Abstract In recent years ophthalmologists have been increasingly interested in surgical procedures designed to improve the cosmetic appearance of the face and orbit among patients who have undergone enucleation of an eye. These surgical procedures have been concerned either with the implantation of some material into the orbit as a substitute for the eye that was enucleated or with the insertion of some substance into the scleral envelope following the evisceration of the contents of the eye. In either case the implant served as a base over which a prosthesis could be fitted, the prosthesis having more motion on ocular rotation than was possible without such an implant. Since the publication of Mules' original report,1 in 1885, many modifications of the evisceration procedure have been described.* The list of implant materials used in conjunction with evisceration has included such diverse substances as silver, gold, lead, aluminum, paraffin, cartilage, preserved tendon, References 1. References 2 to 8. Hall, E., quoted by Wood,2 pp. 4464-4465. 2. Huizinga, J. G., quoted by Wood,2 pp. 4465-4468. 3. The polyvinyl-formal sponge (Surgical Ivalon Sponge) used in this study was furnished by the manufacturer, Ivano Inc., Chicago. 4. References 11 to 14. 5. References 13 and 14. 6. Mules, P. H.: Evisceration of the Globe, with Artificial Vitreous , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 5:200-205, 1885. 7. Wood, C. A.: The American Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Ophthalmology , Chicago, Cleveland Press, 1915, Vol. 6. 8. Huizinga, J. G.: Eviscero-Neurotomy: A New Operation , J. A. M. A. 34:394-395 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1900.Crossref 9. Gifford, H.: On Strictly Simple Evisceration of the Eye-Ball , Arch. Ophth. 29:422-425, 1900. 10. Nicati, W.: De l'Ablation partielle du globe oculaire par le procédé de la subénucléation , Arch. opht. 23:347-348, 1903. 11. Fox, L. W.: The Present Status of Mules' Operation and of Delayed Implantation of a Gold Ball , Ophthalmoscope 7:6-12 ( (Jan. 1) ) 1909. 12. O'Connor, Roderic: Exenteration of the Ocular Contents by a New Technic , Arch. Ophth. 3:151-152 ( (Feb.) ) 1930.Crossref 13. Burch, F. E.: Evisceration of the Globe with Scleral Implant and Preservation of the Cornea , Am. J. Ophth. 23:47-51 ( (Jan.) ) 1940. 14. Guyton, J. S.: Enucleation and Allied Procedures: A Review, and Description of a New Operation , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 46:472-527, 1948. 15. Grindlay, J. H., and Waugh, J. M.: Plastic Sponge Which Acts As a Framework for Living Tissue: Experimental Studies and Preliminary Report of Use to Reinforce Abdominal Aneurysms , A. M. A. Arch. Surg. 63:288-297 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 16. Grindlay, J. H., and Clagett, O. T.: A Plastic Sponge Prosthesis for Use After Pneumonectomy: Preliminary Report of an Experimental Study , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 24:538-539 ( (Oct. 12) ) 1949. 17. Donald, D. E.; Kirklin, J. W., and Grindlay, J. H.: Use of Polyvinyl Sponge Plugs in the Closure of Large Atrial Septal Defects Created Experimentally , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 28: 288-295 ( (May 20) ) 1953. 18. Henderson, J. W.: Reconstruction of the Orbit with Polyvinyl Sponge: Report of a Case , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:714-717 ( (Dec.) ) 1953.Crossref 19. Pearlman, M. D.: Recommendations for the Utilization of Polyvinyl Plastic Sponge As an Orbital Implant , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 57:910-911 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1953. 20. Nicolas, E.: Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology , London, H. & W. Brown, 1925, p. 411. 21. Cogan, D. G., and Kinsey, V. E.: The Cornea: V. Physiologic Aspects , Arch. Ophth. 28:661-669 ( (Oct.) ) 1942.Crossref 22. Bock, R. H., and Maumenee, A. E.: Corneal Fluid Metabolism: Experiments and Observations , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:282-285 ( (Sept.) ) 1953.Crossref
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Sep 1, 1955
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