Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

Experiences of Women in Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Gender Comparison

Experiences of Women in Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Gender Comparison Abstract Objective: To assess the career and practice experiences of cardiothoracic surgeons, with references to gender similarities and differences. Design: Four-step mailed 115-question survey. Subjects: All identified women, and a cohort of men, certified by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. Main Outcome Measures: Academic rank, career background, salary, perceptions and experiences of harassment or discrimination, and personal life characteristics. Results: No differences were found in training backgrounds. More men (64%) than women (52%) were in university practices. Comparable proportions of men and women were assistant professors (27%), but more men (27%) than women (13.6%) were full professors. Fifty-eight percent of women and 21% of men reported salaries of less than $250 000; 62% of men and 32% of women had incomes over $350 000. Career satisfaction was comparable between genders; however, women perceived the promotion process as unfair and unrelated to academic rank. Both genders encouraged men toward a surgical career; men were less likely than women to encourage women to pursue a surgical career (P<.01). Women, much more than men, believed that discrimination hindered their career development (P<.001). Characteristics of personal life were also considerably different between the genders. Conclusion: Although practice and training parameters for male and female cardiothoracic surgeons are comparable, work experiences, personal life, and career rewards such as salary and promotion, and perception of discrimination are different.Arch Surg. 1996;131:1128-1134 References 1. Peebles RJ. Female surgeons in the US: an 18-year review . Am Coll Surg Bull . 1989;74:18-23. 2. Lillemoe KD, Ahrendt GM, Yeo CJ, Herlong HF, Cameron JL. Surgery: still an 'old boys' club'? Surgery . 1994;116:255-261. 3. The Official American Board of Medical Specialties Directory of Board Certified Thoracic Surgeons . 6th ed. New Providence, NJ: Reed Publishing Co; 1992. 4. Mizgala CL, Mackinnon SE, Walters BC, Ferris LE, McNeill IY, Knighton T. Women surgeons: results of the Canadian Population Study . Ann Surg . 1993;218:37-46.Crossref 5. Mackinnon SE, Mizgala CL, McNeill IY, Walters BC, Ferris LE. Women surgeons: career and lifestyle comparisons among surgical subspecialties . Plast Reconstr Surg . 1995;95:321-329.Crossref 6. Komaromy M, Bindman AB, Haber RJ, Sande MA. Sexual harassment in medical training . N Engl J Med . 1993;328:322-326.Crossref 7. Lenhart SA, Klein F, Falcao P, Phelan E, Smith K. Gender bias against and sexual harassment of AMWA members in Massachusetts . JAMWA . 1991;46:121-125. 8. Frankel SS. Sexual harassment in medical training . N Engl J Med . 1993:329:662. 9. Bickel J, Galbraith A, Quinnie R. Women in US academic medicine statistics 1994 . Assoc Am Med Coll . (July) 1994. 10. Wilcox BR, Stritter FT, Anderson RP, et al. Profile of the contemporary thoracic surgery resident . Ann Thorac Surg . 1993;55:1303-1310.Crossref 11. Zerega WD, Deighton B. Selecting the Right Residency for You: A Decision-Making Guide . 2nd ed. Grosse Point, Mich: Success Management International; 1991. 12. Carr PL, Friedman RH, Moskowitz MA, Kazis LE. Comparing the status of women and men in academic medicine . Ann Intern Med . 1993;119:908-913.Crossref 13. Tesch BJ, Wood HM, Helwig AL, Nattinger AB. Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine: glass ceiling or sticky floor? JAMA . 1995;273: 1022-1025.Crossref 14. Etzkowitz H, Kemelgor C, Neuschatz M, Uzzi B, Alonzo J. The paradox of critical mass for women in science . Science . (October 7) , 1994;266:51-54.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Experiences of Women in Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Gender Comparison

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/experiences-of-women-in-cardiothoracic-surgery-a-gender-comparison-rD06QKpaW0
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1996.01430230010002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To assess the career and practice experiences of cardiothoracic surgeons, with references to gender similarities and differences. Design: Four-step mailed 115-question survey. Subjects: All identified women, and a cohort of men, certified by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. Main Outcome Measures: Academic rank, career background, salary, perceptions and experiences of harassment or discrimination, and personal life characteristics. Results: No differences were found in training backgrounds. More men (64%) than women (52%) were in university practices. Comparable proportions of men and women were assistant professors (27%), but more men (27%) than women (13.6%) were full professors. Fifty-eight percent of women and 21% of men reported salaries of less than $250 000; 62% of men and 32% of women had incomes over $350 000. Career satisfaction was comparable between genders; however, women perceived the promotion process as unfair and unrelated to academic rank. Both genders encouraged men toward a surgical career; men were less likely than women to encourage women to pursue a surgical career (P<.01). Women, much more than men, believed that discrimination hindered their career development (P<.001). Characteristics of personal life were also considerably different between the genders. Conclusion: Although practice and training parameters for male and female cardiothoracic surgeons are comparable, work experiences, personal life, and career rewards such as salary and promotion, and perception of discrimination are different.Arch Surg. 1996;131:1128-1134 References 1. Peebles RJ. Female surgeons in the US: an 18-year review . Am Coll Surg Bull . 1989;74:18-23. 2. Lillemoe KD, Ahrendt GM, Yeo CJ, Herlong HF, Cameron JL. Surgery: still an 'old boys' club'? Surgery . 1994;116:255-261. 3. The Official American Board of Medical Specialties Directory of Board Certified Thoracic Surgeons . 6th ed. New Providence, NJ: Reed Publishing Co; 1992. 4. Mizgala CL, Mackinnon SE, Walters BC, Ferris LE, McNeill IY, Knighton T. Women surgeons: results of the Canadian Population Study . Ann Surg . 1993;218:37-46.Crossref 5. Mackinnon SE, Mizgala CL, McNeill IY, Walters BC, Ferris LE. Women surgeons: career and lifestyle comparisons among surgical subspecialties . Plast Reconstr Surg . 1995;95:321-329.Crossref 6. Komaromy M, Bindman AB, Haber RJ, Sande MA. Sexual harassment in medical training . N Engl J Med . 1993;328:322-326.Crossref 7. Lenhart SA, Klein F, Falcao P, Phelan E, Smith K. Gender bias against and sexual harassment of AMWA members in Massachusetts . JAMWA . 1991;46:121-125. 8. Frankel SS. Sexual harassment in medical training . N Engl J Med . 1993:329:662. 9. Bickel J, Galbraith A, Quinnie R. Women in US academic medicine statistics 1994 . Assoc Am Med Coll . (July) 1994. 10. Wilcox BR, Stritter FT, Anderson RP, et al. Profile of the contemporary thoracic surgery resident . Ann Thorac Surg . 1993;55:1303-1310.Crossref 11. Zerega WD, Deighton B. Selecting the Right Residency for You: A Decision-Making Guide . 2nd ed. Grosse Point, Mich: Success Management International; 1991. 12. Carr PL, Friedman RH, Moskowitz MA, Kazis LE. Comparing the status of women and men in academic medicine . Ann Intern Med . 1993;119:908-913.Crossref 13. Tesch BJ, Wood HM, Helwig AL, Nattinger AB. Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine: glass ceiling or sticky floor? JAMA . 1995;273: 1022-1025.Crossref 14. Etzkowitz H, Kemelgor C, Neuschatz M, Uzzi B, Alonzo J. The paradox of critical mass for women in science . Science . (October 7) , 1994;266:51-54.Crossref

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1996

References