Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

ELECTROMYOGRAM OF THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE RABBIT IN SITU: Evidence Confirming Its Source

ELECTROMYOGRAM OF THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE RABBIT IN SITU: Evidence Confirming Its Source Abstract IN THE course of efforts to obtain a recording method for measuring objecttive thresholds of vestibular stimulation, the possibility of using muscle action potentials directly from the extraocular muscles was explored. HISTORICAL REVIEW Bartels1 in 1911 published work on a method of recording the mechanical action of the extraocular muscles. The animal was placed on a rotary platform with the recording apparatus, and, with use of levers, movements of the extraocular muscles were recorded directly.Hoffmann in 19132 modified the apparatus of Bartels and recorded action potentials from the extraocular muscles, likewise directly.Köllner and Hoffmann in 19213 recorded action potentials from the extraocular muscles of the rabbit and studied the relationship of the nystagmus to ear functions.Perez-Cirera in 1932,* using a more refined apparatus than Köllner and Hoffmann, made more accurate records of the action potentials of the extraocular muscles than had previously been reported. References 1. The camera is manufactured by the Grass Instrument Company. A special device for attachment to the camera was developed by Dr. V. N. Epanchin; this enabled rapid labeling of the record—a very important consideration. 2. A commercial solvent called Strip-X was used, marketed by General Cement Manufacturing Co., Rockford, Ill. 3. Since the animal's eyes were open, the nystagmus was not purely of the rotation type. 4. At the higher gains interference from the camera was noted in the form of increased amplitude of the noise. 5. The exact effect of retrobulbar injection of procaine on the second cranial nerve is not clearly described in the literature. 6. Bartels, M.: Über Regulierung des Augenstellung durch den Ohrapparat: III. , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 78:129-182, 1911.Crossref 7. Hoffmann, P.: Über die Aktionsströme der Augenmuskeln bei Ruhe des Tieres und beim Nystagmus , Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.: Physiologische Abteilung , pp. 23-34, 1913. 8. Köllner, H., and Hoffmann, P.: Der Einfluss des Vestibulärapparates auf die Innervation der Augenmuskeln , Arch. Augenh. 90:170-194, 1922. 9. Perez-Cirera, R.: Untersuchungen über die Aktionsströme der Augenmuskeln mit Hilfe von Verstärkern , Arch. Augenh. 105:453-459, 1932. 10. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Synaptic Delay of the Motoneurones , Am. J. Physiol. 111:272-282 ( (March) ) 1935. 11. Brown, G. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Neuro-Muscular Transmission in the Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye , J. Physiol. 99:379-399 ( (March) ) 1941. 12. Reid, G.: Rate of Discharge of the Extraocular Motoneurones , J. Physiol. 110:217-225 ( (Dec.) ) 1949. 13. Pulfrich, K.: Aktionsströme äusserer Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 152:731-744, 1952.Crossref 14. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Strabismus , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:19-29 ( (July) ) 1953.Crossref 15. McCouch, G. P., and Adler, F. H.: Extraocular Reflexes , Am. J. Physiol. 100:78-88 ( (March) ) 1932. 16. Lorente de Nó, R.: Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Arc , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:245-291 ( (Aug.) ) 1933. 17. de Kleyn, A.: Some Remarks on Vestibular Nystagmus , Confinia neurol. 2:257-292, 1939. 18. Schott, E.: Über die Registrierung des Nystagmus und anderer Augenbewegungen vermittels des Saitengalvanometers , Deutsches Arch. klin. Med. 140:79-90 (No. (1-2) ) 1922. 19. Meyers, I. L.: Electronystagmography: Graphic Study of Action Currents in Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:901-918 ( (April) ) 1929. 20. Mowrer, O. H.; Ruch, T. C., and Miller, N. E.: The Corneo-Retinal Potential Difference as the Basis of the Galvanometric Method of Recording Eye Movements , Am. J. Physiol. 114:423-428 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 21. Fenn, W. O., and Hursh, J. B.: Movements of the Eyes When the Lids Are Closed , Am. J. Physiol. 118:8-14 ( (Jan.) ) 1937. 22. Jung, R.: Eine elektrische Methode zur mehrfachen Registrierung von Augenbewegungen und Nystagmus , Klin. Wchnschr. 18:21-24 ( (Jan. 7) ) 1939. 23. Lindsley, D. B., and Hunter, W. S.: A Note on Polarity Potentials from the Human Eye , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 25:180-183 ( (April) ) 1939. 24. Perlman, H. B., and Case, T. J.: Nystagmus: Some Observations Based on an Electrical Method for Recording Eye Movements , Laryngoscope 49:217-228 ( (March) ) 1939. 25. Glorig, A., and Fowler, E. P., Jr.: Tests for Labyrinth Function Following Streptomycin Therapy , Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng. 56:379-394 ( (June) ) 1947. 26. Montandon, A., and Monnier, M.: Analyse du nystagmus vestibulaire par la methode electro-nystagmographique , Ann. oto-laryng. 68:761-765, 1951. 27. Mclntyre, A. K.: The Quick Component of Nystagmus , J. Physiol. 97:8-16 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 28. Callahan, A., and Redlich, F. C.: Electroencephalography and Ophthalmology , Am. J. Ophth. 29:1522-1533 ( (Dec.) ) 1946. 29. Young, J. H.: Effects of Faradically Induced Currents upon the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Ocular Musculature: Clinical Self Experiment , Brit. J. Ophth. 28:488-502 ( (Oct.) ) 1944.Crossref 30. Yahr, M. D.; Herz, E.; Moldaver, J., and Grundfest, H.: Electromyographic Patterns in Reinnervated Muscle , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 63:728-738 ( (May) ) 1950. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

