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Elevated Environmental Lead Levels in a Day Care Setting

Elevated Environmental Lead Levels in a Day Care Setting Abstract Objective: To determine the risk of lead poisoning among children enrolled in day care centers with elevated environmental lead burdens. Design: Survey. Setting: Six day care centers on properties owned by a major state-supported university. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-five of 234 eligible children (mean age, 4.8 years) enrolled in these centers were screened by questionnaire for risk factors of lead exposures. Blood samples for lead levels were also obtained. Observations of day care activities relative to lead exposure risks were recorded. Analyses of lead levels in paint, dust, and/or soil samples at the six centers were obtained. Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and associated behavioral risk factors for lead exposure in children attending day care centers. Results: Elevated levels of lead in paint (2.4% to 40% lead) were present in all day care facilities. Three day care centers had elevated lead levels in windowsill dust (62 000 to 180 000 g of lead per square meter) or soil (530 to 1100 mg of lead per kilogram). Questionnaires documented low risk for lead exposure to children in the home environments. Direct observations in the day care setting revealed optimal supervision and hygiene of the children. Blood lead levels were less than 0.5 μmol/L (10 μg/dL) in all but one of the 155 children screened. Conclusions: Children attending day care centers with high environmental lead burdens need further documentation of blood lead levels, at-risk behaviors, and lead exposure risks in the home environments as an adjunct to the instigation of lead abatement procedures at the day care centers.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:878-881) References 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: Statement by the Centers for Disease Control . Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service; (October) 1991. 2. Needleman HL, Bellinger DC. The health effects of low level exposure to lead . Annu Rev Public Health . 1991;12:111-140.Crossref 3. Bellinger DC, Stiles KM, Needleman HL. Low-level lead exposure, intelligence and academic achievement: a long-term follow-up study . Pediatrics . 1992;90: 855-861. 4. Dietrich KN, Berger OG, Succop PA. Lead exposure and the motor developmental status of urban 6-year-old children in the Cincinnati Prospective Study . Pediatrics . 1993;91:301-307. 5. Watson WS, Hume R, Moore MR. Oral absorption of lead and iron . Lancet . 1980; 2:236-237.Crossref 6. Ziegler EE, Edwards BB, Jensen RL, Mahaffey KR, Fomon SJ. Absorption and retention of lead in infants . Pediatr Res . 1978;12:29-34.Crossref 7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The Nature and Extent of Lead Poisoning in Children in the United States: A Report to Congress . Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service; 1988. US Dept of Health and Human Services document 99-2966. 8. Sayre JW, Ernhart CB. Control of lead exposure in childhood: are we doing it correctly? AJDC . 1992;146:1275-1278. 9. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Notice of funding availability (NOFA) for lead-based paint (LBP) risk assessment; notice, sampling and inspection guidelines . Federal Register . 1992;57:2894-2833. 10. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Manual of Analytical Methods . 3rd ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public health Service, Centers for Disease Control; 1984. 11. Hausler WJ Jr, Getchell JP, Cherryholmes KL. Quality Assurance Program: University of Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory Procedure Manual . Des Moines, Iowa: The University of Iowa; 1989. 12. Parsons PJ. Blood Lead Determination by Electrothermal Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry . Albany, NY: New York State Department of Health; 1991. 13. US Environmental Protection Agency. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes: EPA-600/4-79-020 . Cincinnati, Ohio: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1983. 14. US Environmental Protection Agency. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Laboratory Manual, Physical/Chemical Methods, 5W 846 . 3rd ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1986;1A. 15. Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Atomic Absorption Laboratory Benchtop User's Guide: Publication B3601, Release 1.0 . Norwalk, Conn: Perkin-Elmer Corp; 1992. 16. Miller DT, Paschal DC, Gunter EW, Stroud PE, lo J. Determination of blood lead with electrothermal atomic absorption using a L'vov platform and matrix modifier . Analyst . 1987;112:1701-1704.Crossref 17. Sayre JW, Katzel MD. Household surface lead dust: its accumulation in vacant homes . Environ Health Perspect . 1979;20:179-182.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
1072-4710
eISSN
