Abstract TECHNIQUE of electrical stimulation of subcortical structures developed by one of us (Hess *) is particularly suited to studies of the central organization of behavioral mechanisms. In the sequence of systematic investigations of the diencephalon and adjacent structures of the forebrain and mesencephalon (summarized by me13 in 1949) several thousand "points" were explored. The effects of electrical stimulation (cinematographically recorded) were correlated with the localizations of the needle tips (controlled by histological analysis). Among the various effects elicited were some, of particular note, which consisted of characteristic changes in the total attitude of the animals. The changes observed were best compared with alterations seen in emotional states of normal animals, such as fear, anger, and pleasure, or with certain drives, such as explorative tendencies, feeding tendencies, cleaning tendencies, and continuous restlessness. The question may arise here as to whether the described phenomena were accompanied by the subjective experience which is References 1. References 10 and 13. 2. References 9, 11, and 12. 3. References 3, 5, and 6. 4. Akert, K.: Unpublished data. 5. The animal was prepared by Dr. E. Henneman, Baltimore. 6. The moving picture was prepared partly in the Department of Physiology, University of Zürich; partly in the Department of Physiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 7. Akert, K., and Andersson, B.: Experimenteller Beitrag zur Physiologie des Nucleus caudatus , Acta physiol. scandinav. 22:281-298, 1951.Crossref 8. Akert, K., and Andy, O.: Experimental Studies on the Ammonsformation , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. , 78:194-197, 1953. 9. Bard, P.: A Diencephalic Mechanism for the Expression of Rage, with Special Reference to the Sympathetic Nervous System , Am. J. Physiol. 84:490-515, 1928. 10. Bard, P.: On Emotional Expression After Decortication, with Some Remarks on Certain Theoretical Views , Psychol. Rev. 41:309-329; 424-449, 1934.Crossref 11. Bard, P.: Central Nervous Mechanisms for Emotional Behavior Patterns in Animals , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1938) 19:190-218, 1939. 12. Bard, P., and Mountcastle, V. B.: Some Forebrain Mechanisms Involved in Expression of Rage, with Special Reference to Suppression of Angry Behavior , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1947) 27:362-404, 1947. 13. Brügger, M.: Fresstrieb als hypothalamisches Syndrom , Helv. physiol. et pharmacol. acta 1:183-198, 1943. 14. Grinker, R. R.: Hypothalamic Functions in Psychosomatic Interrelations , Psychosom. Med. 1: 19-47, 1939. 15. Hess, W. R.: Stammganglien-Reizversuche , Verhandl. deutsch. physiol. Gesellsch. (Sept.) 1927. 16. Hess, W. R: Methodik der lokalisierten Reizung und Ausschaltung subkortikaler Hirnabschnitte , Leipzig, G. Thieme, 1932. 17. Hess, W. R., and Brügger, M.: Das Subcorticale Zentrum der affektiven Abwehrreaktion , Helv. physiol. acta 1:33-52, 1943. 18. Hess, W. R.; Brügger, M., and Bucher, V.: Zur Physiologie von Hypothalamus, Area praeoptica und Septum sowie angrenzender Balken- und Stirnhirnbereiche , Monatsschr. Psychiat. u. Neurol. 111: 17-59, 1945-1946. 19. Hess, W. R.: Das Zwischenhirn: Syndrome, Lokalisationen, Funktionen , Basel, Benno Schwabe & Co., 1949. 20. Hess, W. R.; Akert, K., and McDonald, D.: Functions of the Orbital Gyri of Cats , Brain 75: 244-258, 1952. 21. Ingram, W. R.: Brain Stem Mechanisms in Behavior , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 4:397-406, 1952. 22. Ranson, S. W.: Tr. Coll. Physicians, Philadelphia 2:222-242, 1934. 23. Sherrington, C. S., and Woodworth, R. S.: A Pseudoaffective Reflex and Its Spinal Path , J. Physiol. 31:234-243, 1904. 24. Wheatley, M. D.: Hypothalamus and Affective Behavior in Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 52:296-316, 1944.
A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Feb 1, 1955