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Emotional Factors in the Etiology and Treatment of Lead Poisoning: A Study of Pica in Children

Emotional Factors in the Etiology and Treatment of Lead Poisoning: A Study of Pica in Children Abstract In order to treat lead poisoning in children adequately, it is necessary to consider the factors which cause children to ingest lead-containing substances. Frequently children hospitalized for lead poisoning are treated for their medical illness, only to return with the same history, and it is found that they have continued to ingest substances containing lead. Six cases of lead poisoning admitted to Children's Hospital have been studied from the psychiatric aspects. In all of the cases, a history of pica (an abnormal appetite for substances not fit for food) was present. Children go through a period in their development, beginning at about age 6 months, when it is normal for them to put objects in their mouths. This period ends at about the age of 12 months. Gesell1 states, "Oral patterns become more or less restricted to the feeding situation at about the end of the first year; toys References 1. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S.: Development Diagnosis: Normal and Abnormal Child Development , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1941, pp. 49, 190, and 200. 2. Burrows, N. F. E.; Rendle-Short, J., and Hanna, D.: Lead-Poisoning in Children: Report of 5 Cases, with Special Reference to Pica , Brit. M. J. 1:329-334 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1951.Crossref 3. Kanner, L., in Brennemann's Practice of Pediatrics , edited by I. McQuarrie, Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1948, Vol. 4, Ch. 13 , pp. 20-21. 4. Williams, H.; Kaplan, E.; Couchman, C. E., and Sayers, R. R.: Lead Poisoning in Young Children , Pub. Health Rep. 67:230-236 ( (March) ) 1952.Crossref 5. Mellins, R. B., and Jenkins, C. D.: Epidemiological and Psychological Study of Lead Poisoning in Children , J. A. M. A. 158:15-20 ( (May 7) ) 1955.Crossref 6. van der Sar, A., and Waszink, H. M.: Pica (Report on a Case) , Docum. med. geog. et trop. 4:29-32 ( (March) ) 1952. 7. Byers, R., and Lord, E. E.: Late Effects of Lead Poisoning on Mental Development , Am. J. Dis. Child. 66:471-494 ( (Nov.) ) 1943. 8. Fenichel, O.: The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis , New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1945, pp. 367 ff. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Emotional Factors in the Etiology and Treatment of Lead Poisoning: A Study of Pica in Children

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6916
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1956.02060020146007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract In order to treat lead poisoning in children adequately, it is necessary to consider the factors which cause children to ingest lead-containing substances. Frequently children hospitalized for lead poisoning are treated for their medical illness, only to return with the same history, and it is found that they have continued to ingest substances containing lead. Six cases of lead poisoning admitted to Children's Hospital have been studied from the psychiatric aspects. In all of the cases, a history of pica (an abnormal appetite for substances not fit for food) was present. Children go through a period in their development, beginning at about age 6 months, when it is normal for them to put objects in their mouths. This period ends at about the age of 12 months. Gesell1 states, "Oral patterns become more or less restricted to the feeding situation at about the end of the first year; toys References 1. Gesell, A., and Amatruda, C. S.: Development Diagnosis: Normal and Abnormal Child Development , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1941, pp. 49, 190, and 200. 2. Burrows, N. F. E.; Rendle-Short, J., and Hanna, D.: Lead-Poisoning in Children: Report of 5 Cases, with Special Reference to Pica , Brit. M. J. 1:329-334 ( (Feb. 17) ) 1951.Crossref 3. Kanner, L., in Brennemann's Practice of Pediatrics , edited by I. McQuarrie, Hagerstown, Md., W. F. Prior Company, Inc., 1948, Vol. 4, Ch. 13 , pp. 20-21. 4. Williams, H.; Kaplan, E.; Couchman, C. E., and Sayers, R. R.: Lead Poisoning in Young Children , Pub. Health Rep. 67:230-236 ( (March) ) 1952.Crossref 5. Mellins, R. B., and Jenkins, C. D.: Epidemiological and Psychological Study of Lead Poisoning in Children , J. A. M. A. 158:15-20 ( (May 7) ) 1955.Crossref 6. van der Sar, A., and Waszink, H. M.: Pica (Report on a Case) , Docum. med. geog. et trop. 4:29-32 ( (March) ) 1952. 7. Byers, R., and Lord, E. E.: Late Effects of Lead Poisoning on Mental Development , Am. J. Dis. Child. 66:471-494 ( (Nov.) ) 1943. 8. Fenichel, O.: The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis , New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1945, pp. 367 ff.

Journal

A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1956

References