1538-3628
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170210052009
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To determine the risk of lead poisoning among children enrolled in day care centers with elevated environmental lead burdens. Design: Survey. Setting: Six day care centers on properties owned by a major state-supported university. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-five of 234 eligible children (mean age, 4.8 years) enrolled in these centers were screened by questionnaire for risk factors of lead exposures. Blood samples for lead levels were also obtained. Observations of day care activities relative to lead exposure risks were recorded. Analyses of lead levels in paint, dust, and/or soil samples at the six centers were obtained. Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and associated behavioral risk factors for lead exposure in children attending day care centers. Results: Elevated levels of lead in paint (2.4% to 40% lead) were present in all day care facilities. Three day care centers had elevated lead levels in windowsill dust (62 000 to 180 000 g of lead per square meter) or soil (530 to 1100 mg of lead per kilogram). Questionnaires documented low risk for lead exposure to children in the home environments. Direct observations in the day care setting revealed optimal supervision and hygiene of the children. Blood lead levels were less than 0.5 μmol/L (10 μg/dL) in all but one of the 155 children screened. Conclusions: Children attending day care centers with high environmental lead burdens need further documentation of blood lead levels, at-risk behaviors, and lead exposure risks in the home environments as an adjunct to the instigation of lead abatement procedures at the day care centers.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:878-881) References 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: Statement by the Centers for Disease Control . Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service; (October) 1991. 2. Needleman HL, Bellinger DC. The health effects of low level exposure to lead . Annu Rev Public Health . 1991;12:111-140.Crossref 3. Bellinger DC, Stiles KM, Needleman HL. Low-level lead exposure, intelligence and academic achievement: a long-term follow-up study . Pediatrics . 1992;90: 855-861. 4. Dietrich KN, Berger OG, Succop PA. Lead exposure and the motor developmental status of urban 6-year-old children in the Cincinnati Prospective Study . Pediatrics . 1993;91:301-307. 5. Watson WS, Hume R, Moore MR. Oral absorption of lead and iron . Lancet . 1980; 2:236-237.Crossref 6. Ziegler EE, Edwards BB, Jensen RL, Mahaffey KR, Fomon SJ. Absorption and retention of lead in infants . Pediatr Res . 1978;12:29-34.Crossref 7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The Nature and Extent of Lead Poisoning in Children in the United States: A Report to Congress . Atlanta, Ga: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public Health Service; 1988. US Dept of Health and Human Services document 99-2966. 8. Sayre JW, Ernhart CB. Control of lead exposure in childhood: are we doing it correctly? AJDC . 1992;146:1275-1278. 9. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Notice of funding availability (NOFA) for lead-based paint (LBP) risk assessment; notice, sampling and inspection guidelines . Federal Register . 1992;57:2894-2833. 10. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Manual of Analytical Methods . 3rd ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Dept of Health and Human Services/Public health Service, Centers for Disease Control; 1984. 11. Hausler WJ Jr, Getchell JP, Cherryholmes KL. Quality Assurance Program: University of Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory Procedure Manual . Des Moines, Iowa: The University of Iowa; 1989. 12. Parsons PJ. Blood Lead Determination by Electrothermal Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry . Albany, NY: New York State Department of Health; 1991. 13. US Environmental Protection Agency. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes: EPA-600/4-79-020 . Cincinnati, Ohio: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1983. 14. US Environmental Protection Agency. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Laboratory Manual, Physical/Chemical Methods, 5W 846 . 3rd ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1986;1A. 15. Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Atomic Absorption Laboratory Benchtop User's Guide: Publication B3601, Release 1.0 . Norwalk, Conn: Perkin-Elmer Corp; 1992. 16. Miller DT, Paschal DC, Gunter EW, Stroud PE, lo J. Determination of blood lead with electrothermal atomic absorption using a L'vov platform and matrix modifier . Analyst . 1987;112:1701-1704.Crossref 17. Sayre JW, Katzel MD. Household surface lead dust: its accumulation in vacant homes . Environ Health Perspect . 1979;20:179-182.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1995

References