ELECTROMYOGRAM OF THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES OF THE RABBIT IN SITU: Evidence Confirming Its Source

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 52 (2) – Aug 1, 1954

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/electromyogram-of-the-extraocular-muscles-of-the-rabbit-in-situ-tepbIjM7XY
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1954 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1954.00920050214004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract IN THE course of efforts to obtain a recording method for measuring objecttive thresholds of vestibular stimulation, the possibility of using muscle action potentials directly from the extraocular muscles was explored. HISTORICAL REVIEW Bartels1 in 1911 published work on a method of recording the mechanical action of the extraocular muscles. The animal was placed on a rotary platform with the recording apparatus, and, with use of levers, movements of the extraocular muscles were recorded directly.Hoffmann in 19132 modified the apparatus of Bartels and recorded action potentials from the extraocular muscles, likewise directly.Köllner and Hoffmann in 19213 recorded action potentials from the extraocular muscles of the rabbit and studied the relationship of the nystagmus to ear functions.Perez-Cirera in 1932,* using a more refined apparatus than Köllner and Hoffmann, made more accurate records of the action potentials of the extraocular muscles than had previously been reported. References 1. The camera is manufactured by the Grass Instrument Company. A special device for attachment to the camera was developed by Dr. V. N. Epanchin; this enabled rapid labeling of the record—a very important consideration. 2. A commercial solvent called Strip-X was used, marketed by General Cement Manufacturing Co., Rockford, Ill. 3. Since the animal's eyes were open, the nystagmus was not purely of the rotation type. 4. At the higher gains interference from the camera was noted in the form of increased amplitude of the noise. 5. The exact effect of retrobulbar injection of procaine on the second cranial nerve is not clearly described in the literature. 6. Bartels, M.: Über Regulierung des Augenstellung durch den Ohrapparat: III. , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 78:129-182, 1911.Crossref 7. Hoffmann, P.: Über die Aktionsströme der Augenmuskeln bei Ruhe des Tieres und beim Nystagmus , Arch. Anat. u. Physiol.: Physiologische Abteilung , pp. 23-34, 1913. 8. Köllner, H., and Hoffmann, P.: Der Einfluss des Vestibulärapparates auf die Innervation der Augenmuskeln , Arch. Augenh. 90:170-194, 1922. 9. Perez-Cirera, R.: Untersuchungen über die Aktionsströme der Augenmuskeln mit Hilfe von Verstärkern , Arch. Augenh. 105:453-459, 1932. 10. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Synaptic Delay of the Motoneurones , Am. J. Physiol. 111:272-282 ( (March) ) 1935. 11. Brown, G. L., and Harvey, A. M.: Neuro-Muscular Transmission in the Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye , J. Physiol. 