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Epidemiologic Considerations in Electroconvulsive Therapy

Epidemiologic Considerations in Electroconvulsive Therapy Abstract • Data from the Monroe County (New York) Psychiatric Case Register were grouped for 1961 through 1965, 1966 through 1970, and 1971 through 1975 for comparisons of incidence, prevalence, mortality, and length of stay associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). While incidence of first ECT series declined substantially from 1961 through 1965 to 1971 through 1975 in most age-sex groups, significant declines in prevalence of admissions involving ECT occurred only among young female patients. Both prevalence and incidence analyses showed increasing specificity over time of ECT use in cases of depression. Demographic characteristics associated with ECT were accounted for by diagnostic correlates. Mortality effects associated with use of ECT were not pronounced, though a lower rate of accidental and circulatory deaths in the ECT group was noted. Lengths of hospital stay for patients receiving ECT were generally longer than for other depression hospitalizations, both for first ECT and later ECT series. References 1. Weiner RD: The psychiatric use of electrically induced seizures . Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1507-1517. 2. Impastato DJ, Almansi R: The electrofit in the treatment of mental disease . J Nerv Ment Dis 1942;96:395-409.Crossref 3. Kolb LC, Vogel VH: The use of shock therapy in 305 mental hospitals . Am J Psychiatry 1942;99:90-100. 4. Barker JC, Baker AA: Deaths associated with electroplexy . J Ment Sci 1959;105:339-348. 5. Hesche J, Roeder E: Electroconvulsive therapy in Denmark . Br J Psychiatry 1976;128:241-245.Crossref 6. Royal College of Psychiatrists: Memorandum on the use of electroconvulsive therapy . Br J Psychiatry 1977;131:261-272.Crossref 7. Fink M: Efficacy and safety of induced seizures (EST) in man . Compr Psychiatry 1978;19:1-18.Crossref 8. Squire LR, Slater PC: Bilateral and unilateral ECT: Effects on verbal and non-verbal memory . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1316-1320. 9. Scovern A, Kilmann P: Status of electroconvulsive therapy: Review of the outcome literature . Psychol Bull 1980;87:260-303.Crossref 10. Avery D, Winokur G: The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants in depression . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:507-523. 11. Turek I, Hanlon T: The effectiveness and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) . J Nerv Ment Dis 1977;164:419-431.Crossref 12. Huston PE, Locher LM: Manic-depressive psychosis: Course when treated and untreated with electric shock . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1948;60:37-48. 13. Tillotson JJ, Sulzbach WA: A comparative study and evaluation of electric shock therapy in depressive states . Am J Psychiatry 1945;101:455-459. 14. Ziskind E, Somerfeld-Ziskind E, Ziskind L: Metrazol and electric convulsive therapy of the affective psychoses . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1945;53:212-217. 15. Avery D, Winokur G: Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1029-1037.Crossref 16. Avery D, Winokur G: Suicide, attempted suicide, and relapse rates in depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:749-753.Crossref 17. Fink M: Convulsive and drug therapies of depression . Ann Rev Med 1981;32:405-412.Crossref 18. Kendell RE: The present status of electroconvulsive therapy . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:265-283.Crossref 19. Roy-Byrne P, Gerner RH, Liston EH, et al: ECT for acute mania: A forgotten treatment modality? J Psychiatr Treat Eval 1981;3:83-86. 20. Eastwood MR, Peacocke J: Diagnosis and evaluation of ECT . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1976;21:55-59. 21. Eastwood MR, Stiasny S: The use of electroconvulsive therapy . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1978;23:29-34. 22. Fink M: Random thoughts about ECT . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:484-485. 23. Asnis GM, Fink M, Saferstein S: ECT in metropolitan New York hospitals: A survey of practice, 1975-1976 . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:479-482. 24. Morrisey J, Steadman H, Burton N: A profile of ECT recipients in New York State during 1972 and 1977 . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:618-622. 25. Fink M: ECT usage , in Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice . New York, Raven Press, 1979, pp 73-84. 26. Electroconvulsive Therapy. New York, American Psychiatric Association, Report 14, 1978. 27. Palmer RL: Electroconvulsive Therapy: An Appraisal . New York, Oxford University Press, 1981. 28. Grosser GH, Pearsall DT, Fisher CL, et al: The regulation of electroconvulsive treatment in Massachusetts: A follow-up . Mass J Ment Health 1975;5:12-25. 29. Gardner EA, Miles HC, Iker HT, et al: A cumulative register of psychiatric services in a community . Am J Public Health 1963;53:1269-1277.Crossref 30. Babigian HM: The role of psychiatric case registers in the longitudinal study of psychopathology , in Roff M, Robins L, Pollack M (eds): Life History Research in Psychopathology . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1972, vol 2, pp 155-169. 31. Liptzin B, Babigian HM: Ten years experience with a cumulative psychiatric register . Methods Inf Med 1972;2:238-242. 32. Huston RE, Locher LM: Involutional psychosis: Course when untreated and when treated with electric shock . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1948;59:385-394. 33. Jefferson JW: A review of the cardiovascular effects and toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants . Psychosom Med 1975;37:160-181.Crossref 34. Pippard J, Ellam L: Electroconvulsive treatment in Great Britain . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:563-568.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Epidemiologic Considerations in Electroconvulsive Therapy

