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Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Pigmentary Degenerations of the Retina: Assessment of Value and Basis

Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Pigmentary Degenerations of the Retina: Assessment of Value... Abstract In primary pigmentary retinal degeneration (retinitis pigmentosa) the electroretinogram (ERG) has been reported to be extinguished (Karpe, 1945; Björk and Karpe, 1951; Armington, 1954; François, 1952; Dodt and Wadensten, 1954). The ERG as used by Karpe and his followers is purely a measure of rod function, and in these first investigations the highly specific depression of the ERG (especially of the b-wave) was thought to confirm the theory that the disease was a primary degeneration of the rods. However, some discrepancies soon became apparent. Dodt and Wadensten (1954) and Riggs (1954) commented that in patients with well-preserved vision no electrical response could be recorded at all, even though the light intensities and conditions of the test were such that the photopic system of the retina was active. Riggs suggested that functional "perforations" occurred in the retinal periphery, which acted as electrical shunts and prevented the remote corneal electrode picking up References 1. Arden, G. B., and Weale, R. A.: Nervous Mechanisms and Dark Adaptation , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125:417, 1954. 2. Arden Granit, R., and Ponte, F.: Phase of Suppression Following Each Retinal b-Wave in Flicker , J. Neurophysiol. 23:305, 1960. 3. —and Barrada, A.: An Analysis of the Electro-Oculograms of a Series of Normal Subjects, Brit. J. Ophthal. 1962, Vol. 46, in press. 4. —and Kelsey, J. H.: (a) The Effects of Change of Illumination on the Standing Potential of the Human Eye, J. Physiol. Lond. 1962, Vol. 161, in press. 5. —and Kelsey, J. H.: (b) Some Observations on the Relationship Between the Standing Potential of the Human Eye and the Bleaching and Regeneration of Visual Purple, J. Physiol. 1962, Vol. 161, in press. 6. —Barrada, A., and Kelsey, J. H.: A New Clinical Test of Retinal Function Based upon the Standing Potential of the Eye, Brit. J. Opthal. 1962, Vol. 46, in press. 7. Armington, J. C.: Electrical Responses of the Light Adapted Eye , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 43: 450, 1953.Crossref 8. —Gouras, P.; Tepas, D. I., and Gunkel, R.: Experimental Eye Research, to be published. 9. Aserinsky, E.: Effects of Illumination and Sleep on the Amplitude of the Electro-Oculogram , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:542, 1955.Crossref 10. Björk, A., and Karpe, G.: Clinical Electroretinogram: The Electroretinogram in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 29: 361, 1951.Crossref 11. Bourne, M. C.; Campbell, D. A., and Tansley, K.: Hereditary Degeneration of the Rat Retina , Brit. J. Ophthal. 22:613, 1938.Crossref 12. Boynton, R. M.: Stray Light and the Human E.R.G. , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 43:442, 1953.Crossref 13. Brindley, G. S.: The Passive Electrical Properties of the Frog's Retina, Choroid and Sclera for Radial Fields and Currents , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134:339, 1956. 14. Brown, K. T., and Wiesel, T. N.: Intraretinal Recording in the Unopened Cat Eye , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:91, 1958. 15. Cogan, D. G.: in Symposium: Primary Chorioretinal Aberrations with Night Blindness: Pathology , Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng. 54:629, 1949-1950. 16. Dodt, E., and Wadensten, L.: The Use of Flicker Electroretinography in the Human Eye , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 32:165, 1954.Crossref 17. Donn, A.; Maurice, D. M., and Mills, N. L.: Studies on the Living Cornea in Vitro , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 62:741, 1959.Crossref 18. Dowling, J. E., and Gibbons, I. R.: The Effect of Vitamin A Deficiency on the Fine Structure of the Retina , in The Structure of the Eye , edited by G. K. Smelser, New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1960, pp. 85-100. 19. François, J.: L'Électro-Retinographie dans les dégénérescences tapeto-retiniènnes périphériques et centrales , Ann. Oculist. (Par.) 185:842, 1952. 