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Euthanasia: Historical, Ethical, and Empiric Perspectives

Euthanasia: Historical, Ethical, and Empiric Perspectives Abstract Debates about the ethics of euthanasia date from ancient Greece and Rome. In 1870, S. D. Williams, a nonphysician, proposed that anesthetics be used to intentionally end the lives of patients. Between 1870 and 1936, a debate about the ethics of euthanasia raged in the United States and Britain. These debates predate and invoke different arguments than do debates about euthanasia in Germany. Recognizing the increased interest in euthanasia, this article reviews the definitions related to euthanasia, the historical record of debates concerning euthanasia, the arguments for and against euthanasia, the situation in the Netherlands, and the empirical data regarding euthanasia in the United States. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1890-1901) References 1. Deciding to Forgo Life-Sustaining Treatment . Washington, DC: President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research; 1983. 2. The Hastings Center. Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying . Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press; 1987. 3. Emanuel EJ. A review of the ethical and legal aspects of terminating medical care . Am J Med. 1988;84:291-301.Crossref 4. Meisel A. Legal myths about terminating life support . Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1497-1502.Crossref 5. Euthanasia . Lancet. 1899;1:532. Editorial. 6. Edelstein L. The Hippocratic Oath: text, translation, and interpretation . In: Temkin 0, Temkin CL, eds. Ancient Medicine: Selected Papers of Ludwig Edelstein . Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins Press; 1967:4-63. 7. Amundsen DW. The physician's obligation to prolong life: a medical duty without classical roots . Hastings Cent Rep . (August) 1978;8:23-30.Crossref 8. Carrick P. Medical Ethics in Antiquity . Dordrecht, the Netherlands: D Reidel; 1985: chap 7 and 8. 9. More T; Greene JJ, Dolan JP, eds. Utopia and Other Writings . New York, NY: New American Library; 1984. 10. Emanuel EJ. A century of euthanasia debates in the United States and Britain . Ann Intern Med. In press. 11. Williams SD. Euthanasia . London, England: Williams and Norgate; 1872. 12. Essays of the Birmingham Speculative Club . Saturday Rev. 1870;30:632-634. 13. Euthanasia . Spectator . 1871;44:314-315. 14. Our criminals . Saturday Rev . (July 13) , 1872;34: 43-44. Editorial. 15. Permissive euthanasia . Boston Med Surg J. 1884; 220:19-20. Editorial. 16. The moral side of euthanasia . JAMA . 1885;5: 382-383. Editorial. 17. Baldwin SE. The natural right to a natural death . St Paul Med J. 1899;1:875-889. 18. Wilson R. A medico-literary causerie: euthanasia . Practitioner . 1896;56:631-635. 19. Rosenberg LJ, Aronstam NE. Euthanasia—a medicolegal study . JAMA . 1901;36:10-110. 20. Euthanasia . JAMA . 1903;41:1094. Editorial. 21. May the physician ever end life? BMJ. 1897; 1:934. Editorial. 22. Bach A. Medico-legal congress . Medico-Legal J. 1896;14:103-106. 23. To kill suffering persons . New York Times . (January 24) , 1906:2. Editorial. 24. Euthanasia and civilization . New York Times . (February 3) , 1906:8. Editorial. 25. Rupp A. Another view of euthanasia . New York Times . (January 30) , 1906:8. 26. Costigan G. Dr. Costigan on euthanasia . New York Times . (February 6) , 1906:8. 27. Tomlinson A. A case of euthanasia . New York Times . (February 11) , 1906:8. 28. Euthanasia—degenerated sympathy . Boston Med Surg J. 1906;154:330-331.Crossref 29. Euthanasia . BMJ. 1906;1:638-639. Editorial. 30. Euthanasia . St Louis Med Rev. 1906;53:6669. Editorial. 31. Euthanasia . JAMA . 1919:72;1557. London Letter. 32. Euthanasia again . JAMA . 1926;87:1491. Editorial. 33. Binding K, Hoche A. Permitting the destruction of unworthy life: its extent and form . Issues Law Med. 1992;8:231-265. 34. Lifton RJ. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide . New York, NY: Basic Books Inc; 1986. 35. Pfaafflin F. The connections between eugenics, sterilization, and mass murder in Germany from 1933-1945 . Med Law. 1986;5:1-10. 36. Millard CK. The legalization of voluntary euthanasia . Public Health . 