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Electromyography of the Human Extraocular Muscles: I. Normal Kinesiology; Divergence Mechanism

Electromyography of the Human Extraocular Muscles: I. Normal Kinesiology; Divergence Mechanism Abstract In the past few years there has been a great deal of interest in the recording of the action potentials of the extraocular muscles. This is a natural extension of the field of clinical electromyography, which has contributed so largely to understanding of the disturbances in nerve and muscle function throughout the body induced by trauma and disease. Studies of the human extraocular muscles were not attempted because of difficulties of technique and instrumentation. These obstacles have been overcome, and we now find ourselves on the threshold of a new understanding of many old problems common to ophthalmology and neurology; indeed, these disciplines are brought into even closer harmony. HISTORY High lights in the evolution of electrophysiologic concepts of nerve and muscle function are the following: 1. Dubois-Reymond, in 1848,1 established the "action current" principle, or wave of electrical negativity of the nerve impulse. 2. Piper,2 in 1907, References 1. References 14 through 18. 2. DuBois-Reymond, E.: Untersuchungen über thierische Elektricität , Berlin, G. Reimer, 1848. 3. Piper, H.: Über den willkürlicher Muskeltetanus , Arch. ges. Physiol. 119:301, 1907.Crossref 4. Erlanger, J.: Analysis of Action Potential of Nerve , Harvey Lect. 22:90, 1926. 5. Erlanger, J., and Gasser, W.: Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity , Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1937. 6. Adrian, E. D., and Bronk, D. W.: Frequency of Discharge in Reflex and Voluntary Contractions , J. Physiol. 67:119, 1929. 7. Denny-Brown, D., and Pennybacker, J.: Fibrillation and Fasciculation in Voluntary Muscle , Brain 61:311, 1938.Crossref 8. Cooper, S., and Eccles, J. C.: The Isometric Responses of Mammalian Muscles , J. Physiol. 69:377, 1930. 9. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Effect of an Antidromic Impulse on the Response of the Motoneurone , Am. J. Physiol. 112:595, 1935. 10. Brown, G. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Neuro-Muscular Transmission in the Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye , J. Physiol. 99:379, 1941. 11. Reid, G.: The Rate of Discharge of the Extraocular Motoneurones , J. Physiol. 110:217, 1949. 12. Pulfrich, K.: Aktionsströme äusserer Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 152:731, 1952.Crossref 13. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Strabismus , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:19, 1953.Crossref 14. Magee, A. J.: Electromyogram of the Extraocular Muscles of the Rabbit in Situ , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 52:212, 1954.Crossref 15. Björk, A.: Electrical Activity of Human Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Experientia 8:226, 1952.Crossref 16. Björk, A., and Kugelberg, E.: Motor Unit Activity in the Human Extraocular Muscles , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:271, 1953. 17. Björk, A., and Kugelberg, E.: The Electrical Activity of the Muscles of the Eye and Eyelids in Various Positions and During Movement , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:595, 1953. 18. Björk, A.: Electromyographic Study of Conditions Involving Limited Mobility of the Eye Chiefly Due to Neurogenic Pareses , Brit. J. Ophth. 38:528, 1954. 19. Björk, A.: Electromyographic Studies on the Coordination of Antagonistic Muscles in Cases of Abducens and Facial Palsy , Brit. J. Ophth. 38:605, 1954. 20. Clark, D. A.: Muscle Counts of Motor Units: A Study in Innervation Ratios , Am. J. Physiol. 96:296, 1931. 21. Tergast, P.: Über das Verhältniss von Nerve und Muskel , Arch. mikr. Anat. 9:36-46, 1873. 22. Denny-Brown, D.: Interpretation of the Electromyogram , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 61:99, 1949. 23. Hoefer, P., and Putnam, T.: Electromyographic Studies of Normal and Abnormal Movement , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 65:18, 1939. 24. Jasper, H. H., and Ballen, G.: Unipolar Electromyograms of Normal and Denervated Human Muscle , J. Neurophysiol. 12:231, 1949. 25. Weddell, G.; Feinstein, B., and Pattle, R. E.: Clinical Application of Electromyography , Lancet 1:236, 1943.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Electromyography of the Human Extraocular Muscles: I. Normal Kinesiology; Divergence Mechanism