20. François Verriest, G., and De Rouck, A.: Electro-Oculography as a Functional Test in Pathological Conditions of the Fundus: 1. First Results , Brit. J. Ophthal. 40:108, 1956.Crossref 21. Goodman, G., and Bornschein, H.: Comparative Electroretinographic Studies in Congenital Night Blindness and Total Color Blindness , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 58:174, 1957.Crossref 22. Goodman and Gunkel, R. D.: Familial Electroretinographic and Adaptometric Studies in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:142 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1958. 23. Grüneberg, H.: Animal Genetics and Medicine , New York, Paul V. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1947. 24. Hobbs, H. E.; Sorsby, A., and Freedman, A.: Retinopathy Following Chloroquine Therapy , Lancet 2:478, 1959.Crossref 25. Hobbs Eadie, S. P., and Somerville, F.: Ocular Lesions After Treatment with Chloroquine , Brit. J. Ophthal. 45:284, 1961.Crossref 26. Jayle, G. E., and Gurgaud, A. G.: La Vision nocturne et ses troubles , Paris, Masson & Cie, 1950. 27. Karpe, G.: Basis of Clinical Electroretinography , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 23:116 ( (Suppl. 24) ) 1945. 28. Kolder, H.: Spontane und experimentelle Änderungen des Bestandpotentials des menschlichen Auges , Pflueger. Arch. Ges. Physiol. 268: 258, 1959.Crossref 29. Kris, C.: Corneo-Fundal Potential Variations During Light and Dark Adaptation , Nature (Lond.) 182:1027, 1958.Crossref 30. Vision: Electro-Oculography , in Medical Physics , Vol. 3, edited by Otto Glaser, New York, The Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., 1960, pp. 692-700. 31. Marg, E.: Development of Electro-Oculography , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 45:169, 1951.Crossref 32. Miles, W. R.: Experimental Modification of the Polarity Potential of the Human Eye , Yale J. Biol. Med. 12:161, 1939. 33. Modification of the Human-Eye Potential by Dark and Light Adaptation , Science 91:456, 1940. 34. Noell, W. K.: Studies on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of the Retina, Air University School of Aviation Medicine, Project Report No. 1, 1953. 35. Parry, H. B.; Tansley, K., and Thomson, L. C.: The Electroretinogram of the Dog , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120:28, 1953. 36. Riggs, L. A.: Electroretinography in Cases of Night Blindness , Amer. J. Ophthal. 38:70 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1954. 37. Schmidt, B.; Muller-Limmroth, W.; Hein-Müller, G.; Böke, W., and Bäumer, A.: Veränderungen im Elektro-Retinogramm des Menschen im Verlauf der Resochin-Langzeit-Therapie , Klin. Wschr. 39:132, 1961.Crossref 38. Schmöger, E.: Die Bedeutung der A-Welle im klinischen Elektroretinogram, Electroretinographia , Symposium Luhačovice Lekarska Fakulta University V. Brné, Brno, Czechoslovakia, 1959, p. 337. 39. Skeehan, R. A.; Passmere, J. W., and Armington, J. C.: Retinitis Pigmentosa with a Normal Electroretinogram , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 57: 536, 1957.Crossref 40. Tansley, K.: Hereditary Degeneration in the Mouse Retina , Brit. J. Ophthal. 35:573, 1951.Crossref 41. Ten Doesschate, G., and Ten Doesschate, J.: The Influence of the State of Adaptation on the Resting Potential of the Human Eye: Second Communication , Ophthalmologica 134:183, 1957.Crossref 42. Tomita, T., and Torihama, Y.: Intra-Retinal Action Potentials and Site of Electroretinogram Generation , Jap. J. Physiol. 6:118, 1956.Crossref 43. Tomita Murakami, M., and Hashimoto, Y.: On the R. Membrane of the Frog's Eye: Its Localization, and Relation to the Retinal Action Potential , J. Gen. Physiol. 43:81 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1959-1960.Crossref 44. Verhoeff, F. H.: Microscopic Observations in a Case of Retinitis Pigmentosa , Arch. Ophthal. 5:392, 1931.Crossref 45. Vrabec, Fr.: Un Cas de la dégénérescence pigmentaire congénitale de la rétine examiné histologiquement , Ophthalmologica 122:65, 1951.Crossref 46. Zeavin, B., and Wald, G.: Rod and Cone Vision in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Amer. J. Ophthal. 42:253 (Oct., (Pt. 2) ) 1956. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Pigmentary Degenerations of the Retina: Assessment of Value and Basis

