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ENCEPHALOGRAPHY: A REVIEW OF EIGHT HUNDRED ENCEPHALOGRAMS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SUBDURAL AIR

ENCEPHALOGRAPHY: A REVIEW OF EIGHT HUNDRED ENCEPHALOGRAMS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SUBDURAL AIR Abstract Since its inception in 19191 encephalography has become increasingly popular as a method of psychiatric diagnosis and research. The presence of pathologic changes too subtle for postmortem demonstration has been assumed on the basis of abnormal encephalographic findings alone.2 For this reason, organic changes are diagnosed in cases of psychiatric conditions which heretofore have always been considered to be functional disorders. Jacobi and Winkler3 were unable to find a single normal encephalogram in 19 cases of chronic schizophrenia. Moore, Nathan, Elliott and Laubach2 obtained encephalograms of 60 patients with schizophrenia, and although their patients were selected so as to eliminate known organic factors and although 10 gave no evidence of deterioration, none of the encephalograms showed a normal pattern. The same workers4 examined 38 patients with manic-depressive psychosis and again were unable to find a single normal encephalogram. It seems unusual that organic changes were References 1. Dandy, W. E.: Roentgenography of the Brain After the Injection of Air into the Spinal Canal , Ann. Surg. 70:397 ( (Oct.) ) 1919.Crossref 2. Moore, M. T.; Nathan, D.; Elliott, A. R., and Laubach, C.: Encephalographic Studies in Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 12:801 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 3. Jacobi, W., and Winkler, H.: Encephalographische Studien an chronisch Schizophrenen , Arch. f. Psychiat. 81:299, 1927.Crossref 4. Moore, M. T.; Nathan, D.; Elliott, A. R., and Laubach, C.: Encephalographic Studies in Manic-Depressive Psychosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 31: 1194 ( (June) ) 1934. 5. Fay, Temple: Some Factors in the "Mechanical Theory of Epilepsy," with Especial Reference to the Influence of Fluid, and Its Control, in the Treatment of Certain Cases , Am. J. Psychiat. 8:783 ( (March) ) 1929. 6. Notkin, J.: Encephalographic Studies in Cryptogenic Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 26:115 ( (July) ) 1931. 7. Ebaugh, F. G.; Dixon, H. H.; Kiene, H. E., and Allen, K. D.: Encephalographic Studies in General Paresis , Am. J. Psychiat. 10:737 ( (March) ) 1931. 8. Ginzberg, R.: Betrachtungen über das Encephalogramm bei progressiver Paralyse und paralyseverdächtigen syphilitischen Hirnerkrankungen , Arch. f. Psychiat. 89:711 ( (March) ) 1930. 9. Hermann, G., and Herrnheiser, G.: Encephalographiestudien (Schläfenlappenatrophie bei halluzinierenden Paralytikern) , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 96:730 ( (May) ) 1925. 10. Report of Committee on Standardization of Encephalography, American Roentgen Ray Society , Am. J. Roentgenol. 22:475 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 11. Guttmann, L.: Diagnostische Irrtümer infolge technischer Mängel bei Enzephalographie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 30:432 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1928. 12. Pendergrass, E. P.: Interpretation of Encephalographic Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:946 ( (May) ) 1930. 13. Flügel, F. E.: Die Encephalographie als neurologische Untersuchungsmethode , Ergebn. d. inn. Med. u. Kinderh. 44:327, 1932. 14. Kruse, F.: Cerebrale Krankheiten des Kindesalters in typischen Encephalogrammen , Ergebn. d. inn. Med. u. Kinderh. 37:333, 1930. 15. Dahl-Iversen, E.: Valeur diagnostique, dangers et complications de l'encéphalo-ventriculographie , Lyon chir. 30:671 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1933. 16. Goette, K.: Ueber die Dartsellung des Encephalogramms und seine Grenzen des Normalen und Pathologischen , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 110:9, 1929. 17. Stone, R. S., and Jones, O. W., Jr.: Encephalography , Radiology 21:411 ( (Nov.) ) 1933. 18. Howard, Campbell: Observations on Encephalography , Am. J. Roentgenol. 32:301 ( (Sept.) ) 1934. 19. Glaser, M. A.: Encephalography —Its Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value, with Some Remarks on Subdural Air , West. J. Surg. 42:587 ( (Oct.) ) 1934. 20. Cramer, Fritz: A Note on the Occurrence and Significance of Air in the Subdural Space After Encephalography , Bull. Neurol. Inst. New York 3:506 ( (March) ) 1934. 21. Pendergrass, E. P.: Encephalography: An Explanation of a Possible Error in Technique , Am. J. Roentgenol. 25:754 ( (June) ) 1931. 22. Flügel.10b 23. Kruse.10c 24. Dahl-Inversen.11 25. Bateman, J. F.: Closed Foramina of Luschka in the Brains of the Insane: Their Influence on the Pathogenesis of the Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 14:616 ( (Nov.) ) 1925. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