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1955.00930020204006
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Abstract

Abstract In the past few years there has been a great deal of interest in the recording of the action potentials of the extraocular muscles. This is a natural extension of the field of clinical electromyography, which has contributed so largely to understanding of the disturbances in nerve and muscle function throughout the body induced by trauma and disease. Studies of the human extraocular muscles were not attempted because of difficulties of technique and instrumentation. These obstacles have been overcome, and we now find ourselves on the threshold of a new understanding of many old problems common to ophthalmology and neurology; indeed, these disciplines are brought into even closer harmony. HISTORY High lights in the evolution of electrophysiologic concepts of nerve and muscle function are the following: 1. Dubois-Reymond, in 1848,1 established the "action current" principle, or wave of electrical negativity of the nerve impulse. 2. Piper,2 in 1907, References 1. References 14 through 18. 2. DuBois-Reymond, E.: Untersuchungen über thierische Elektricität , Berlin, G. Reimer, 1848. 3. Piper, H.: Über den willkürlicher Muskeltetanus , Arch. ges. Physiol. 119:301, 1907.Crossref 4. Erlanger, J.: Analysis of Action Potential of Nerve , Harvey Lect. 22:90, 1926. 5. Erlanger, J., and Gasser, W.: Electrical Signs of Nervous Activity , Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1937. 6. Adrian, E. D., and Bronk, D. W.: Frequency of Discharge in Reflex and Voluntary Contractions , J. Physiol. 67:119, 1929. 7. Denny-Brown, D., and Pennybacker, J.: Fibrillation and Fasciculation in Voluntary Muscle , Brain 61:311, 1938.Crossref 8. Cooper, S., and Eccles, J. C.: The Isometric Responses of Mammalian Muscles , J. Physiol. 69:377, 1930. 9. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Effect of an Antidromic Impulse on the Response of the Motoneurone , Am. J. Physiol. 112:595, 1935. 10. Brown, G. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Neuro-Muscular Transmission in the Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye , J. Physiol. 99:379, 1941. 11. Reid, G.: The Rate of Discharge of the Extraocular Motoneurones , J. Physiol. 110:217, 1949. 12. Pulfrich, K.: Aktionsströme äusserer Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 152:731, 1952.Crossref 13. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Strabismus , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:19, 1953.Crossref 14. Magee, A. J.: Electromyogram of the Extraocular Muscles of the Rabbit in Situ , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 52:212, 1954.Crossref 15. Björk, A.: Electrical Activity of Human Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Experientia 8:226, 1952.Crossref 16. Björk, A., and Kugelberg, E.: Motor Unit Activity in the Human Extraocular Muscles , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:271, 1953. 17. Björk, A., and Kugelberg, E.: The Electrical Activity of the Muscles of the Eye and Eyelids in Various Positions and During Movement , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 5:595, 1953. 18. Björk, A.: Electromyographic Study of Conditions Involving Limited Mobility of the Eye Chiefly Due to Neurogenic Pareses , Brit. J. Ophth. 38:528, 1954. 19. Björk, A.: Electromyographic Studies on the Coordination of Antagonistic Muscles in Cases of Abducens and Facial Palsy , Brit. J. Ophth. 38:605, 1954. 20. Clark, D. A.: Muscle Counts of Motor Units: A Study in Innervation Ratios , Am. J. Physiol. 96:296, 1931. 21. Tergast, P.: Über das Verhältniss von Nerve und Muskel , Arch. mikr. Anat. 9:36-46, 1873. 22. Denny-Brown, D.: Interpretation of the Electromyogram , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 61:99, 1949. 23. Hoefer, P., and Putnam, T.: Electromyographic Studies of Normal and Abnormal Movement , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 65:18, 1939. 24. Jasper, H. H., and Ballen, G.: Unipolar Electromyograms of Normal and Denervated Human Muscle , J. Neurophysiol. 12:231, 1949. 25. Weddell, G.; Feinstein, B., and Pattle, R. E.: Clinical Application of Electromyography , Lancet 1:236, 1943.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1955

References