutron Cataracts , Am. J. Ophth. 34:25, 1951. 3. Aebersold, P. C., and Lawrence, J. H.: Physiological Effects of Neutron Rays , Ann. Rev. Physiol. 4:25, 1942.Crossref 4. Stone, R. S.: Neutron Therapy and Specific Ionization , Am. J. Roentgenol. 59:771, 1948. 5. Spear, F. G., and Tansley, K.: Action of Neutrons on Developing Rat Retina , Brit. J. Radiol. 17:374, 1944Crossref 6. Marshak, A.: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 28:29, 1942Crossref 7. Mitchell, J. C.: Brit. J. Radiol. 20:368, 1947Crossref 8. Lea, D. E.: Actions of Radiation on Living Cells , New York, The Macmillan Company, p. 149. 9. Mitchell, J. S.: Experiments on Mechanism of Biologic Action of Fast Neutrons: Using Summation Method for Lethal Effects in Mice; with Section of Dosimetry of Fast Neutrons , Brit. J. Radiol. 20:368, 1947.Crossref 10. Henshaw, P. S.; Riley, E. F., and Stapleton, G. E.: Plutonium Project: Biologic Effects of Pile Radiation , Radiology 49:349, 1947.Crossref 11. Evans, T. C.: Effects of Small Daily Doses of Fast Neutrons on Mice , Radiology 50:811, 1948Crossref 12. Nucleonics 4:2 ( (March) ) 1949. 13. Horn, E. C.: Relative Biological Effectiveness of Roentgen Rays and Neutrons on Regeneration of Forelimb of Amblystoma Larvae , Am. J. Roentgenol. 46:727, 1941. 14. Zimmer, K. G.: Dosimetrische und strahlenbiologische Versuche mit schnellen Neutronen , Strahlentherapie 63:517, 1938. 15. Gray, L. H., and Read, J.: Measurement of Neutron Dose: Biological Experiment , Nature 144:509, 1939.Crossref 16. Zirkle, R. E., and Aebersold, P. C.: Relative Effectiveness of X-Rays and Fast Neutrons in Retarding Growth , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 22:34, 1936.Crossref 17. Lawrence, J. H., and Lawrence, E. O.: Biological Action of Neutron Rays , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 22:124, 1936.Crossref 18. Lawrence, E. O.: Biological Action of Neutron Rays , Radiology 29: 313, 1937.Crossref 19. Evans, R. D.: Radioactivity Units and Standards , Nucleonics 2:32 ( (Oct.) ) 1947. 20. Abelson, P.: Neutron Interactions with Tissue, prepared for the Division of Medical Sciences, National Research Council, 1950. 21. Manley, J. H.: Haworth, L. J., and Luebke, E. A.: Developments in Ion-Accelerating Tubes , Rev. Scient. Instruments 12:587, 1941.Crossref 22. Graves, E. R.; Rodrigues, A. A.; Goldblatt, M., and Meyer, D. I.: Preparation and Use of Tritium and Deuterium Targets , Rev. Scient. Instruments 20:579, 1949.Crossref 23. Los Alamos Fast Reactor , Rev. Scient. Instruments 18:688, 1947. 24. Carter, R.: Unpublished data. 25. Cogan, D. G., and Donaldson, D. D.: Experimental Radiation Cataracts: Cataracts in the Rabbit Following Single X-Ray Exposure , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 45:508 ( (May) ) 1951.Crossref 26. Dr. Clarence Lushbaugh designed the rabbit holder and made many helpful suggestions. 27. Dr. David Hall and Dr. Clarke Williams furnished and operated the Fast Reactor. 28. Nereson, N.: Personal communication to the authors. 29. Marshak, A.: Relative Effects of X-Rays and Neutrons on Chromosomes in Different Parts of the "Resting Stage," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 28:29, 1942.Crossref 30. Failla, G.: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation , J. Applied Physics 12:279 ( (April) ) 1941.Crossref 31. The epilating dose of fission neutrons was approximately the same, but the determinations were less reliable, as the periocular regions were not uniformly exposed.
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: May 1, 1952
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