99:379-399 ( (March) ) 1941. 12. Reid, G.: Rate of Discharge of the Extraocular Motoneurones , J. Physiol. 110:217-225 ( (Dec.) ) 1949. 13. Pulfrich, K.: Aktionsströme äusserer Augenmuskeln , von Graefes Arch. Ophth. 152:731-744, 1952.Crossref 14. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Strabismus , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 50:19-29 ( (July) ) 1953.Crossref 15. McCouch, G. P., and Adler, F. H.: Extraocular Reflexes , Am. J. Physiol. 100:78-88 ( (March) ) 1932. 16. Lorente de Nó, R.: Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Arc , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:245-291 ( (Aug.) ) 1933. 17. de Kleyn, A.: Some Remarks on Vestibular Nystagmus , Confinia neurol. 2:257-292, 1939. 18. Schott, E.: Über die Registrierung des Nystagmus und anderer Augenbewegungen vermittels des Saitengalvanometers , Deutsches Arch. klin. Med. 140:79-90 (No. (1-2) ) 1922. 19. Meyers, I. L.: Electronystagmography: Graphic Study of Action Currents in Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:901-918 ( (April) ) 1929. 20. Mowrer, O. H.; Ruch, T. C., and Miller, N. E.: The Corneo-Retinal Potential Difference as the Basis of the Galvanometric Method of Recording Eye Movements , Am. J. Physiol. 114:423-428 ( (Jan.) ) 1936. 21. Fenn, W. O., and Hursh, J. B.: Movements of the Eyes When the Lids Are Closed , Am. J. Physiol. 118:8-14 ( (Jan.) ) 1937. 22. Jung, R.: Eine elektrische Methode zur mehrfachen Registrierung von Augenbewegungen und Nystagmus , Klin. Wchnschr. 18:21-24 ( (Jan. 7) ) 1939. 23. Lindsley, D. B., and Hunter, W. S.: A Note on Polarity Potentials from the Human Eye , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 25:180-183 ( (April) ) 1939. 24. Perlman, H. B., and Case, T. J.: Nystagmus: Some Observations Based on an Electrical Method for Recording Eye Movements , Laryngoscope 49:217-228 ( (March) ) 1939. 25. Glorig, A., and Fowler, E. P., Jr.: Tests for Labyrinth Function Following Streptomycin Therapy , Ann. Otol. Rhin. & Laryng. 56:379-394 ( (June) ) 1947. 26. Montandon, A., and Monnier, M.: Analyse du nystagmus vestibulaire par la methode electro-nystagmographique , Ann. oto-laryng. 68:761-765, 1951. 27. Mclntyre, A. K.: The Quick Component of Nystagmus , J. Physiol. 97:8-16 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 28. Callahan, A., and Redlich, F. C.: Electroencephalography and Ophthalmology , Am. J. Ophth. 29:1522-1533 ( (Dec.) ) 1946. 29. Young, J. H.: Effects of Faradically Induced Currents upon the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Ocular Musculature: Clinical Self Experiment , Brit. J. Ophth. 28:488-502 ( (Oct.) ) 1944.Crossref 30. Yahr, M. D.; Herz, E.; Moldaver, J., and Grundfest, H.: Electromyographic Patterns in Reinnervated Muscle , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 63:728-738 ( (May) ) 1950.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1954

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$499/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month