ENCEPHALOGRAPHY: A REVIEW OF EIGHT HUNDRED ENCEPHALOGRAMS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SUBDURAL AIR

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1936 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1936.02260050064005
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Abstract

Abstract Since its inception in 19191 encephalography has become increasingly popular as a method of psychiatric diagnosis and research. The presence of pathologic changes too subtle for postmortem demonstration has been assumed on the basis of abnormal encephalographic findings alone.2 For this reason, organic changes are diagnosed in cases of psychiatric conditions which heretofore have always been considered to be functional disorders. Jacobi and Winkler3 were unable to find a single normal encephalogram in 19 cases of chronic schizophrenia. Moore, Nathan, Elliott and Laubach2 obtained encephalograms of 60 patients with schizophrenia, and although their patients were selected so as to eliminate known organic factors and although 10 gave no evidence of deterioration, none of the encephalograms showed a normal pattern. The same workers4 examined 38 patients with manic-depressive psychosis and again were unable to find a single normal encephalogram. It seems unusual that organic changes were References 1. Dandy, W. E.: Roentgenography of the Brain After the Injection of Air into the Spinal Canal , Ann. Surg. 70:397 ( (Oct.) ) 1919.Crossref 2. Moore, M. T.; Nathan, D.; Elliott, A. R., and Laubach, C.: Encephalographic Studies in Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 12:801 ( (Jan.) ) 1933. 3. Jacobi, W., and Winkler, H.: Encephalographische Studien an chronisch Schizophrenen , Arch. f. Psychiat. 81:299, 1927.Crossref 4. Moore, M. T.; Nathan, D.; Elliott, A. R., and Laubach, C.: Encephalographic Studies in Manic-Depressive Psychosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 31: 1194 ( (June) ) 1934. 5. Fay, Temple: Some Factors in the "Mechanical Theory of Epilepsy," with Especial Reference to the Influence of Fluid, and Its Control, in the Treatment of Certain Cases , Am. J. Psychiat. 8:783 ( (March) ) 1929. 6. Notkin, J.: Encephalographic Studies in Cryptogenic Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 26:115 ( (July) ) 1931. 7. Ebaugh, F. G.; Dixon, H. H.; Kiene, H. E., and Allen, K. D.: Encephalographic Studies in General Paresis , Am. J. Psychiat. 10:737 ( (March) ) 1931. 8. Ginzberg, R.: Betrachtungen über das Encephalogramm bei progressiver Paralyse und paralyseverdächtigen syphilitischen Hirnerkrankungen , Arch. f. Psychiat. 89:711 ( (March) ) 1930. 9. Hermann, G., and Herrnheiser, G.: Encephalographiestudien (Schläfenlappenatrophie bei halluzinierenden Paralytikern) , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 96:730 ( (May) ) 1925. 10. Report of Committee on Standardization of Encephalography, American Roentgen Ray Society , Am. J. Roentgenol. 22:475 ( (Nov.) ) 1929. 11. Guttmann, L.: Diagnostische Irrtümer infolge technischer Mängel bei Enzephalographie , Psychiat.-neurol. Wchnschr. 30:432 ( (Sept. 15) ) 1928. 12. Pendergrass, E. P.: Interpretation of Encephalographic Observations , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:946 ( (May) ) 1930. 13. Flügel, F. E.: Die Encephalographie als neurologische Untersuchungsmethode , Ergebn. d. inn. Med. u. Kinderh. 44:327, 1932. 14. Kruse, F.: Cerebrale Krankheiten des Kindesalters in typischen Encephalogrammen , Ergebn. d. inn. Med. u. Kinderh. 37:333, 1930. 15. Dahl-Iversen, E.: Valeur diagnostique, dangers et complications de l'encéphalo-ventriculographie , Lyon chir. 30:671 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1933. 16. Goette, K.: Ueber die Dartsellung des Encephalogramms und seine Grenzen des Normalen und Pathologischen , Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 110:9, 1929. 17. Stone, R. S., and Jones, O. W., Jr.: Encephalography , Radiology 21:411 ( (Nov.) ) 1933. 18. Howard, Campbell: Observations on Encephalography , Am. J. Roentgenol. 32:301 ( (Sept.) ) 1934. 19. Glaser, M. A.: Encephalography —Its Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value, with Some Remarks on Subdural Air , West. J. Surg. 42:587 ( (Oct.) ) 1934. 20. Cramer, Fritz: A Note on the Occurrence and Significance of Air in the Subdural Space After Encephalography , Bull. Neurol. Inst. New York 3:506 ( (March) ) 1934. 21. Pendergrass, E. P.: Encephalography: An Explanation of a Possible Error in Technique , Am. J. Roentgenol. 25:754 ( (June) ) 1931. 22. Flügel.10b 23. Kruse.10c 24. Dahl-Inversen.11 25. Bateman, J. F.: Closed Foramina of Luschka in the Brains of the Insane: Their Influence on the Pathogenesis of the Psychoses , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 14:616 ( (Nov.) ) 1925.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1936

References