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 68 (3) – Sep 1, 1962

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9950
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1962.00960030373012
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Abstract

Abstract In primary pigmentary retinal degeneration (retinitis pigmentosa) the electroretinogram (ERG) has been reported to be extinguished (Karpe, 1945; Björk and Karpe, 1951; Armington, 1954; François, 1952; Dodt and Wadensten, 1954). The ERG as used by Karpe and his followers is purely a measure of rod function, and in these first investigations the highly specific depression of the ERG (especially of the b-wave) was thought to confirm the theory that the disease was a primary degeneration of the rods. However, some discrepancies soon became apparent. Dodt and Wadensten (1954) and Riggs (1954) commented that in patients with well-preserved vision no electrical response could be recorded at all, even though the light intensities and conditions of the test were such that the photopic system of the retina was active. Riggs suggested that functional "perforations" occurred in the retinal periphery, which acted as electrical shunts and prevented the remote corneal electrode picking up References 1. Arden, G. B., and Weale, R. A.: Nervous Mechanisms and Dark Adaptation , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125:417, 1954. 2. Arden Granit, R., and Ponte, F.: Phase of Suppression Following Each Retinal b-Wave in Flicker , J. Neurophysiol. 23:305, 1960. 3. —and Barrada, A.: An Analysis of the Electro-Oculograms of a Series of Normal Subjects, Brit. J. Ophthal. 1962, Vol. 46, in press. 4. —and Kelsey, J. H.: (a) The Effects of Change of Illumination on the Standing Potential of the Human Eye, J. Physiol. Lond. 1962, Vol. 161, in press. 5. —and Kelsey, J. H.: (b) Some Observations on the Relationship Between the Standing Potential of the Human Eye and the Bleaching and Regeneration of Visual Purple, J. Physiol. 1962, Vol. 161, in press. 6. —Barrada, A., and Kelsey, J. H.: A New Clinical Test of Retinal Function Based upon the Standing Potential of the Eye, Brit. J. Opthal. 1962, Vol. 46, in press. 7. Armington, J. C.: Electrical Responses of the Light Adapted Eye , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 43: 450, 1953.Crossref 8. —Gouras, P.; Tepas, D. I., and Gunkel, R.: Experimental Eye Research, to be published. 9. Aserinsky, E.: Effects of Illumination and Sleep on the Amplitude of the Electro-Oculogram , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 53:542, 1955.Crossref 10. Björk, A., and Karpe, G.: Clinical Electroretinogram: The Electroretinogram in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 29: 361, 1951.Crossref 11. Bourne, M. C.; Campbell, D. A., and Tansley, K.: Hereditary Degeneration of the Rat Retina , Brit. J. Ophthal. 22:613, 1938.Crossref 12. Boynton, R. M.: Stray Light and the Human E.R.G. , J. Optic. Soc. Amer. 43:442, 1953.Crossref 13. Brindley, G. S.: The Passive Electrical Properties of the Frog's Retina, Choroid and Sclera for Radial Fields and Currents , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 134:339, 1956. 14. Brown, K. T., and Wiesel, T. N.: Intraretinal Recording in the Unopened Cat Eye , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:91, 1958. 15. Cogan, D. G.: in Symposium: Primary Chorioretinal Aberrations with Night Blindness: Pathology , Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng. 54:629, 1949-1950. 16. Dodt, E., and Wadensten, L.: The Use of Flicker Electroretinography in the Human Eye , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 32:165, 1954.Crossref 17. Donn, A.; Maurice, D. M., and Mills, N. L.: Studies on the Living Cornea in Vitro , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 62:741, 1959.Crossref 18. Dowling, J. E., and Gibbons, I. R.: The Effect of Vitamin A Deficiency on the Fine Structure of the Retina , in The Structure of the Eye , edited by G. K. Smelser, New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1960, pp. 85-100. 