1931;45:39-47.Crossref 37. The President, 1931-32 . Public Health . 1931; 45:33-34. Editorial.Crossref 38. Hammond TE. Euthanasia . Practitioner . 1934; 132:485-494. 39. The right tokill . Time . (November 18) , 1935:53-54. 40. The right to kill (cont'd) . Time . (November 25) , 1935:39-40. 41. The right to kill (cont'd) . Time . (December 2) , 1935:34-37. 42. Medicine: Britons would alter Decalogue to end incurable pain . Newsweek . (November 16) , 1935; 6:40-41. 43. Voluntary euthanasia: propaganda for legalisation . BMJ. 1935;2:856. Editorial.Crossref 44. Voluntary euthanasia: the new society states its case . BMJ. 1935;2:1168-1169. Editorial.Crossref 45. Alexander L. Medical science under dictatorship . N Engl J Med. 1949;241:39-47.Crossref 46. Williams G. The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law . New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf Inc; 1957. 47. Kamisar Y. Some non-religious views against proposed 'mercy killing' legislation . Minn Law Rev. 1958;42:969-1042. 48. Williams G. 'Mercy-killing' legislation—a rejoinder . Minn Law Rev. 1958;43:1-12. 49. De Wachter MAM. Active euthanasia in the Netherlands . JAMA . 1989;262:3316-3319.Crossref 50. It's over, Debbie . JAMA . 1988;259:272.Crossref 51. Siegler M, Gomez CF. US consensus on euthanasia? Lancet . 1992;339:1164-1165.Crossref 52. Ragg M. Australia: for or against euthanasia? Lancet . 1992;339:800-801.Crossref 53. Brock DW. Voluntary active euthanasia . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:10-22.Crossref 54. Rachels J. The End of Life: Euthanasia and Morality . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1986. 55. Foot P. Euthanasia . Philos Public Affairs . 1977; 6:85-112. 56. Cassel CK, Meier DE. Morals and moralism in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:750-752.Crossref 57. Quill TE, Cassel CK, Meier DE. Care of the hopelessly ill: proposed clinical criteria for physicianassisted suicide . N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1280-1384.Crossref 58. Weir RF. The morality of physician-assisted suicide . Law Med Health Care. 1992;20:116-126. 59. Physician-assisted suicide and the right to die with assistance . Harvard Law Rev. 1992;105:2021-2040.Crossref 60. Robinson V. A symposium on euthanasia . Med Rev. 1913;19:143-157. 61. Angell M. Euthanasia . N Engl J Med. 1988;319: 1348-1350.Crossref 62. Brody H. Assisted death—a compassionate response to a medical failure . N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:1384-1388.Crossref 63. Institute of Medical Ethics Working Party of the Ethics of Prolonging Life and Assisted Death. Assisted death . Lancet . 1990;336:610-613. 64. Girsh FJ. Physician aid in dying: what physicians say, what patients say . West J Med. 1992; 157:188-189. 65. Kuhse H, Singer P. Should the Baby Live? New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1985:chap 4. 66. Singer P. Practical Ethics . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1979: chap 7 . 67. The final autonomy . Lancet . 1992;340:757-758. Editorial.Crossref 68. Battin M. Voluntary euthanasia and the risks of abuse: can we learn anything from the Netherlands? Law Med Health Care . 1992;20:133-143. 69. Benrubi Gl. Euthanasia—the need for procedural safeguards . N Engl J Med. 1992;326:197-199.Crossref 70. Misbin RI. Physicians' aid in dying . N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1307-1311.Crossref 71. Jecker NS. Giving death a hand: when the dying and the doctor stand in a special relationship . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:831-835. 72. Callahan D. When self-determination runs amok . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:52-55.Crossref 73. Kass LR. Is there a right to die? Hastings Cent Rep. 1993;23:34-43.Crossref 74. Singer PA, Siegler M. Euthanasia—a critique . N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1881-1883.Crossref 75. Mill JS. On Liberty . Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Co Inc; 1978. 76. Aries P. The Hour of Our Death . New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf Inc; 1981:chap 12. 77. Kamm FM. Creation and Abortion: A Study in Moral and Legal Philosophy . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1992: chap 1 . 78. Teno J, Lynn J. Voluntary active euthanasia: the individual case and public policy . