Abstract Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is the most common and serious variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage.1 The other major types of hemorrhage, ie, subdural hemorrhage, primary subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebellar hemorrhage, are either very uncommon or not of major clinical importance. The enormous importance of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is linked to the evolution of neonatal intensive care and, as a consequence, the dramatic improvements in survival rates for small pre-mature infants. Because periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is characteristic of such infants, the occurrence of the lesion has reached nearly epidemic proportions in modern neonatal intensive care facilities. The adaptation of the computerized tomographic (CT) scan to the evaluation of the small premature infant in the mid-1970s led to the recognition of the remarkably high incidence of the lesion. Thus, in two large studies in which small premature infants were subjected to CT scan routinely in the first week of life, the incidence of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage References 1. Volpe JJ: Neurology of the Newborn . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, to be published. 2. Papile L-A, Burstein J, Burstein R, et al: Incidence and evaluation of subependymal hemorrhage: A study of infants with birth weights less than 1,500 grams . J Pediatr 92:529-534, 1978.Crossref 3. Ahmann PA, Lazzara A, Dykes FD, et al: Intraventricular hemorrhage in the high-risk preterm infant: Incidence and outcome . Ann Neurol 7:118-125, 1980.Crossref 4. Hambleton G, Wigglesworth JS: Origin of intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant . Arch Dis Child 5:651-659, 1976.Crossref 5. Pape KE, Wigglesworth JS: Haemorrhage, Ischaemia and the Perinatal Brain . Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co, 1979. 6. Lou HC, Lassen NA, Friis-Hansen B: Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the distressed newborn infant . J Pediatr 94:118-124, 1979.Crossref 7. Volpe JJ: Neonatal intracranial hemorrhage: Pathophysiology, neuropathology and clinical features . Clin Perinatol 4:77-102, 1977. 8. Gilles FH, Price RA, Kevy SV, et al: Fibrinolytic activity in the ganglionic eminence of the premature human brain . Biol Neonate 18:426-431, 1971.Crossref 9. Lazzara A, Ahmann PA, Dykes FD, et al: Clinical predictability of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants . Pediatrics 65:30-37, 1980. 10. Mantovani JF, Pasternak JF, Mathew O, et al: Failure of daily lumbar punctures to prevent hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage . J Pediatr 97:278-281, 1980.Crossref 11. Volpe JJ, Pasternak JF, Allan WC: Ventricular dilation preceding rapid head growth following neonatal intracranial hemorrhage . Am J Dis Child 131:1212-1215, 1977.
American Journal of Diseases of Children – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1980