19. François, J.: L'Électro-Retinographie dans les dégénérescences tapeto-retiniènnes périphériques et centrales , Ann. Oculist. (Par.) 185:842, 1952. 20. François Verriest, G., and De Rouck, A.: Electro-Oculography as a Functional Test in Pathological Conditions of the Fundus: 1. First Results , Brit. J. Ophthal. 40:108, 1956.Crossref 21. Goodman, G., and Bornschein, H.: Comparative Electroretinographic Studies in Congenital Night Blindness and Total Color Blindness , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 58:174, 1957.Crossref 22. Goodman and Gunkel, R. D.: Familial Electroretinographic and Adaptometric Studies in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:142 ( (Sept. 2) ) 1958. 23. Grüneberg, H.: Animal Genetics and Medicine , New York, Paul V. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1947. 24. Hobbs, H. E.; Sorsby, A., and Freedman, A.: Retinopathy Following Chloroquine Therapy , Lancet 2:478, 1959.Crossref 25. Hobbs Eadie, S. P., and Somerville, F.: Ocular Lesions After Treatment with Chloroquine , Brit. J. Ophthal. 45:284, 1961.Crossref 26. Jayle, G. E., and Gurgaud, A. G.: La Vision nocturne et ses troubles , Paris, Masson & Cie, 1950. 27. Karpe, G.: Basis of Clinical Electroretinography , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 23:116 ( (Suppl. 24) ) 1945. 28. Kolder, H.: Spontane und experimentelle Änderungen des Bestandpotentials des menschlichen Auges , Pflueger. Arch. Ges. Physiol. 268: 258, 1959.Crossref 29. Kris, C.: Corneo-Fundal Potential Variations During Light and Dark Adaptation , Nature (Lond.) 182:1027, 1958.Crossref 30. Vision: Electro-Oculography , in Medical Physics , Vol. 3, edited by Otto Glaser, New York, The Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., 1960, pp. 692-700. 31. Marg, E.: Development of Electro-Oculography , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 45:169, 1951.Crossref 32. Miles, W. R.: Experimental Modification of the Polarity Potential of the Human Eye , Yale J. Biol. Med. 12:161, 1939. 33. Modification of the Human-Eye Potential by Dark and Light Adaptation , Science 91:456, 1940. 34. Noell, W. K.: Studies on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of the Retina, Air University School of Aviation Medicine, Project Report No. 1, 1953. 35. Parry, H. B.; Tansley, K., and Thomson, L. C.: The Electroretinogram of the Dog , J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120:28, 1953. 36. Riggs, L. A.: Electroretinography in Cases of Night Blindness , Amer. J. Ophthal. 38:70 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1954. 37. Schmidt, B.; Muller-Limmroth, W.; Hein-Müller, G.; Böke, W., and Bäumer, A.: Veränderungen im Elektro-Retinogramm des Menschen im Verlauf der Resochin-Langzeit-Therapie , Klin. Wschr. 39:132, 1961.Crossref 38. Schmöger, E.: Die Bedeutung der A-Welle im klinischen Elektroretinogram, Electroretinographia , Symposium Luhačovice Lekarska Fakulta University V. Brné, Brno, Czechoslovakia, 1959, p. 337. 39. Skeehan, R. A.; Passmere, J. W., and Armington, J. C.: Retinitis Pigmentosa with a Normal Electroretinogram , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 57: 536, 1957.Crossref 40. Tansley, K.: Hereditary Degeneration in the Mouse Retina , Brit. J. Ophthal. 35:573, 1951.Crossref 41. Ten Doesschate, G., and Ten Doesschate, J.: The Influence of the State of Adaptation on the Resting Potential of the Human Eye: Second Communication , Ophthalmologica 134:183, 1957.Crossref 42. Tomita, T., and Torihama, Y.: Intra-Retinal Action Potentials and Site of Electroretinogram Generation , Jap. J. Physiol. 6:118, 1956.Crossref 43. Tomita Murakami, M., and Hashimoto, Y.: On the R. Membrane of the Frog's Eye: Its Localization, and Relation to the Retinal Action Potential , J. Gen. Physiol. 43:81 (July, (Pt. 2) ) 1959-1960.Crossref 44. Verhoeff, F. H.: Microscopic Observations in a Case of Retinitis Pigmentosa , Arch. Ophthal. 5:392, 1931.Crossref 45. Vrabec, Fr.: Un Cas de la dégénérescence pigmentaire congénitale de la rétine examiné histologiquement , Ophthalmologica 122:65, 1951.Crossref 46. Zeavin, B., and Wald, G.: Rod and Cone Vision in Retinitis Pigmentosa , Amer. J. Ophthal. 42:253 (Oct., (Pt. 2) ) 1956.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1962

References