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:827-830. 79. Pellegrino ED. Doctors must not kill . J Clin Ethics. 1992;3:95-107. 80. British Medical Association. Euthanasia . London, England: British Medical Association; 1988. 81. Singer PA. Should doctors kill patients? Can Med Assoc J. 1988;138:1000-1001. 82. Kass LR. Neither for love nor money: why doctors must not kill . Public Interest . 1989;94:25-46. 83. Reichel W, Dyck AJ. Euthanasia: a contemporary moral quandary . Lancet . 1989;2:1321-1323.Crossref 84. Capron AM. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: American observations . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992; 22:30-33.Crossref 85. Wolf SM. Holding the line on euthanasia . Hastings Cent Rep. 1989;19:13-15.Crossref 86. Fleming RA. Voluntary euthanasia . BMJ. 1936; 1:33.Crossref 87. Pence GE. Do not go slowly into that dark night: mercy killing in Holland . Am J Med. 1988;84: 139-141.Crossref 88. De Wachter MAM. Euthanasia in the Netherlands . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:23-30.Crossref 89. Brahams D. Euthanasia in the Netherlands . Lancet . 1990;335:591-592.Crossref 90. Leenen HJJ. Euthanasia, assistance to suicide and the law: developments in the Netherlands . Health Policy . 1987;8:197-206.Crossref 91. Gomez CF. Regulating Death: Euthanasia and the Case of the Netherlands . New York, NY: Free Press; 1991. 92. Gevers JKM. Legislation on euthanasia: recent developments in the Netherlands . J Med Ethics. 1992;18:138-141.Crossref 93. Simons M. Dutch move to enact law making euthanasia easier . New York Times . (February 9) , 1993:A1, 9. 94. The Remmelink Report . Health Policy . 1992; 22( (special issue) ):1-262. 95. Van der Maas PJ, van Delden JJM, Pinjnenborg L, Looman CWN. Euthanasia and other medical decisions concerning the end of life . Lancet . 1991;338:669-674.Crossref 96. Ten Have HAMJ, Welie JVM. Euthanasia: normal medical practice? Hastings Cent Rep. 1992; 22:34-38. 97. Gunning KF. Euthanasia . Lancet . 1991;338:1010.Crossref 98. Keown J. On regulating death . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:39-43.Crossref 99. Fergusson A, George R, Norris P, Twycross R, Winter R. Euthanasia . Lancet . 1991;338:1010-1011.Crossref 100. Blendon RJ, Szalay US, Knox RA. Should physicians aid their patients in dying? JAMA . 1992; 267:2658-2662.Crossref 101. Knox RA. Poll: Americans favor mercy killing . Boston Globe . (November 3) , 1991:1, 22. 102. The Hemlock Society. 1991 Roper Poll of the West Coast on Euthanasia . New York, NY: Roper Organization; (May) 1991. 103. Americans Against Human Suffering. Right to die backed in latest state poll . J Hum Dignity . (July) 1987;1:1-3. 104. Orentlicher D. Physician participation in assisted suicide . JAMA . 1989;262:1844-1845.Crossref 105. AGS Public Policy Committee. Voluntary active euthanasia . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:826. 106. Washington State Medical Association. Initiative 119 WSMA Membership Survey . Seattle, Wash: Washington State Medical Association; (March) 1991. 107. Overmyer M. National survey: physicians' views on the right to die . Physicians Management . 1991;31:40-60. 108. Crosby C. Internists grapple with how they should respond to requests for aid in dying . Internist . 1992;33:10. 109. Caralis PV, Hammond JS. Attitudes of medical students, housestaff, and faculty physicians toward euthanasia and termination of lifesustaining treatment . Crit Care Med. 1992;20: 683-690.Crossref 110. Fried TR, Stein MD, O'Sullivan PS, Brock DW, Novack DH. The limits of patient autonomy: physician attitudes and practices regarding lifesustaining treatments and euthanasia . Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:722-728.Crossref 111. Shapiro RS, Derse AR, Gottlieb M, Schiedermayer D, Olson M. Willingness to perform euthansia: a survey of physician attitudes . Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:575-584.Crossref 112. Heilig S. The SFMS euthanasia survey: results and analysis . SF Med. 1989;61( (5) ):24-26, 34. 113. Tredgold AF. Voluntary euthanasia . BMJ. 1936; 1:33.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Euthanasia: Historical, Ethical, and Empiric Perspectives