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1984 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790140036005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Data from the Monroe County (New York) Psychiatric Case Register were grouped for 1961 through 1965, 1966 through 1970, and 1971 through 1975 for comparisons of incidence, prevalence, mortality, and length of stay associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). While incidence of first ECT series declined substantially from 1961 through 1965 to 1971 through 1975 in most age-sex groups, significant declines in prevalence of admissions involving ECT occurred only among young female patients. Both prevalence and incidence analyses showed increasing specificity over time of ECT use in cases of depression. Demographic characteristics associated with ECT were accounted for by diagnostic correlates. Mortality effects associated with use of ECT were not pronounced, though a lower rate of accidental and circulatory deaths in the ECT group was noted. Lengths of hospital stay for patients receiving ECT were generally longer than for other depression hospitalizations, both for first ECT and later ECT series. References 1. Weiner RD: The psychiatric use of electrically induced seizures . Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1507-1517. 2. Impastato DJ, Almansi R: The electrofit in the treatment of mental disease . J Nerv Ment Dis 1942;96:395-409.Crossref 3. Kolb LC, Vogel VH: The use of shock therapy in 305 mental hospitals . Am J Psychiatry 1942;99:90-100. 4. Barker JC, Baker AA: Deaths associated with electroplexy . J Ment Sci 1959;105:339-348. 5. Hesche J, Roeder E: Electroconvulsive therapy in Denmark . Br J Psychiatry 1976;128:241-245.Crossref 6. Royal College of Psychiatrists: Memorandum on the use of electroconvulsive therapy . Br J Psychiatry 1977;131:261-272.Crossref 7. Fink M: Efficacy and safety of induced seizures (EST) in man . Compr Psychiatry 1978;19:1-18.Crossref 8. Squire LR, Slater PC: Bilateral and unilateral ECT: Effects on verbal and non-verbal memory . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:1316-1320. 9. Scovern A, Kilmann P: Status of electroconvulsive therapy: Review of the outcome literature . Psychol Bull 1980;87:260-303.Crossref 10. Avery D, Winokur G: The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants in depression . Biol Psychiatry 1977;12:507-523. 11. Turek I, Hanlon T: The effectiveness and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) . J Nerv Ment Dis 1977;164:419-431.Crossref 12. Huston PE, Locher LM: Manic-depressive psychosis: Course when treated and untreated with electric shock . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1948;60:37-48. 13. Tillotson JJ, Sulzbach WA: A comparative study and evaluation of electric shock therapy in depressive states . Am J Psychiatry 1945;101:455-459. 14. Ziskind E, Somerfeld-Ziskind E, Ziskind L: Metrazol and electric convulsive therapy of the affective psychoses . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1945;53:212-217. 15. Avery D, Winokur G: Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1029-1037.Crossref 16. Avery D, Winokur G: Suicide, attempted suicide, and relapse rates in depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:749-753.Crossref 17. Fink M: Convulsive and drug therapies of depression . Ann Rev Med 1981;32:405-412.Crossref 18. Kendell RE: The present status of electroconvulsive therapy . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:265-283.Crossref 19. Roy-Byrne P, Gerner RH, Liston EH, et al: ECT for acute mania: A forgotten treatment modality? J Psychiatr Treat Eval 1981;3:83-86. 20. Eastwood MR, Peacocke J: Diagnosis and evaluation of ECT . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1976;21:55-59. 21. Eastwood MR, Stiasny S: The use of electroconvulsive therapy . Can Psychiatr Assoc J 1978;23:29-34. 22. Fink M: Random thoughts about ECT . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:484-485. 23. Asnis GM, Fink M, Saferstein S: ECT in metropolitan New York hospitals: A survey of practice, 1975-1976 . Am J Psychiatry 1978;135:479-482. 24. Morrisey J, Steadman H, Burton N: A profile of ECT recipients in New York State during 1972 and 1977 . Am J Psychiatry 1981;138:618-622. 25. Fink M: ECT usage , in Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice . New York, Raven Press, 1979, pp 73-84. 26. Electroconvulsive Therapy. New York, American Psychiatric Association, Report 14, 1978. 27. Palmer RL: Electroconvulsive Therapy: An Appraisal . New York, Oxford University Press, 1981. 28. Grosser GH, Pearsall DT, Fisher CL, et al: The regulation of electroconvulsive treatment in Massachusetts: A follow-up . Mass J Ment Health 1975;5:12-25. 29. Gardner EA, Miles HC, Iker HT, et al: A cumulative register of psychiatric services in a community . Am J Public Health 1963;53:1269-1277.Crossref 30. Babigian HM: The role of psychiatric case registers in the longitudinal study of psychopathology , in Roff M, Robins L, Pollack M (eds): Life History Research in Psychopathology . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1972, vol 2, pp 155-169. 31. Liptzin B, Babigian HM: Ten years experience with a cumulative psychiatric register . Methods Inf Med 1972;2:238-242. 32. Huston RE, Locher LM: Involutional psychosis: Course when untreated and when treated with electric shock . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1948;59:385-394. 33. Jefferson JW: A review of the cardiovascular effects and toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants . Psychosom Med 1975;37:160-181.Crossref 34. Pippard J, Ellam L: Electroconvulsive treatment in Great Britain . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:563-568.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1984

References