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 154 (17) – Sep 12, 1994

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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10.1001/archinte.1994.00420170022003
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Abstract

Abstract Debates about the ethics of euthanasia date from ancient Greece and Rome. In 1870, S. D. Williams, a nonphysician, proposed that anesthetics be used to intentionally end the lives of patients. Between 1870 and 1936, a debate about the ethics of euthanasia raged in the United States and Britain. These debates predate and invoke different arguments than do debates about euthanasia in Germany. Recognizing the increased interest in euthanasia, this article reviews the definitions related to euthanasia, the historical record of debates concerning euthanasia, the arguments for and against euthanasia, the situation in the Netherlands, and the empirical data regarding euthanasia in the United States. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1890-1901) References 1. Deciding to Forgo Life-Sustaining Treatment . Washington, DC: President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research; 1983. 2. The Hastings Center. Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying . Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press; 1987. 3. Emanuel EJ. A review of the ethical and legal aspects of terminating medical care . Am J Med. 1988;84:291-301.Crossref 4. Meisel A. Legal myths about terminating life support . Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1497-1502.Crossref 5. Euthanasia . Lancet. 1899;1:532. Editorial. 6. Edelstein L. The Hippocratic Oath: text, translation, and interpretation . In: Temkin 0, Temkin CL, eds. Ancient Medicine: Selected Papers of Ludwig Edelstein . Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins Press; 1967:4-63. 7. Amundsen DW. The physician's obligation to prolong life: a medical duty without classical roots . Hastings Cent Rep . (August) 1978;8:23-30.Crossref 8. Carrick P. Medical Ethics in Antiquity . Dordrecht, the Netherlands: D Reidel; 1985: chap 7 and 8. 9. More T; Greene JJ, Dolan JP, eds. Utopia and Other Writings . New York, NY: New American Library; 1984. 10. Emanuel EJ. A century of euthanasia debates in the United States and Britain . Ann Intern Med. In press. 11. Williams SD. Euthanasia . London, England: Williams and Norgate; 1872. 12. Essays of the Birmingham Speculative Club . Saturday Rev. 1870;30:632-634. 13. Euthanasia . Spectator . 1871;44:314-315. 14. Our criminals . Saturday Rev . (July 13) , 1872;34: 43-44. Editorial. 15. Permissive euthanasia . Boston Med Surg J. 1884; 220:19-20. Editorial. 16. The moral side of euthanasia . JAMA . 1885;5: 382-383. Editorial. 17. Baldwin SE. The natural right to a natural death . St Paul Med J. 1899;1:875-889. 18. Wilson R. A medico-literary causerie: euthanasia . Practitioner . 1896;56:631-635. 19. Rosenberg LJ, Aronstam NE. Euthanasia—a medicolegal study . JAMA . 1901;36:10-110. 20. Euthanasia . JAMA . 1903;41:1094. Editorial. 21. May the physician ever end life? BMJ. 1897; 1:934. Editorial. 22. Bach A. Medico-legal congress . Medico-Legal J. 1896;14:103-106. 23. To kill suffering persons . New York Times . (January 24) , 1906:2. Editorial. 24. Euthanasia and civilization . New York Times . (February 3) , 1906:8. Editorial. 25. Rupp A. Another view of euthanasia . New York Times . (January 30) , 1906:8. 26. Costigan G. Dr. Costigan on euthanasia . New York Times . (February 6) , 1906:8. 27. Tomlinson A. A case of euthanasia . New York Times . (February 11) , 1906:8. 28. Euthanasia—degenerated sympathy . Boston Med Surg J. 1906;154:330-331.Crossref 29. Euthanasia . BMJ. 1906;1:638-639. Editorial. 30. Euthanasia . St Louis Med Rev. 1906;53:6669. Editorial. 31. Euthanasia . JAMA . 1919:72;1557. London Letter. 32. Euthanasia again . JAMA . 1926;87:1491. Editorial. 33. Binding K, Hoche A. Permitting the destruction of unworthy life: its extent and form . Issues Law Med. 1992;8:231-265. 34. Lifton RJ. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide . New York, NY: Basic Books Inc; 1986. 35. Pfaafflin F. The connections between eugenics, sterilization, and mass murder in Germany from 1933-1945 . Med Law. 1986;5:1-10. 36. Millard CK. The legalization of voluntary euthanasia . Public Health . 1931;45:39-47.Crossref 37. The President, 1931-32 . Public Health . 1931; 45:33-34. Editorial.Crossref 38. Hammond TE. Euthanasia . Practitioner . 1934; 132:485-494. 39. The right tokill . Time . (November 18) , 1935:53-54. 40. The right to kill (cont'd) . Time . (November 25) , 1935:39-40. 41. The right to kill (cont'd) . Time . (December 2) , 1935:34-37. 42. Medicine: Britons would alter Decalogue to end incurable pain . Newsweek . (November 16) , 1935; 6:40-41. 43. Voluntary euthanasia: propaganda for legalisation . BMJ. 1935;2:856. Editorial.Crossref 44. Voluntary euthanasia: the new society states its case . BMJ. 1935;2:1168-1169. Editorial.Crossref 45. Alexander L. Medical science under dictatorship . N Engl J Med. 1949;241:39-47.Crossref 46. Williams G. The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law . New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf Inc; 1957. 47. Kamisar Y. Some non-religious views against proposed 'mercy killing' legislation . Minn Law Rev. 1958;42:969-1042. 48. Williams G. 'Mercy-killing' legislation—a rejoinder . Minn Law Rev. 1958;43:1-12. 49. De Wachter MAM. Active euthanasia in the Netherlands . JAMA . 1989;262:3316-3319.Crossref 50. It's over, Debbie . JAMA . 1988;259:272.Crossref 51. Siegler M, Gomez CF. US consensus on euthanasia? Lancet . 1992;339:1164-1165.Crossref 52. Ragg M. Australia: for or against euthanasia? Lancet . 1992;339:800-801.Crossref 53. Brock DW. Voluntary active euthanasia . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:10-22.Crossref 54. Rachels J. The End of Life: Euthanasia and Morality . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1986. 55. Foot P. Euthanasia . Philos Public Affairs . 1977; 6:85-112. 56. Cassel CK, Meier DE. Morals and moralism in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:750-752.Crossref 57. Quill TE, Cassel CK, Meier DE. Care of the hopelessly ill: proposed clinical criteria for physicianassisted suicide . N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1280-1384.Crossref 58. Weir RF. The morality of physician-assisted suicide . Law Med Health Care. 1992;20:116-126. 59. Physician-assisted suicide and the right to die with assistance . Harvard Law Rev. 1992;105:2021-2040.Crossref 60. Robinson V. A symposium on euthanasia . Med Rev. 1913;19:143-157. 61. Angell M. Euthanasia . N Engl J Med. 1988;319: 1348-1350.Crossref 62. Brody H. Assisted death—a compassionate response to a medical failure . N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:1384-1388.Crossref 63. Institute of Medical Ethics Working Party of the Ethics of Prolonging Life and Assisted Death. Assisted death . Lancet . 1990;336:610-613. 64. Girsh FJ. Physician aid in dying: what physicians say, what patients say . West J Med. 1992; 157:188-189. 65. Kuhse H, Singer P. Should the Baby Live? New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1985:chap 4. 66. Singer P. Practical Ethics . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1979: chap 7 . 67. The final autonomy . Lancet . 1992;340:757-758. Editorial.Crossref 68. Battin M. Voluntary euthanasia and the risks of abuse: can we learn anything from the Netherlands? Law Med Health Care . 1992;20:133-143. 69. Benrubi Gl. Euthanasia—the need for procedural safeguards . N Engl J Med. 1992;326:197-199.Crossref 70. Misbin RI. Physicians' aid in dying . N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1307-1311.Crossref 71. Jecker NS. Giving death a hand: when the dying and the doctor stand in a special relationship . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:831-835. 72. Callahan D. When self-determination runs amok . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:52-55.Crossref 73. Kass LR. Is there a right to die? Hastings Cent Rep. 1993;23:34-43.Crossref 74. Singer PA, Siegler M. Euthanasia—a critique . N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1881-1883.Crossref 75. Mill JS. On Liberty . Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Co Inc; 1978. 76. Aries P. The Hour of Our Death . New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf Inc; 1981:chap 12. 77. Kamm FM. Creation and Abortion: A Study in Moral and Legal Philosophy . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1992: chap 1 . 78. Teno J, Lynn J. Voluntary active euthanasia: the individual case and public policy . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:827-830. 79. Pellegrino ED. Doctors must not kill . J Clin Ethics. 1992;3:95-107. 80. British Medical Association. Euthanasia . London, England: British Medical Association; 1988. 81. Singer PA. Should doctors kill patients? Can Med Assoc J. 1988;138:1000-1001. 82. Kass LR. Neither for love nor money: why doctors must not kill . Public Interest . 1989;94:25-46. 83. Reichel W, Dyck AJ. Euthanasia: a contemporary moral quandary . Lancet . 1989;2:1321-1323.Crossref 84. Capron AM. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: American observations . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992; 22:30-33.Crossref 85. Wolf SM. Holding the line on euthanasia . Hastings Cent Rep. 1989;19:13-15.Crossref 86. Fleming RA. Voluntary euthanasia . BMJ. 1936; 1:33.Crossref 87. Pence GE. Do not go slowly into that dark night: mercy killing in Holland . Am J Med. 1988;84: 139-141.Crossref 88. De Wachter MAM. Euthanasia in the Netherlands . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:23-30.Crossref 89. Brahams D. Euthanasia in the Netherlands . Lancet . 1990;335:591-592.Crossref 90. Leenen HJJ. Euthanasia, assistance to suicide and the law: developments in the Netherlands . Health Policy . 1987;8:197-206.Crossref 91. Gomez CF. Regulating Death: Euthanasia and the Case of the Netherlands . New York, NY: Free Press; 1991. 92. Gevers JKM. Legislation on euthanasia: recent developments in the Netherlands . J Med Ethics. 1992;18:138-141.Crossref 93. Simons M. Dutch move to enact law making euthanasia easier . New York Times . (February 9) , 1993:A1, 9. 94. The Remmelink Report . Health Policy . 1992; 22( (special issue) ):1-262. 95. Van der Maas PJ, van Delden JJM, Pinjnenborg L, Looman CWN. Euthanasia and other medical decisions concerning the end of life . Lancet . 1991;338:669-674.Crossref 96. Ten Have HAMJ, Welie JVM. Euthanasia: normal medical practice? Hastings Cent Rep. 1992; 22:34-38. 97. Gunning KF. Euthanasia . Lancet . 1991;338:1010.Crossref 98. Keown J. On regulating death . Hastings Cent Rep. 1992;22:39-43.Crossref 99. Fergusson A, George R, Norris P, Twycross R, Winter R. Euthanasia . Lancet . 1991;338:1010-1011.Crossref 100. Blendon RJ, Szalay US, Knox RA. Should physicians aid their patients in dying? JAMA . 1992; 267:2658-2662.Crossref 101. Knox RA. Poll: Americans favor mercy killing . Boston Globe . (November 3) , 1991:1, 22. 102. The Hemlock Society. 1991 Roper Poll of the West Coast on Euthanasia . New York, NY: Roper Organization; (May) 1991. 103. Americans Against Human Suffering. Right to die backed in latest state poll . J Hum Dignity . (July) 1987;1:1-3. 104. Orentlicher D. Physician participation in assisted suicide . JAMA . 1989;262:1844-1845.Crossref 105. AGS Public Policy Committee. Voluntary active euthanasia . J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:826. 106. Washington State Medical Association. Initiative 119 WSMA Membership Survey . Seattle, Wash: Washington State Medical Association; (March) 1991. 107. Overmyer M. National survey: physicians' views on the right to die . Physicians Management . 1991;31:40-60. 108. Crosby C. Internists grapple with how they should respond to requests for aid in dying . Internist . 1992;33:10. 109. Caralis PV, Hammond JS. Attitudes of medical students, housestaff, and faculty physicians toward euthanasia and termination of lifesustaining treatment . Crit Care Med. 1992;20: 683-690.Crossref 110. Fried TR, Stein MD, O'Sullivan PS, Brock DW, Novack DH. The limits of patient autonomy: physician attitudes and practices regarding lifesustaining treatments and euthanasia . Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:722-728.Crossref 111. Shapiro RS, Derse AR, Gottlieb M, Schiedermayer D, Olson M. Willingness to perform euthansia: a survey of physician attitudes . Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:575-584.Crossref 112. Heilig S. The SFMS euthanasia survey: results and analysis . SF Med. 1989;61( (5) ):24-26, 34. 113. Tredgold AF. Voluntary euthanasia . BMJ. 1936; 1:33.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 12, 1994

References